Renaissance Flashcards

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created 1 year ago by tylersch
science and humanist
social studies, 7th
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Niccolo Machiavelli


  • The prince
  • Still used as a “handbook” for politicians


Leonardo da Vinci

Vinci, worked in Florence and died in France,

  • The virgin of the rocks, the last supper, Mona Lisa.
  • Accurate stretches of the human body, his designs lead the way for future designs.




  • The Holy Family, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Pieta and David
  • Famous for his realistic depiction of the humans



Born in Urbino, Italy worked in Florence

  • Paintings of Madonna, Jesus’s Mother, school of Athens and Transfiguration
  • Powerful, elaborate church paintings and storytelling within his paintings


Jan Van Eyck


  • Mystic Lamb, Arnolfini Portrait
  • Used Oil base paint and created smaller more intimate realism


William Shakespeare

London, England

  • Macbeth, Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Twelfth Night
  • Plays are still used today, Movies and books are based on his themes
  • Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet


renaissance 1

  • They looked in libraries to find Greece and Rome classicals
  • Artist painted what they saw and were a big impact on humanism
  • Medieval people thought that cities were a wicked place


renaissance 2

  • Cities became an integral part of the development
  • Science challenged peoples ideas and scientists were very advanced.
  • Focused on human life not religion
  • Success of the individual


renaissance 3

  • Any ideas to help one’s life were good
  • They learned to use the classical to help with their problems.
  • Science, Ethics, politics



Who started it:

  • Petrarch (Petrarca) and Boccaccio - first two renaissance Humanist
  • Came from Italy

How did they start it:

  • They translated Greece and Rome and were to a wide audience and thought their teachings could apply to everyday life.
  • Traveled on trade routes and visited cities to find ancient texts

What was it:

  • The goal was to improve human lives and that will lead to advances in science, literature, architecture and art. Would help develop new ideas and criticism.
  • Their work began to influence other scholars within Italy and the movement spread(Cities and trade routes helped).
  • Patrons - people who had money to spend on the arts and education
  • Scientists - Started to challenge existing ideas and observed the natural world
  • Artists - Started painting what they observed


ideas from regions outside of Europe influence the Renaissance

  • There trade routes expanded across the Mediterranean sea
  • Muslims made many scientific and cultural advances(built off Greek and Roman knowledge)
  • Muslim Mathematicians used their knowledge of the Indian system of numbers
  • Made new discoveries in algebra and geometry
  • Europeans came to be aware of block printing on wood and the process of paper.
  • Italy was made up of city-states and not kingdoms
  • Each city controlled their own trade and government
  • Interacted a lot with the Muslim empire (across the Mediterranean)
  • Muslim thinkers were strongly influenced by Greeks and Romans (Text translated to Arabic)
  • Medicine - using drugs to cure, Bacteria causes infection
  • Science - astronomy, geography and architecture
  • Muslim and Italian merchants
  • Spread the knowledge to advance the Arts and learning
  • Spread the knowledge to Italy


did the Renaissance spread throughout Europe

  • The king of France brought people in and they later became patrons of the renaissance.
  • Places like Germany and Spain invaded Italy and the invading soldiers were impressed with the renaissance
  • They learned about the philosophy of humanism and saw great works of renaissance art.
  • Monarchs wanted what the renaissance was doing and wanted that in their own culture.
  • King Henry Vll invited many humanists to his country.
  • Renaissance spread to other European Nations like France, Germany, England, Netherlands and spain
  • Merchants, diplomats and scholars and visited Italy
  • leaders
  • Started to fund artists and scientists (became patrons)


did the ideas of the Renaissance continue to spread and grow

  • Advances in technology helped expose people to Europe to the Renaissance.
  • There movements changed ideas in the bibles
  • The renaissance art inspired them
  • That invention significantly increased the number of books available in public
  • Enhanced human ideas
  • England attempted to eliminate the abuses and inequalities that were accepted as normal.
  • Johannes Gutenberg
  • Invented the printing press
  • Increased the speed of making books
  • Increased the number books that were available to the public (poor could read)
  • Faster and more books = Spread of humanist ideas quicker
  • Scholars across Europe
  • Developed their own types of humanism
  • One big one = Christian Humanism - Reformation
  • Increased the ability to record and pass on information
  • Renaissance ideas spread all over Europe.



  • Challenged common beliefs
  • Scientists made discoveries in many fields like biology, astronomy, geography.
  • Had ideas from the past
  • During 1500s-1600s
  • Believed that humans are rational (common sense) and have the capacity for knowledge in all things (education)
  • Main goal: Encourage people to believe in the potential of the human mind


Scientific revolution (as a whole)

  • Used the same principles of Greek rationalism to help them observe and study the world
  • Encouraged to study the universe
  • They were criticized because they were teaching people Greek and Roman text.
  • Without studying they could have never found several important discoveries.
  • Francis Bacon invented the scientific method
  • Scientific thinkers adopted Humanistic ideas and applied them to their fields
  • Challenged commonly held ideas
  • Biology, astronomy, geography, and physics
  • Main goal: Go back and look at classical (Greek & Roman) Scientific ideas and prove them right or wrong.


Greek Rationalism

  • Led back to ancient text from Aristotle and Ptolemy
  • Went against Greek thinkers like Aristotle
  • Developed new ways and replaced the outdated thoughts of the Greek.
  • Sought physical explanations provided by myths
  • Scholars believed in using reason and systematically studying.
  • Encouraged the thinkers to observe the universe around them and to draw new conclusions about the natural world.(Aristotle)
  • How it worked rather than accept the commonly held assumptions or religious doctrine as the only possible answers.
  • Thinkers of the Sci. The Revolution had to go against what the Greek first thought was correct.


Catholic church

  • Challenged many ideas of Christians beliefs and teachings.
  • The new ideas were up for punishment
  • And not always populated
  • Very powerful and influential throughout Europe
  • The Bible and Church doctrine were the authorities on how the Universe was formed.
  • Biblical passages were taken as proof of any scientific ideas.
  • Any theories that went against the Church’s teachings were considered a departure from the truth and not accepted.


Nicolas Copernicus

  • Proposed that the sun was actually in the center of the universe
  • Born in 1483 in Toruna, Poland
  • Son of a wealthy merchant and a good education in medicine and religious laws.
  • Worked as a church cleric
  • Notions were accepted about astronomers years ago and could be traced back to Greek.
  • His theory was that Earth and other planets orbit the sun.
  • He also said that the Earth tilts on a axis 24 hours
  • Some people believe the delay was so the church wouldn’t get mad.
  • His theories changed astronomy for ever
  • Came up with the Heliocentric theory
  • Church accepted his theory but placed Copernicus’s book on the banned list


Johannes Kepler

  • Born in Germany in 1571
  • Family was poor and got accepted to college by academic scholarship and wanted to become a minister.
  • Later changed his studies to mathematics and astronomy and later became a math professor.
  • Kepler moved to Prague to work as Brahe’s assistant when he later died Kepler took over his post.
  • Kepler calculated that Mars made an elliptical or an oval shaped orbit around the sun.
  • Kepler's theory was that the paths of the planets moving around the sun form ellipses.
  • Kepler's other theory was that the planets and the sun would sweep over equal areas in equal times
  • Kepler's third theory was the average distance between the planets and the sun.
  • Defended Copernicus Heliocentric theory
  • Made improvements to Copernicus theory as well
  • Used mathematics to prove Copernicus



  • Was a Italian scientist and worked with telescopes
  • And later suggested a new telescope design of his own in his book Dioptrice.
  • Born in Pisa, Italy in 1564 and went to the university of Pisa to study medicine and took interest in physics and math
  • Experimented with objects in motion
  • Invented the water pump and a type of balance scale that could measure small objects
  • Most famous for his telescope
  • He observed the surface f the moon and knew it wasn’t smooth
  • He saw sunspots on the sun and the moon orbiting Jupiter
  • Galileo after his several month trial was convicted in Heresy.
  • Pope John Paul ll apologized for the way he treated Galileo.
  • Observed the moons of Jupiter
  • Angered the Catholic church by proving Copernicus theory
  • Was put on trial by the Church and sentenced to house arrest until he died.


Sir Issac Newton

  • Isaac Newton was an English mathematician, astronomer, physicist and was born in Lincolnshire on January 4th.
  • Newton went to the university of Cambridge and received a bachelor and master degree.
  • New branch of mathematics called Calculus and made seven discoveries in the optic field.
  • He discovered that the sunlight breaks into a spectrum of rainbow colors when it passes prism.
  • Known for discovering gravity
  • Investigated in celestial mechanics
  • Published one of the greatest science books in history, the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.
  • Explained how the gravity works between the sun and objects in space
  • Earth's gravitational pull attracts objects to the planet’s core
  • 3 laws of motion
  • Helped explain why objects stayed in motion (like planets around the sun).