Microbiology: Lab Exercises (1-7) Flashcards


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1

Which container would you put a used coverslip in?

Broken glass container

2

Which container would you put used gloves in?

Biohazardous waste

3

Which container would you place a razor in?

Sharps container

4

Which piece of glassware has an equal circumference were the opening has a much smaller circumference?

Media bottle

5

Which piece of glassware has a progressively smaller circumference from the bottom to the top?

Erlenmeyer flask

6

Which machine is used to heat a mixture and stir a mixture using electromagnetic forces?

Hot plate and magnetic stirrer

7

Which piece of equipment is used to sterilize equipment and media?

Autoclave

8

Which piece of equipment is used to avoid contamination when working with microbes?

Laminar flow hood

9

Which piece of equipment is used to measure the amount of material based on absorbance?

Spectrophotometer

10

Which machine is used to perform polymerase chain reactions?

Thermocycler

11

Which machine is used to keep liquids at a constant temperature?

Waterbath

12

Which machine is used to grow and maintain microorganisms at optimal physical conditions?

Incubator

13

Which tool is used to move microorganisms between cultures and can be repeatedly sterilized?

Inoculating loop

14

Which machine agitates a mixture in a test tube to make a homogenized mixture?

Vortex micture

15

Which machine rotates a mixture to separate out the different parts?

Centrifuge

16

Which machine is used to measure masses?

Analytical balance

17

Which piece of glassware is used to move liquid culture around an agar plate evenly?

Spreader

18

Which piece of glassware is the most precise way to measure large amounts of liquid?

Graduated cylinder

19

Which piece of glassware has an equal circumference from the top to the bottom and cannot be used for precise measuremnts?

Beaker

20

Which piece of glassware is used to grow microbes in liquid culture?

Test tube

21

Which piece of glassware is used to grow microbes in solid or semisolid agar?

Petri dish

22

Which piece of glassware/plastic is used to hold small amounts of liquid in molecular biology?

Microcentrifuge tube

23

Which pipet is used to transfer the smallest amounts of liquids?

Micropipet

24

Which pipet moves a fixed volume

Pasteur pipet

25

Which pipet is used to transfer the largest amounts of liquid?

Serological pipet

26

Which piece of equipment is used to sterilize tools and glassware on the benchtop?

Microincinerator

27

Which piece of equipment is used for visualizing microbes?

Microscope

28

This is the most common type of microscope used

Bright field

29

This type of microscope causes the light source to hit the specimen at a severely oblique angle

Dark field

30

A benefit of this microscope is the ability to view live organisms without stains

Phase contrast

31

When using the scanning objective, the objective magnification would be

4x

32

When using the low-power objective, the objective magnification would be

10x

33

When using the high-dry objective, the objective magnification would be

40x

34

When using the oil immersion objective, the objective magnification would be

100x

35

Using the provided values for multiple microscopes, what is the mean field of view in micrometers for the 4x objective?

4216.667

36

Using the provided values for multiple microscopes, what is the mean field of view in micrometers for the 10x objective?

1760.417

37

Using the provided values for multiple microscopes, what is the mean field of view in micrometers for the 40x objective?

421.667

38

Using the provided values for multiple microscopes, what is the mean field of view in micrometers for the 100x objective?

176.042

39

Using the scale bar, what is the size of a single E. coli cell in micrometers using the given picture?

3

40

Using the scale bar, what is the size of a P. aeruginosa cell in micrometers using the given image?

3.5

41

Using the scale bar, what is the size of S. epidermidis in micrometers using the provided image?

1.5

42

Using the scale bar, what is the size of Bacillus in micrometers using the provided image?

2.5

43

Using the scale bar, what is the size of a single fungi cell in micrometers?

4.5

44

Which type of cell wall was E. coli?

Gram negative

45

Which type of cell wall was Pseudomonas?

Gram negative

46

Which type of cell wall was Bacillus?

Gram positive

47

Which type of cell wall was Staphylococcus?

Gram positive

48

Which supergroup do Kinetoplastida, Dipomonads, Euglenazoonans, and Euglenoids belong to?

Excavata

49

Which supergroup do Cercozoa, Radiolarians, and Foraminiferans belong to?

Rhizaria

50

Which supergroup to Apicomplexans, Ciliates, and Dinoflagellates belong to?

Alveolata

51

The phylum Nematodes belongs to which kingdom?

Animals

52

The phylum Platyhelminthes belongs to which kingdom?

Animals

53

Which fungus phylum contains bread molds?

Zygomycota

54

Which phylum contains the fungus that produces penicillin and brewer's yeast?

Ascomycota

55

Which phylum contains the plant pathogens fungi known as smuts and rusts?

Basidiomycota

56

Which virus classification includes double stranded DNA?

Class I

57

Which virus classification includes single stranded DNA?

Class II

58

Which virus classification includes double stranded RNA?

Class III

59

Which virus classification includes positive sense single stranded RNA?

Class IV

60

Which virus classification includes negative sense single stranded RNA?

Class V

61

Which virus classification includes single stranded RNA with a DNA intermediate?

Class VI

62

Which virus classification includes double stranded DNA with an RNA intermediate?

Class VII

63

Which type of stain sticks to the cell and gives them color?

Positive staining

64

Which type of stain does not stick to the cell, but dries around the cell boundary creating a silhouette?

Negative staining

65

Which type of stain uses both basic and acidic dyes?

Positive stain

66

Which type of stain uses acidic dyes?

Negative stain

67

Which type of stain uses a single dye?

Simple stain

68

Which type of stain uses two dyes- a primary dye and a counterstain?

Differential stain

69

Which cell structure does Gram staining react to?

Cell wall

70

What waxy material in the cell wall does acid-fast staining react to?

Mycolic acid

71

What cell structure gets stained when the cell is under environmental stress?

Endospore

72

Name the two stains used in Gram staining

  • Crystal violet
  • Safranin

73

Name the two stains used in acid-fast staining

  • Methylene blue
  • Fuchsin

74

Name the two stains used in spore staining

  • Malachite green
  • Safranin

75

Name the one stain that can be used in negative staining

Nigrosin

76

Which type of cell wall is indicated by purple/blue in Gram staining?

Gram positive

77

Which type of cell wall is indicated by pink in Gram staining?

Gram negative

78

With spore staining, green indicates which structure?

Endospore

79

With spore staining, red indicates what type of cell?

Vegatative cell

80

With acid-fast staining, Mycobacterium (acid-fast bacteria) will stain which color because of the presence of mycolic acid?

Red

81

With acid-fast staining, non-acid-fast bacteria will stain which color?

Blue

82

Looking at the micrograph, is Staphylococcus aureus Gram positive or Gram negative (blue)?

Gram positive

83

Looking at the micrograph, is Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram positive or Gram negative (pink)?

Gram negative

84

Looking at the micrograph, is Bacillus megaterium Gram positive or Gram negative (blue)?

Gram positive

85

Looking at the micrograph, is Moraxella cararrhalis Gram positive or Gram negative (pink)?

Gram negative

86

Looking at the micrograph, does the bacteria Clostridium difficile produce spores (green spores)?

Yes

87

Looking at the micrograph, does the bacteria Bacillus cereus produce spores (green spores)?

Yes

88

Looking at the micrograph, does the bacteria Staphylococcus sp. produce spores (pink, no green spores)?

No

89

Looking at the micrograph does the bacteria Bacillus megaterium produce spores (green spores)?

Yes

90

Looking at the micrograph, does the bacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis produce the waxy material in its cell wall (pink)?

Yes

91

Looking at the micrograph, does the bacteria Bacillus cereus produce the waxy material in its cell wall (blue)?

No

92

Looking at the micrograph, does the bacteria Mycobacteroum tuberculosis produce the waxy material in its cell wall (pink)?

Yes

93

These media are designed to grow a broad spectrum of microbes that do not have special growth requirements

General Purpose

94

These media contain complex organism substances such as growth factors that are required for the microbes to grow

Enriched

95

These media contain substances that absorb oxygen or slow the penetration of oxygen

Anaerobic growth

96

This type of media is used to maintain and preserve the microbe for a period of time before testing

Specimen transport

97

This type of media contains one or more agents that inhibit the growth of certain microbes but not another

Selective

98

This type of media can grow several types of microbes but are designed to bring out visible differences among these microbes

Differential

99

This type of media is used to count the number of microbes in agricultural, industrial, or environmental samples

Enumeration

100

This type of media is used to test the effectiveness of microbial drugs, disinfectants and antiseptics

Assay

101

This type of media contain pure chemical nutrients that vary little from one source to another and have a molecular content with an exact formula

Synthetic media

102

This type of media is not chemically definable by an exact formula

Nonsynthetic media

103

This type of media has large molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids that can vary greatly in exact composition

Complex media

104

Nutrient agar or nutrient broth is a general purpose media used for which groups?

Bacteria and Fungi

105

Potato dextrose agar (PDA) is a general purpose media use for which group?

Fungi

106

Trypticase soy agar (TSA) or broth is a general purpose media for which group?

Bacteria

107

Which of the following is commonly used to culture algae?

Salt agar

108

Which of the following is commonly used to culture paramecium?

Hay infusion

109

Which of the following is commonly used to culture viruses?

Live host cell

110
card image

The image of the colony has which type of form?

Circular

111
card image

The image of the colony has which type of form?

Iregular

112
card image

The image of the colony has which type of form?

Rhizoid

113
card image

The image of the colony has which type of form?

Filamentous

114
card image

The image of the colony has which type of margin?

Entire

115
card image

The image of the colony has which type of margin?

Lobate

116
card image

The image of the colony has which type of margin?

Curled

117
card image

The image of the colony has which type of margin?

Undulate

118
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The image of the colony on the agar shows which form?

Filiform

119
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The image of the colony on the agar slant shows which form?

Beaded

120
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The image of the colony has which elevation?

Convex

121
card image

The image of the colony has which elevation?

Umbonate

122
card image

The image of the colony has which elevation?

Crateriform

123
card image

The image of the colony has which elevation?

Raised

124

This selective and differential media is used to isolate Staphylococcus

Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA)

125

This selective and differential media is used to isolate enteric bacteria that hydrolyze urea

Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB)

126

This selective and differential media is used to isolate enteric bacteria that ferment lactose

MacConkey Agar (MCA)

127

Which selective media uses high salt concentration to inhibit the growth of non-target bacteria?

Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA)

128

Which selective media uses crystal violet and bile salts to inhibit the growth of non-target bacteria?

MacConkey Agar (MCA)

129

Which selective media uses methylene blue to inhibit the growth of non-target bacteria?

Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB)

130

Mannitol Salt Agar is selective for which bacteria?

Staphylococcus

131

Eosin Methylene Blue agar is selective for which bacteria?

  • Gram-negative
  • Enterobacter
  • Escherichia
  • Salmonella

132

MacConkey's agar is selective for which bacteria?

  • Salmonella
  • Shigella

133

Which media turns yellow when fermentation occurs?

Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA)

134

Which media turns colonies of Enterobacter (Klebsiella) aerogenes pink?

Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB)

135

Which media turns colonies of coliform bacteria red?

MacConkey agar (MCA)

136

Cell division where genome replication is followed directly by the physical separation into two new, identical cells

Binary fission

137

Cell division where genome replication is separated by a gap phase from the physical separation into two new identical cells

Mitosis

138

In this phase, limiting factors intensify becoming detrimental to any cell growth

Death phase

139

In this phase, the cells are adjusting to the environment

Lag phase

140

In this phase, the cells reach the maximum rate of cell division

Log phase

141

In this phase, cells will stop growing or grow very slowly

Stationary phase

142

In this phase, the majority of the cells are alive, but dead cells start to accumulate

Stationary phase

143

In this phase, there are many living cells and few to none dead cells

Log phase

144

In this phase, there are few cells present

Lag phase

145

In this phase, the dead cells take up a larger portion of the culture and little to no growth occurs

Death phase

146

Of the following absorbance reading samples, which one has more cells present?

0.85

147

Of the following absorbance reading samples, which one has fewer cells present?

0.05

148

How many cells are present after 9 generations (starting from 1 cell) of exponential growth?

512

149

How many cells are present after 13 generations (starting from 1 cell) of exponential growth?

8,102

150

How many cells are present after 18 generations (starting from 1 cell) of exponential growth?

262,144

151

How many cells are present after 11 generations (starting from 1 cell) of exponential growth?

2,048

152

How many cells are present after 7 generations (starting from 1 cell) of exponential growth?

128

153

A dilution of 1mL bacteria from broth into 1mL broth or water

1:2

154

A dilution of 1mL bacteria from broth into 3mL broth or water

1:4

155

A dilution of 1mL bacteria from broth into 11mL broth or water

1:12

156

A dilution of 1mL bacteria from broth into 7mL broth or water

1:8

157

A serial dilution of 1:10 followed by 1:100 by 1:100 gives a final dilution of

1:100,000

158

A serial dilution of 1:10 followed by 1:10 followed by 1:100 gives a final dilution of

1:10,000

159

A serial dilution of 1:10 followed by 1:10 followed by 1:10 gives a final dilution of

1:1,000

160

A serial dilution of 1:6 followed by 1:8 gives a final dilution of

1:48

161

A serial dilution of 1:6 followed by 1:10 gives a final dilution of

1:60

162

A serial dilution of 1:4 followed by 1:6 gives a final dilution of

1:24

163

A serial dilution of 1:2 followed by 1:6 gives a final dilution of

1:12

164

A serial dilution of 1:6 followed by 1:12 gives a final dilution of

1:72

165

A dilution of 0.1mL bacteria from broth into 9.9mL

1:100

166

A dilution of 0.1mL bacteria from broth in 999.9mL broth or water

1:10,000

167

A dilution of 0.1mL bacteria from broth in 99.9mL broth or water

1:1,000

168

A 1:1,000,00 is which dilution factor?

-6

169

A 1:100,000 is which dilution factor?

-5

170

A 1:100,000,000 is which dilution factor?

-8

171

A 1:10,000,000 is which dilution factor?

-7

172

Microbes that require oxygen to grow but at much lower levels than 20% are

Microaerophiles

173

Microbes that can only grow when oxygen is not present are

Obligate anaerobes

174

Microbes that can only grow when oxygen is present are

Obligate aerobes

175

Microbes that can grow in oxygen but do not require oxygen for energy metabolism are

Aerotolerant anaerobes

176

Microbes that are flexible and can grow with or without oxygen are

Facultative anaerobes

177

Which bacteria have optimal growth between -5°C to 15°C?

Psychrophiles

178

Which bacteria have optimal growth between 45°C to 75°C?

Thermophiles

179

Which bacteria have optimal growth between 25°C to 45°C?

Mesophiles

180

Which bacteria have optimal growth above 75°C?

Hyperthermophiles

181

A bacterium that grows at a pH of 10 is a

Alkaliphiles

182

A bacterium that grows at a pH of 4 is a

Acidophiles

183

A bacterium that grows at a pH of 7 is a

Neutrophiles

184

These microbes can grow in excessive sugar concentrations

Osmophiles

185

These microbes require a high concentration of sodium chloride in order to grow

Obligate halophiles

186

These microbes can grow in moderate concentration of sodium chloride

Halotolerant

187

A cell that has more solutes than the surrounding environment is

Hypertonic

188

A cell that has fewer solutes than the surrounding environment

Hypotonic

189

Water flows (into/out of) a cell that is hypotonic

Out of

190

Water flows (into/out of) a cell that is hypertonic

Into

191

When the temperature increases past the optimal, the hydrogen bonding in the RNA breaks down and the proteins denature in this structure

Ribosome

192

When the temperature increases past the optimal, lipids can be destroyed affecting which structure?

Cell membrane

193

Which temperature results in white colonies of Serratia?

37°C

194

When the temperature decreases past the optimal, lipids can freeze affecting which structure?

Cell membrane

195

When the temperature decreases past the optimal, the activity of this molecule will slow down

Enzyme

196

When the temperature increases past the optimal, these denature

Enzyme

197

Which temperature results in pinkish/red colonies of Serratia?

25°C

198

Which temperature does Serratia grow best at?

37°C

199

Which temperature does E. coli grow best at?

37°C

200

Which temperature does GST grow best at?

55°C

201

Which temperature does Serratia grow the worst at?

55°C

202

Which temperature does E. coli grow the worst at

55°C

203

Which temperature does GST grow the worst at?

37°C

204

Which pH does E. coli grow best at?

7

205

Which pH does S. epidermidis grow best at?

5

206

Which pH does A. faecalis grow best at?

7

207

Which pH does E. coli grow the worst at?

3

208

Which pH does S. epidermidis grow the worst at?

3

209

Which pH does A. faecalis grow the worst at?

3