lifespan exam 2 chapter 7-12 Flashcards

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What are the major milestone of gross motor skills between 18-24 months? c7

Runs awkwardly; climbs stairs with both feet on each steps; pushes and pull boxes or wheeled toys c7


What are the major milestone of gross motor skills between 2-3 years old? c7

Runs easily; climb on furniture unaided; hauls and shove big toys around obstacles. c7


What are the major milestone of gross motor skills between 3-4 years old? c7

Walks up stairs one foot per steps; skips on two feet; walks on tiptoe; pedals and steers tricycle; walk in any direction pullng large toys c7


What are the major milestone of gross motor skills between 4-5 years old? c7

Walks up and down stairs one foot per step; stands. runs, and walks on tiptie c7


What are the major milestone of gross motor skills between 5-6 years old? c7

Skips on alternate feet; walks on a line; sides, swings c7


What are the major milestone of fine motor skills between 18-24 months? c7

Show clear hand preference; stacks four to six blocks; turns page one at a time; picks up things without overbalancing; unscrews lid on a jar c7


What are the major milestone of fine motor skills between 2-3 years old? c7

picks up small objects; throws small ball while standing c7


What are the major milestone of fine motor skills between 3-4 years old? c7

catches large ball between outstretched arms; cuts paper with scissors; holds pencil between thumb and fingers c7


What are the major milestone of fine motor skills between 4-5 years old? c7

Strikes ball with bat; kicks and catches ball; thread beads on a string; grasp pencil properly c7


What are the major milestone of fine motor skills between 5-6 years old? c7

plays ball games well; thread needles and sew large stitches c7


Define Corpus Callosum c7

The membrane that connect the right and left hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. (The brain structure through which the left and right sides of the cerebral cortex communicate, grows and mature more during the early childhood years than in any other periods of life) c7


Define Lateralization c7

The process through which brain functions are divided between the two hemisphere of the cerebral cortex. c7


Define Hippocampus c7

The brain structure that is important in learning. (this involves transfer of information to long-term memory) c7


Define Handedness c7

A strong preference for using one hand or the other that develops between 3 and 5 years of age c7


Define Infantile Amnesia c7

The inability to remember much about the first three years of life. c7


Summary of eating patterns c7

Children grow more slowly during the early childhood years therefore it may seem that they eat less than when they were babies. Moreover, parents should be more concern about nutritious food, not about the quantity of food the child is eating. c7


Summary of illness c7

In the US, the average preschooler has six to seven colds each year along with one or two episodes of gastrointestinal illness. Study shows single-parent homes have more asthma, headaches, and generally higher vulnerability to illness than those who live with both biological parents. c7


Summary of accidents c7

25% of all US childern under age 5 have atleast 1 accident. Accidents are the major cause of death in preschoolers and school-age children. Accidents are more common in boys. Drowning is the leading cause of 1-4 y/o and 5+ are motor vehicle accidents c7


Define Reticular Formation c7

The part of the brain that regulates attention and concentration c7


Define Child Abuse c7

Physical or psychological injury that results from an adults intentional exposure of a child to potentially harmful physical stimuli, sexual acts, or neglect c7


Define Neglect c7

The failure of caregivers to provide emotional and physical support for a child. c7


Define PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) c7

Involves extreme levels of anxiety, flashback memories of episodes or abuse, nightmares, and other sleeping disturbance. c7


Summary of abuse and neglect c7

2/3 (66%) of abuse results in physical injury, 1/4 (25%) involves sexual abuse, 1/20 (5%) involves neglect, Responsible for 10% of Emergency visit, Between 1% and 5% suffer from physical abuse, 2000 infants and children die each year result of child abuse. Preventing abuse begins with education. c7


Define Piagets Preoperational stage c7

Piagets second stage of cognitive development, during which children become proficient in the use of symbols in thinking and communicating but still have difficulty thinking logically c7


Define Semiotic (symbolic) function c7

(18-24 month) The understanding that one object or behavior can represent another. i.e. a child pretending to feed a doll stands for a parent feeding a baby. c7


Egocentrism c7

A child's belief that everyone see and experience the world as they way they do. i.e a child give a prism sees a mountain. c7


Define Theories of Mind c7

A set of ideas constructed by a child or adult to explain to other peoples ideas, beliefs,desires, and behavior. c7


Define Fast Mapping c7

The ability to categorically link new words to real-world referents c7


Define Myelinization c7

Protective, fatty material wraps around nerve cells in the peripheral and central nervous system c7


Right, left, or ambidextrous handedness c7

83% are right handed
14% are left handed
3% are ambidextrous c7


Define Centration c7

A childs tendency to focus on only one aspect of a situation, problem or object at a time. i.e. A child may complain that there is too little ice cream in a big bowl. Transfer same ice cream to a smaller bowl and the child will be more satisfied. c7


Define Conservation c7

The understanding that matter can change based on three characteristics: Identity, Compensation, and Reversibility c7


Define Grammar Explosion c7

The period during when the grammatical features of a childern's speech become more similar to those of adult speech c7


Define Phonological Awareness c7

Children's understanding of the sound patterns of the language they are acquiring. (developed through word play such as nursing rhymes) c7


Define Social-Cognitive Theory c8

The theoretical perspective that asserts that social and personality developments in early childhood is related to improvements in the cognitive domain (assumes that social and emotional changes in the child are the results of or at least are faciliated by-the enormous growth in cognitive abilities that happens during the preschool years) c8


Define Person Perception c8

The ability to classify others according to categories such as age, gender, and race c8


Summary of Temperament to Personality c8

A child's ability to control and submit to their impulse. If not they will learn that they will miss out on the fun of the game, therefore the control will help them develop their personality c8


Define Emotional Regulation c8

The ability to control emotional state and emotion-related behavior c8


Define the Freuds Anal Stage (1-3 yrs) c8

Stage where toilet training occurs. Control over bodily functions c8


Define the Freuds Phallic Stage (3-5 yrs) c8

The stage where the foundation for later gender and moral development c8


Define Eriksons Stage of Autonomy VS Shame and Doubt c8

Eriksons stage that centers around the toddlers new mobility and the accompanying desire for autonomy c8


Define Eriksons Stage of Initiative VS Guilt c8

Eriksons stage that is ushered in by new cognitive skills, particularly the preschoolers ability to plan, which accentuates the wishes to take the initiative c8


Define Gender Identity c8

The ability to correctly label oneself and others as male or female (by age 2 most can label themselves, 6-8 month later they can label others as well) c8


Define Gender Stability c8

The understanding that gender is a stable, life long characteristic (most understand gender stability by age 4) c8


Define Gender Constancy c8

The understanding that gender is a component of the self that is not altered by external appearance c8


Summary of Sex Role Knoweledge c8

5-6 years old has found out that gender is permanent and is searching for a reliable rule about how boys and girls should behave. Children's pick up information watching adults and TV and treat them as morals rules. Later they understand, and gender concepts become more flexible. c8


Define Cross-gender Behavior c8

Behavior that is atypical for ones own sex, but is typical for the opposite sex. i.e. Tomboyishness-girl plays with a truck-typical for boys, not as much for girls. More with girls then boys c8


Summary of attachements c8

By age 2-3, attachments are just as strong but become less visible. Childrens who are securely attached to their parents experience fewer behavior problems. c8


Define Parenting Style c8

The characteristic strategies that parents use to manage children's behavior c8


What are the four types of parenting styles c8

1. The Authoritarian Type
2. The Permissive Type
3. The Authoritative Type
4. The Uninvolved Type c8


Define The Authoritarian Parenting Style
(Diana Baumrind) c8

Low in nurturance and communication, but high in control and maturity demand. (More Common in Asian) c8


Define The Permissive Parenting Style
(Diana Baumrind) c8

High in nurturance and low in maturity demands, control, and communication c8


Define The Authoritative Parenting Style
(Diana Baumrind) c8

High in nurturance, maturity demands, control, and communication. (More common in white families and middle Class. Least common among asians. The best parenting style) c8


Define The Uninvolved Parenting Style
(Elenor Maccoby and John Martin) c8

Low in nurturance, maturity demands, control, and communication. (Structureless type-Also known as Neglecting Parenting Style) c8


Define Association Areas c9

Parts of the brain where sensory, motor, and intellectual functions are linked-are myelinized to some degree by the time children enter middle childhood c9


Summary of Growth and Motor Development c9

Each year children 6-12 grow about 2-3 inches and add about 6lbs. Hand, eyes, and fine motor coordination improves. Girls at this age are ahead in boys in their overall growth. By 12 girl attained 94% of their adult height, boys 84%. c9


Define Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) c9

An injury to the head that results in diminished brain function such as a loss of consciousness, confusion, or drowsiness among school age children. Most who experience TBI fully recover c9


Define Asthma c9

A chronic lung disease, characterized by sudden, potentially fatal attacks of breathing difficulty. 9% of school age students are diagnosed with asthma c9


Define excessive weight gain c9

A pattern in which children gain more weight in a year than is appropriate for their age and height c9


Summary of Language c9

Between 6-12, children continue to add words into their vocab astonishing rate from 5,000-10,000 new words per year c9


Define Piagets Concrete Operational Stage c9

Piagets 3rd stage of cognitive development, during which children construct schemes that enable them to think logically about object and events in the real world. c9


Define Processing Efficiency c9

The ability to make efficient use of short-term memory capacity. (it gets steadily faster with age) c9


Summary of Schooling c9

Teaching style similar to Authoritative Parent Style-An approach that combines clear goals, good control, good communication, and high nurturance are more effective. Class size less than 20 are also more effective. c9


Define Literacy c9

The ability to read and write
(We focus in literacy at 6-12 years old) c9


Define Reading Fluency c9

The ability to read aloud with emotional expressiveness and minimal effort c9


Define English Language Learner (ELL) c9

Non-English-speaking students either immigrant children or native born children c9


Define Bilingual Education c9

An approach to second-language education in which children receive instruction in two different languages. c9


Define English-as-a-second-language (ESL) c9

An approach to second-language education in which children attend English classes for part of the day and receive most of their academic instructions in English. c9


Define Achievement Test c9

A test designed to assess specific information learned in school c9


Define Intelligent test c9

Test that are usually paper-and-pencil multiple-choice test that can be given to large number of children at the same time (most US school require students to take this test at various points in their educational careers) c9


What are the 8 types of Intelligence c9

1. Linguistic
2. Logical/mathematical
3. Musical
4. Spatial
5. Bodily Kinesthetic
6. Naturalist
7. Interpersonal
8. Intrapersonal c9


Define linguistic intelliegence c9

The ability to use language effectively c9


Define Logical/Mathematical Intelligence c9

Facility with numbers and logical problem solving c9


Define Musical Intelligence c9

The ability to appreciate and produce music c9


Define Spatial Intelligence c9

The ability to appreciate spatial relationships c9


Define Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence c9

The ability to move in a coordinated way, combined with a sense of one's body in space c9


Define Naturalist Intelligence c9

The ability to make fine discrimination among the plants and animals of the natural world or the patterns and designs of human artifacts c9


Define Interpersonal Intelligence c9

Sensitivity to the behavior, moods, and needs of others c9


Define Intrapersonal Intelligence c9

The ability t o understand oneself c9


Summary of Ethnic Differences in achievements c9

Achievements differences may be due to philosophical belief that characterize some racial and ethnic groups. i.e. American tends to be individualistic focusing on oneself. c9


Define Learning Disability c9

A disorder in which a child has difficulty mastering a specific academic skill, even though she possesses normal intelligence and no physical or sensory handicap (most often reading)


Define Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) c9

A mental disorder that causes children to have difficult attending to and completing task (10% of US school children has ADHD) c9


Summary of Freud and Erikson's perspective on Psychoanalytic c10

Freud thought that the challenge of the middle childhood years was to form emotional bonds with peers and to move beyond those that were developed with parents in earlier years. Erikson Accepted Freuds view and added that was the time when they experience the crisis "industry vs inferiority" c10


Define Industry vs Inferiority
Erikson fourth stage of psychosocial stages (age 6-12) c10

During this stage Erikson said, children develop a sense of their own competence through the achievement of culturally define learning goals-failure to master these lead to sense of inferiority
(Erikson added children needs support and encouragement at this stage) c10


Define Trait c10

A stable pattern of responding to situations c10


Define Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism c10

Model in which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors interact to influence personality development c10


Explain Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism Chart c10

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What are the Big 5 Personality Traits c10

1. Extraversion
2. Agreeableness
3. Conscientiousness
4. Neuroticism/Emotional Instability
5. Openness/ Intellect c10


Define Extraversion
(big 5) c10

Active, Assertive, Enthusiastic, Outgoing--High activity level; Sociability; positive emotionality; talkativeness c10


Define Agreeableness
(big 5) c10

Affectionate, forgiving, generous, kind, sympathetic, trusting--Perhaps high approach/positive emotionality; perhaps effortful control c10


Define Conscientiousness
(big 5) c10

Efficient, organized, prudent, reliable, responsible--Effortful control/task persistence c10


Define Neuroticisim also known as Emotional Instability
(big 5) c10

Negative Emotionality; Irritability c10


Define Openness/Intellect
(big 5) c10

Approach; low inhibition c10


Example of Reciprocal Determinism c10

When a child with a difficult temperament (personal component) throws a tantrum, the parents may ignore him (environmental component), leading him to become enraged and to misbehave even more (behavioral component). But if parents respond to an easygoing child's tantrum with inattention, the child may respond by stopping the tantrum to regain his parents attention. c10


Define Psychological Self c10

A persons understanding of his or her enduring psychological characteristic/ones stable, internal traits c10


Define Self-Efficacy c10

Belief in ones capacity to cause an intended event to occur or to perform a task c10


Define Self-Esteem c10

A global evaluation of ones own worth (sums up all of the separate assessments a child makes about his skills in different areas. c10


Define Behavioral Comparison c10

A description that involved comparing a childs behavior or physical features with those of another child or with a norm. i.e. Billy runs a lot faster then Jason c10


Define Psychological Construct c10

Any statement that involved some internal personal trait. i.e. Sarah is so kind c10


Summary of how self esteem develop 1
Susan Harter c10

Self Esteem is strongly influenced by mental comparisons of children's ideal selves and their actual experiences. The key to self esteem is the amount of discrepancy between what the child desires and what he thinks he has achieved. The second major influence on a child's self esteem is the overall support the child feels she is receiving from the important people around them. c10


Summary of how self esteem develop 2
Susan Harter c10

To develop high self-esteem, children must first acquire the sense that they are liked and accepted in their families, by both parents and siblings. Next they need to be able to find friends with whom they can develop stable relationships. c10


Summary of The Child as Psychologist c10

6-12 years old descriptions of other people will focus almost exclusive on external features-what the person looks like, where he lives, what he does, etc. i.e. He is very tall, dark brown hair, he goes to our school, I don't think he has any brothers or sisters etc.. c10


Define Moral Relativism Stage
(After age 8) c10

The second of Piagets stages or moral development, in which children's understand that many rules can be change through social agreements. Children's realize that the important thing about a game is that all players follow the same rules, regardless of what those rules are. c10


Define Moral Realism Stage
(Before age 8) c10

The first of Piagets stages of Moral Development, in which children believes rules are inflexible and can not be change. i.e. children's believe that the rules of games can't be change because they are authorities such as parents, governments officials, or religious figures


Define Self-Regulating
(6-12 years old) c10

Children's ability to conform to parental standards of behavior without direct supervision. i.e. Bike riding, skate boarding, without parents supervision c10


Summary of Relationships with Parents c10

Middle childhood (6-12 yrs) is a period of increasing independence of child from family. Children who have close, warm relationships with their parents tend to be socially competent with peers c10


Summary of Gender Self-Segregation c10

Boys play with boys and girls play with girls in their own kinds of games. Gender is more important among 6-12 then race, age, etc. Rough play in common in boys, less in girls. Boys establish hierarchies through roughness, girls through social skills. Boys are more accepting of newcomers and play with larger group, girls play in pairs or in small exclusive groups. Boys are more competitive, girls are more compliance. c10


Define Relational Aggression c10

Aggression aimed at damaging another person's self-esteem or peer relationships, such as by ostracism or threats of ostracism (banning from the group, or threats to be banned from the group), cruel gossiping, or facial expressions of disdain. (more likely in girls then boys, begins in early preschool) c10


Define Retaliatory Aggression c10

Aggression to get back at someone who has hurt you increasing in both boys and girls during the 6-12 year old period c10


Define Bullying c10

A complex form of aggression in which a bully routinely aggresses against one or more habitual victims. They exhibit physical, verbal, and/or relational aggression toward their victims c10


Define Social Status c10

An individual child's classification as popular, rejected, or neglected c10


Define Popular Social Status among children's c10

children that are usually good at accurately assessing other's feelings at regulating their own emotions c10


Define Withdrawn/Rejected Status among children's c10

Children that realize that they are dislike by peers, after repeated attempt to gain acceptance they give up and become socially withdrawn (often feel loneliness) c10


Define Aggressive/Rejected Status among children's c10

Children's that are often disruptive, uncooperative, bossy, and usually believe that their peers likes them (many are unable to control) c10


Define Popular Social Status among children's c10

Children's that are much less stable over time than those of rejected ones. They may sometimes move to the popular category when they become part of a new peer group. c10


Summary of The Effects of Poverty on Families and Children c10

Children's living in poverty-neighborhoods show symptoms of PTSD. Including sleep disturbances, irritability, inability to concentrate, and angry outburst. Many experience flashback or intrusive memories of traumatic events, some persist into adulthood. (Lower income family have lower IQ) c10


Define Adolescence c11

The transitioninal period between childhood and adulthood c11


Define Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) c11

The part of the frontal lobe that is just behind the forehead. It is responsible for executive processing c11


Summary of the Brain c11

There are two major brain growth spurt in the teenage years. One from 13-15 the second one begins around 17 and continues into early adulthood c11


What is the brain growth spurt between 13-15 c11

During this spurt, the cerebral cortex become thicker, the neuronal pathways become more efficient;- more energy is produce and consumed by the brain than any other years;- teens are enable to think abstractly and reflect on their cognitive process, profound in changes of the prefrontal cortex c11


What is the brain growth spurt that begins around 17 and continue into early adulthood c11

During this spurt, the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex are the focus of development. This area of the brain controls logic and plainning. c11


Define Executive Processing c11

Skills that enable us to consciously control and organize our though processes. c11


Summary of Physical Growth in Height c11

An adolescent may grow 3-6 inches a year for several years until they reach their adult size. Girls attain most of their height by 16 while boys continue to grow until 18-20 c11


Summary of Shape and Proportions c11

During the growth spurt, the normal cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns are reverse. Teens hands and feet are the first to grow to adult size, follow by arms and legs, the trunk is usually the slowest-growing part. (good sign is shoe size increasing) c11


Summary of Other Body Systems c11

By 17-18 boys finally catch up with girls in joint development. Men 40% body fat, Females 24% body fat. Boy usually have greater endurance because of their lower level of body fats. During teenage years, the heart and lungs increases considerably in size, and the heart rate drops.


Define Puberty c11

The physical changes which culminate in sexual maturity (changes both seen and unseen that are needed for reproductive maturity) c11


Major Hormones That Contributes to Physical Growth and Development c11

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Define Primary Sex Characteristics c11

The sex organs; Ovaries, Uterus, and Vagina in the female;-Testes and Penis in the male c11


Define Pituitary Gland c11

The gland that control all other glands in the body, signal a child's adrenal glands to step up and produce androgen. (triggers glads to release hormones) c11


Define Menarche c11

The first menstruation cycle within girls. Typically occurs 2 years after the beginning of other visible changes and is succeeded only by the final stage of breast and pubic hair development. 10% experience menarche earlier than 11, 90% each it by 14. Possible pregnancy after menarche. c11


Define Secondary Sex Characteristics c11

Body part such as breast in females, changing voice pitch and beard growth in boys, and growth of pubic hair in both sex. c11


Summary of Timing with Puberty in girls c11

Early developing girls are more like to have negative body images such as thinking they are too fat; get in trouble in school and at home; more likely to become sexually active; and more likely to get depress then girls who are average in developing. c11


Summary of Timing with Puberty in boys c11

Early developing boys often occupy leadership roles and are more academically and economically successful in adulthood. c11


Summary of Teen Pregnancy Statistic c11

In US the annual pregnancy rate 40 pregnancy per 1000 teen. (1 pregnancy per 1,000 girls younger than 15; 22 per 1000 at 15-17; and 70 per 1000 among 18-19 years old.) Of that 17% are African American, 8% are Whites, 14% are Hispanics. c11


Summary of Adolescent Pregnancy c11

When teens become pregnant, about 1/3 (33%) end up in abortion, 14% result in miscarriages. 7% White, and 1% African American place their babies up for adoption c11


Gland-Hormones-and the Aspect of Growth Influenced
Thyroid Gland c11

Hormones(Thyroxine)-Normal Brain Development and overall rate of growth c11


Gland-Hormones-and the Aspect of Growth Influenced
Adrenal Gland c11

Hormones (Adrenal Androgen) -Some changes at puberty, particularly the development of secondary sex characteristic in girls c11


Gland-Hormones-and the Aspect of Growth Influenced
Testes (boys) c11

Hormones (testosterone) -Crucial in the formation of male genitals prenatally; also triggers the sequence of changes in primary and secondary sex characteristics at puberty in the male c11


Gland-Hormones-and the Aspect of Growth Influenced
Ovaries (girls) c11

Hormones (estrogen/estradiol) development of the menstrual cycle and breast in girls; has less to do with other secondary sex characteristics than testosterone does for boys c11


Gland-Hormones-and the Aspect of Growth Influenced
Pituitary Glands c11

Hormones (General Growth Hormones, Thyroid stimulating hormones and other activating hormones) -Rate of physical maturation; signals other glands to secrete c11


Summary of Sexual Minority Youth c11

The emergence of physical attraction to members of the opposite sex. For some they are attractive to the same sex, or both sex. c11


Define Heterosexuality c11

Physical Attraction to the opposite sex c11


Define Homosexuality c11

Physical attractions to the same sex c11


Define Bisexuality c11

Physical attractions to both sex c11


Define Transgenderism c11

One who is convinced that their psychological gender is inconsistent with their biological sex c11


Summary of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco c11

Illicit drug use is declining, but still a problem because of the risk to which teens expose themselves, such as drunk driving and the possibility of life long addictions. c11


Summary of Depression and Suicide c11

5% adolescents are in the midst of depression. 11% males and 22% females have reported depressions in teens. 15% of high school students have thought about suicide, 7% has attempted, 1 in 10,000 has succeeded. Boys are 4 times as high in comiting suicide than girls. c11


Contributing factors to suicide c11

-Triggering stressful event such as rejection or humiliation i.e Breaking up with gf/bf or failure
-An Alter Mental State such as a sense of hopeless ness, reduce inhibitions from alcohol consumptions, or rage
-An Opportunity such as a loaded gun in the house of a bottle of sleeping pills in the parents' medicine cabinet creates an opportunity for a teenager to carry out suicidal plans c11


Piagets Formal Operational Stage c11

The fourth stage during which adolescents learn to reason logically about abstract concepts. Typically around 12-16 years of age c11


Define Task Goal c11

Goals based on a personal standard and a desire to become more competent at something (goal based on a desire for self improvement) c11


Define Ability Goal c11

Goals based on a desire to be superior to others. (being better than another person at something. c11


Summary on Transition to Secondary School c11

Both method of 6-3-3 and 5-3-4 has not been working, students show losses in achievement and self-esteem transitioning to high school. Educators and developmentalists are searching for explanations and practical remedies to solve the transitioning period. c11


Define Identity c12

An understanding of one's unique characteristics and how they have been, are, and will be manifested across ages, situations, and social roles c12


Define Identity Crisis c12

A period during which an adolescent is troubled by his lack of an Identity (Eriksons term for the psychological state of emotional turmoil that arises when an adolescents sense of self becomes "unglued" so that a new, more mature sense of self can be achieved) c12


Define Genital Stage c12

The period during which psychosexual maturity is reached c12


Define Identity vs Role Confusion c12

The stage during which adolescents attain a sense of who they are c12


Marcia's Theory of Identity Achievement c12

The person has been through a crisis and has reached a commitment to idealogical, occupational, or other goals c12


Marcia's Theory of Moratorium c12

A crisis in progress, but no commitment has yet been made c12


Marcia's Theory of foreclosure c12

The person has made a commitment without having gone through a crisis. No reassessment of old positions has been made. Instead, the young person simply accept a parentally or culturally define commitment c12


Marcia's Theory of Identity Diffusion c12

The young person is not in the midst of a crisis and has not made a commitment. Diffusion may thus represent either an early stage in the process or a failure to reach a commitment after a crisis c12


Marcia's Crisis c12

a period of decision making when old values and old choices are reexamined. This may occur as a sort of upheaval-or it may occur gradually c12


What are Marcia's 4 Identity Status c12

1. Identity Achievement
2. Moratorium
3. Foreclosure
4. Identity Diffusion c12


Summary of Self-Understanding c12

As children's ages, their self-concepts becomes more focused on enduring internal characteristics. i.e "Who am I?" (I am tall, I have blue eyes) to (I am a Democrat, I believe in God.) c12


Summary of Self Esteem c12

Self esteem shifts during teenage years. At 19-20 years old, they have higher self esteem then at 8-10 years old. It very often drops abruptly. Teens with high self-esteem are better able to resist peer pressure, get higher grades in school, and are less likely to be depress. c12


Define Gender Role Identity c12

The Gender related aspect of the psychological self. i.e Masculine most likely males, feminine mostly females. c12


Define Masculine c12

One who perceives themselves as having masculine quantities c12


Define Feminine c12

One who perceives themselves as having feminine quantities c12


Define Androgynous c12

One who perceives themselves as having both Masculine and Feminine quantities c12


Define Undifferentiated c12

One who perceives themselves as lacking both masculine and feminine quantities. c12


Define Ethnic Identity c12

A sense of belonging to an ethnic group. (self identification as a member of their specific group, commitment to that group, and its values and attitudes, and some attitudes about the group that they being c12


Phinny's Second Stage "Ethnic Identity Search" c12

One who compare his own ethnic group with others, to try to arrive at his own judgement c12


Phinny's Ethnic Identity Achievement stage c12

A person who develops two Identity. One to the dominate culture, and one to the ethnic group which they belong to. c12


Define Conventional Morality
Kohlberg's theory c12

Rules or norms of a group to which the individual belongs become the basis of moral judgments, whether that group is family, the peer group, a church, or the nation. c12


Define Postconventional Morality
Kohlberg's theory c12

The level of moral reasoning in which judgments are based on an integration of individual rights and the needs of society. c12


Summary of Kohlberg's Culture and Moral Reasoning c12

Justice is an important moral concept througout the world, and thus it isn't surprising that Kohlberg's stage sequence has been so strongly supported in cross-cultural research c12


Define Cyberbullying c12

A form of aggression in which electronic communication are used to intentionally inflict harm on others i.e. disturbing photo, emails etc.. c12


Define Delinquency c12

Antisocial behavior that includes law breaking. i.e. rape and murder c12


Children's and Adolescents comments about how to solve disagreements between friends c12

5 yrs old- Go away from her and come back later when you're not fighting
8 yrs old- well, if you say something and don't really mean it, then you have to mean it when you take it back
14 yrs old- Sometimes you got to get away for a while. Calm down a bit so you wont be so angry. Then get back and try to talk it out
16 yrs old- Well, you could talk it out, but it usually fades itself out. It usually takes care of itself. You dont have to explain everything. c12


Summary of Peer Groups c12

Adolescents chooses to socialize with a group that shares their values, attitudes, behaviors, and identity status. Like friendships, peer groups become relatively stable. Peer groups structures can change over the years of adolescence. c12


Summary of Peer Group Relationships c12

Although adults often assume that sexual desires are the basis of relationships, it appears that social factors are just as important. c12