In post-Civil War America, Indians surrendered their lands only when
a. chose to migrate farther west
b. received solemn promises from the government that they would be left alone and provided with supplies
c. lost their mobility as the whites killed their horses
d. were allowed to control the supply of food and other staples to the reservations
e. traded land for rifles and blankets
The Indians battled whites for all the following reasons except
a. rescue their women who had been exiled to Oklahoma
b. avenge savage massacres of Indians by whites
c. punish whites for breaking treaties
d. defend their lands against white invaders
e. preserve their nomadic way of life against forced settlement
The Plains Indians were finally forced to surrender:
a. by their constant intertribal warfare
b. when they settled on reservations
c. after such famous leaders as Geronimo and Sitting Bull were killed
d. when the army began using artillery against them
e. by the virtual extermination of the buffalo
The humanitarians who wanted to treat the Indians kindly:
a. had little respect for traditional Indian culture
b. advocated allowing the Ghost Dance to continue
c. opposed passage of the Dawes Act
d. believed that Indians should not be forced to ¨walk the white man´s way¨
e. advocated improving the reservation system
To assimilate Indians into American society, the Dawes Act did all of
the following except:
a. dissolve many tribes as legal entitites
b. try to make rugged individualists of the Indians
c. wipe out tribal ownership of land
d. promise Indians US citizenship in twenty-five years
e. outlaw the sacred Sun Dance
The United States government´s outlawing of the Indian Sun (Ghost)
Dance in 1890 resulted in the:
a. Battle of Wounded Knee
b. Sand Creek massacre
c. Battle of Little Big Horn
d. Dawes Severalty Act
e. Carlisle Indian School
The Dawes Severalty Act was designed to promote Indian:
The enormous mineral wealth taken from the mining frontier:
a. solved the Indian problem
b. solved the currency problem
c. enabled the West to be free of federal interference
d. profited individual prospectors but not corporations
e. helped to finance the Civil War
The mining frontier played a vital role in:
a. brining law and order to the West
b. attracting population to the West
c. influencing the government to go off the gold standard
d. ensuring that the mining industry would remain in the hands of independent, small operations
e. forcing the Indians off the Great Plains
The Homestead Act assumed that public land would be administered in
such a way as to:
a. raise government revenue
b. conserve natural resources
c. favor large-scale ¨bonanza¨ farms
d. guarantee shipments for the railroads
e. promote frontier settlement
The Homestead Act:
a. sold more land to bona fide farmers than to land promoters
b. was a drastic departure from previous government public land policy
c. was responsible for the sale of more land than any other agency
d. managed to end the fraud that was common with other government land programs
e. was criticized as a federal government giveaway
Among the following, the least likely to migrate to the cattle and
farming frontier were:
a. eastern city dwellers
b. eastern farmers
c. recent immigrants
e. Midwestern farmers
Which of the following provides the least valid support for the
theory that the frontier served as a "safety valve" for
American social discontent and economic conflict?
a. Free western land attracted many immigrant farmers who might have crowded urban job markets
b. the possibility of westward migration encouraged eastern employers to pay higher wages
c. farmers frequently migrated after earning a profit from the sale of the land
d. Eastern city dwellers headed west to get free homesteads during depressions
e. Western cities became places of opportunity for failed farmers and easterners alike
The area of the country in which the federal government has done the
most to aid economic and social development is:
a. the West
b. the Midwest
c. the South
d. the Northeast
The real "safety valve" in the late nineteenth century
a. the western city
b. the Western frontier
In the decades after the Civil War, most American farmers:
a. became attached to their family farms
b. diversified their crops
c. became increasingly self-sufficient
d. saw their numbers grow as more people moved west
e. grew a single cash crop
In the last decades of the late nineteenth century, the volume of
agricultural goods ________, and the price received for these goods
a. increased; decreased
b. decreased; increased
c. increased; also increased
d. decreased; also decreased
e. increased; stayed the same
Farmers were slow to organize and promote their interest because
a. were not well educated
b. did not possess the money necessary to establish a national political movement
c. were divided by the wealthier, more powerful manufacturers and railroad barons
d. were too busy trying to eke out a living
e. were by nature independent and individualistic
-In what sense:
In several states, farmers helped to pass the "Granger
a. raised tariffs
b. lowered mortgage interest rates
c. allowed them to form producer and consumer cooperatives
d. prohibited bankruptcy auctions
e. regulated railroad rates
a. were the only third party in the nineteenth century to win electoral votes
b. gained most of their electoral votes from the South
c. received substantial support from industrial workers
d. refused to look to the federal government for assistance
e. none of the above
President Grover Cleveland justified federal intervention in the
Pullman strike of 1894 on the grounds that:
a. the union's leader, Eugene V. Debs, was a socialist
b. strikes against railroads were illegal
c. the strikers were engaging in violent attacks on railroad property
d. shutting down the railroads threated American national security
e. the strike was preventing the transit of US mail
Labor unions, Populists, and debtors saw in the brutal Pullman
a. proof of an alliance between big business, the federal government, and the courts
b. a strategy by which united working-class action could succeed
c. the need for a socialist party in the United States
d. the potential of the federal government as a counterweight to big business
e. the crucial role of middle class public opinion in labor conflicts
The Depression of the 1890s and episodes like the Pullman Strike made
the election of 1896 shape up as:
a. a battle between down-and-out workers and farmers and establishment conservatives
b. a conflict between the insurgent Populists and the two established political parties
c. a sectional conflict with the West aligned against the Northeast and South
d. a contest over the power of the federal government to manage a modern industrial economy like the United States
e. a clash of cultures between ordinary middle-class Americans and European-oriented radicals and reformers
Which of the following was not among the qualifications that helped
William McKinley earn the Republican presidential nomination in
a. He came from the key electoral swing state of Ohio
b. He had gained a national reputation by sponsoring the high McKinley Tariff Bill
c. He was a likable Civil War veteran
d. He was backed by a the skilled political manager and fund raiser Mark Hanna
e. He was an energetic and charismatic campaigner
In the election of 1896, the major issue became:
a. restoration of protective tariffs
b. enactment of an income tax
c. government programs for those unemployed as a result of the depression
d. the rights of farmers and industrial workers
e. free and unlimited coinage of silver
The 1896 presidential election marked the last time that:
a. rural America would defeat urban America
b. the South remained solid for the Democratic party
c. a third party candidate had a serious chance at the White House
d. factory workers would favor inflation
e. a serious effort to win the White House would be made with mostly agrarian votes
The 1896 of William McKinley ushered in a long period of Republican
dominance that was accompanied by:
a. diminishing voter participation in elections
b. strengthening of party organizations
c. greater concern over civil-service reform
d. less concern for industrial regulation
e. sharpened conflict between business and labor
The decline of the long drive and the cattle boom resulted
a. the settlement of homesteading farmers on range land
b. a series of extraordinarily severe winters
c. overgrazing and overproduction
d. the inability to recruit enough veteran cowboys
e. barbed-wire fencing
A, B, C, D, E
Factors eventually leading to the defeat of the Plains Indians
a. the arrival of the railroads in the West
c. near-extermination of the buffalo
d. warfare with the US army
e. extinction of Indian religious beliefs
A, B, C, D
Late nineteenth-century Populist farmers held grievance
b. state governments
d. grain-elevator operators
e. the two major political parties
A, B, C, D, E
The Populists' political program called for:
a. a graduated income tax
b. government ownership of the railroads and telephones
c. protective tariffs
d. free and unlimited coinage of silver in the ration of 16:1
e. loans to farmers based on crops stored in government warehouses
A, B, D, E
Match each Indian chief below with his tribe.
A. Chief Joseph 1. Apache
B. Sitting Bull 2. Cheyenne
C. Geronimo 3. Nez Perce
a. A-1, B-2, C-3
b. A-3, B-4, C-1
c. A-2, B-4, C-3
d. A-4, B-3, C-2
e. A-1, B-3, C-4
As a result of the complete defeat of Captain William Fetterman's
command in 1866
a. the government sent extensive military reinforcements to the Dakotas and Montana.
b. the government abandoned the Bozeman Trail and guaranteed the Sioux their lands.
c. the government adopted a policy of "civilizing" the Indians rather than trying to conquer them.
d. white settlers agreed to halt their expansion beyond the 100th meridian.
e. the conflict between the U.S. army and the Sioux came to a peaceful end.
The Plains Indians were finally forced to surrender
a. because they were decimated by their constant intertribal warfare.
b. when they realized that agriculture was more profitable than hunting.
c. after such famous leaders as Geronimo and Sitting Bull were killed.
d. when the army began using artillery against them.
e. by the coming of the railroads and the virtual extermination of the buffalo.
The Nez Perce Indians of Idaho were goaded into war when
a. the Sioux sought their land.
b. gold was discovered on their reservation.
c. the federal government attempted to put them on a reservation.
d. the Canadian government attempted to force their return to the United States.
e. their alliance with the Shoshones required it.
The buffalo were nearly exterminated
a. as a result of being over hunted by the Indians.
b. when their grasslands were turned into wheat and corn fields.
c. when their meat became valued in eastern markets.
d. by disease.
e. through wholesale butchery by whites.
A Century of Dishonor (1881), which chronicled the dismal history of
Indian-white relations, was authored by
a. Harriet Beecher Stowe.
b. Helen Hunt Jackson.
c. Chief Joseph.
d. Joseph F. Glidden.
e. William F. Cody.
Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Dawes
Severalty Act is passed; (B) Oklahoma land rush takes place; (C)
Indians are granted full citizenship; (D) Congress restores the tribal
basis of Indian life.
a. A, B, C, D
b. B, A, C, D
c. A, D, B, C
d. D, C, A, B
e. C, B, D, A
The mining frontier played a vital role in
a. bringing law and order to the West.
b. attracting the first substantial white population to the West.
c. enabling the government to go off the gold standard.
d. ensuring that the mining industry would remain in the hands of independent, small operations.
e. forcing the Indians off the Great Plains.
The bitter conflict between whites and Indians intensified
a. during the Civil War.
b. as a result of vigilante justice.
c. when big business took over the mining industry.
d. as the mining frontier expanded.
e. after the Battle of Wounded Knee.
The wild frontier towns where the three major cattle trails from
Texas ended were
a. Kansas City, Kansas; Pueblo, Colorado; and Laramie, Wyoming.
b. Tulsa, Oklahoma; Santa Fe, New Mexico; and Denver, Colorado.
c. Topeka, Kansas; Omaha, Nebraska; and Casper, Wyoming.
d. Abilene, Kansas; Ogallala, Nebraska; and Cheyenne, Wyoming.
e. Atchison, Kansas; Greeley, Colorado; and Bozeman, Montana.
One problem with the Homestead Act was that
a. the government continued to try to maximize its revenue from public lands.
b. 160 acres were inadequate for productive farming on the rain scarce Great Plains.
c. Midwestern farmers had to give up raising livestock because of stiff competition with the West.
d. the railroads purchased most of this land.
e. it took several years to earn a profit from farming.
The Homestead Act assumed that public land should be administered in
such a way as to
a. raise government revenue.
b. conserve natural resources.
c. favor large-scale "bonanza" farms.
d. guarantee shipments for the railroads.
e. promote frontier settlement.
Major problem faced by settlers on the Great Plains in the 1870s
a. the high price of land.
b. the low market value of grain.
c. the scarcity of water.
e. the opposition of miners.
In the long run, the group that probably did the most to shape the
modern West was the
c. railroad men.
e. hydraulic engineers.
"Sooners" were settlers "who jumped the gun" in
a. pan gold in California.
b. stake claims in the Comstock Lode in Nevada.
c. claim land in Oklahoma.
d. drive the first cattle to Montana and Wyoming.
e. grab town sites in the Dakotas
In 1890, when the superintendent of the census announced that a
stable frontier line was no longer discernible,
a. the Homestead Act was repealed.
b. little land remained for public sale.
c. Americans were disturbed that the free land of the West was gone.
d. there were no more isolated bodies of settlement.
e. all the western territories had been admitted as states.
Cities Denver and San Francisco did serve as a major "safety
valve" by providing
a. a home for new immigrants.
b. recreational activities for its inhabitants.
c. a home for failed farmers and busted miners.
d. none of the above.
e. all of the above.
In the decades after the Civil War, most American farmers
a. became attached to their family farms.
b. diversified their crops.
c. became increasingly self-sufficient.
d. saw their numbers grow as more people moved west.
e. grew a single cash crop.
The root cause of the American farmers' problem after 1880
a. urban growth.
b. foreign competition.
c. the declining number of farms and farmers.
d. the shortage of farm machinery.
e. overproduction of agricultural goods.