The tremendously rapid growth of American cities in the post-Civil
War decades was
a. uniquely American.
b. fueled by an agricultural system suffering from poor production levels.
c. attributable to the closing of the frontier.
d. a trend that affected Europe as well.
e. a result of natural reproduction.
The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the
big cities was
a. the development of the skyscraper.
b. the availability of industrial jobs.
c. the compact nature of those large communities.
d. the advent of new housing structures known as dumbbell tenements.
e. the lure of cultural excitement.
One of the early symbols of the dawning era of consumerism in urban
a. the development of factories.
b. the Sears catalog.
c. advertising billboards.
d. public transportation systems.
e. the rise of large department stores.
Which one of the following has the least in common with the other
b. dumbbell tenements
c. bedroom communities
e. the "Lung Block"
The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880
a. had experience with democratic governments.
b. were numerous but never constituted a majority of the immigrants in any given year.
c. were culturally different from previous immigrants.
d. received a warm welcome from the Old Immigrants.
e. represented nonwhite racial groups.
Most Italian immigrants to the United States between 1880 and 1920
came to escape
a. political oppression.
c. the political disintegration of their country.
d. the military draft.
e. the poverty and slow modernization of southern Italy.
A "bird of passage" was an immigrant who
a. came to the United States to live permanently.
b. only passed through America on his or her way to Canada.
c. was unmarried.
d. came to America to work for a short time and then returned to Europe.
e. flew from job to job.
Most New Immigrants
a. eventually returned to their country of origin.
b. tried to preserve their Old Country culture in America.
c. were subjected to stringent immigration restrictions.
d. were quickly assimilated into the mainstream of American life.
e. were converted to mainstream Protestantism.
According to the social gospel,
a. workers should be content with their station in life.
b. the church should not concern itself in the social affairs of the world.
c. clergy should try to reach the socially prominent.
d. Christianity would replace socialism.
e. the lessons of Christianity should be applied to solve the problems manifest in slums and factories.
The early settlement house workers, such as Jane Addams and Florence
Kelley, helped to blaze the
professional trail for
a. language specialists.
b. social workers.
c. day-care workers.
d. criminal psychologists.
e. female politicians.
Settlement houses such as Hull House engaged in all of the following
a. child care.
b. instruction in English.
c. cultural activities.
d. instruction in socialism.
e. social reform lobbying.
The place that offered the greatest opportunities for American women
in the period 1865-1900 was
a. the big city.
b. the West.
c. suburban communities.
d. rural America.
e. New England.
In the 1890s, positions for women as secretaries, department store
clerks, and telephone operators were largely reserved for
d. the college-educated.
e. the native born.
Labor unions favored immigration restriction because most immigrants
were all of the following except
a. opposed to factory labor.
b. used as strikebreakers.
c. willing to work for lower wages.
d. difficult to unionize.
e. non-English speaking.
The American Protective Association
a. preached the social gospel that churches were obligated to protect New Immigrants.
b. was led for many years by Florence Kelley and Jane Addams.
c. supported immigration restrictions.
d. established settlement houses in several major cities in order to aid New Immigrants.
e. sought to organize mutual-aid associations.
The religious denomination that responded most favorably to the New
a. Roman Catholics.
d. Christian Scientists.
Charles Darwin's theory of evolution
a. was opposed by religious Modernists.
b. left open the question of human origins.
c. was attacked most bitterly by orator Colonel Robert Ingersoll.
d. helped to unite college teachers of biology in support of the theory of "survival of the fittest."
e. cast serious doubt on a literal interpretation of the Bible.
a. found ways to reconcile Christianity and Darwinism.
b. railed against the social philosophy of the social gospel movement.
c. tended to ignore evidence of social and economic injustice.
d. denounced the Christian Scientists and Salvation Army as "ungodly."
e. sought to do away with the Bible.
Americans offered growing support for a free public education
a. to combat the growing strength of Catholic parochial schools.
b. when the Chautauqua movement began to decline.
c. because they accepted the idea that a free government cannot function without educated citizens.
d. when private schools began to fold.
e. as a way of identifying an intellectual elite
Booker T. Washington believed that the key to political and civil
rights for African-Americans was
a. the vote.
b. rigorous academic training.
c. the rejection of accommodationist attitudes.
d. to directly challenge white supremacy.
e. economic independence.
The post-Civil War era witnessed
a. an increase in compulsory school attendance laws.
b. the collapse of the Chautauqua movement.
c. rejection of the German system of kindergartens.
d. a slow rise in the illiteracy rate.
e. an emphasis on liberal arts colleges.
As a leader of the African-American community, Booker T.
a. helped to found the National Association for the Advancement of
b. advocated social equality.
c. discovered hundreds of uses for the peanut.
d. grudgingly acquiesced to segregation.
e. promoted black political activism.
That a "talented tenth" of American blacks should lead the
race to full social and political equality with whites was the view
a. George Washington Carver.
b. Booker T. Washington.
c. Ida B. Wells.
d. W. E. B. Du Bois.
e. Paul Laurence Dunbar.
The Morrill Act of 1862
a. established women's colleges like Vassar.
b. required compulsory school attendance through high school.
c. established the modern American research university.
d. mandated racial integration in public schools.
e. granted public lands to states to support higher education.
Black leader Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois
a. demanded complete equality for African Americans.
b. established an industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama.
c. supported the goals of Booker T. Washington.
d. was an exslave who rose to fame.
e. none of the above.
In the decades after the Civil War, college education for
a. became more difficult to obtain.
b. was confined to women's colleges.
c. became much more common.
d. resulted in the passage of the Hatch Act.
e. blossomed especially in the South.
Which of the following schools became a prominent scholarly academic
institution for AfricanAmericans
in the late 1800s?
a. Howard University
b. Harvard University
c. Tuskegee Institute
d. the University of Chicago
e. Temple University
During the industrial revolution, life expectancy
b. changed very little.
c. was much higher in Europe than in the United States.
d. measurably increased.
e. rose for women more than men.
The philosophy of pragmatism maintains that
a. the logically correct formulation of a theory
b. the practical consequences of an idea
c. forgoing materialism in favor of high ideals
d. how you think, not what you do
e. knowledge is innate in the human mind
In a country hungry for news, American newspapers
a. printed hard-hitting editorials.
b. crusaded for social reform.
c. repudiated the tactics of Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst.
d. came to rely less on syndicated material.
e. became sensationalist.
Henry George found the root of social inequality and social injustice
a. stock speculators and financiers who manipulated the price of real goods and services.
b. labor unions that artificially drove up the prices of wages and therefore goods.
c. landowners who gained unearned wealth from rising land values.
d. businesspeople who gained excessive profits by exploiting workers.
e. patriarchal ideologies that regarded women as inferior domestic beings.
Henry George argued that the unearned windfall profits of those who
did not work for them should be
a. confiscated by government taxation.
b. distributed to public works through private philanthropy.
c. saved and invested for the benefit of the community.
d. looked upon as the inevitable consequence of "the survival of the fittest."
e. prevented through communal land ownership.
General Lewis Wallace's book Ben Hur
a. achieved success only after his death.
b. was based on a popular early movie.
c. emphasized that virtue, honesty, and hard work were rewarded by success.
d. detailed Wallace's experiences in the Civil War.
e. defended Christianity against Darwinism.
Match each of these late-nineteenth-century writers with the theme of
A. Lewis Wallace 1. success and honor as the products of honesty and hard work
B. Horatio Alger 2. anti-Darwinism support for the Holy Scriptures
C. Henry James 3. contemporary social problems like divorce, labor strikes and socialism
D. William Dean Howells 4. psychological realism and the dilemmas of sophisticated women.
a. A-4, B-2, C-3, D-l
b. A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4
c. A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3
d. A-3, B-4, C-I, D-2
e. A-4, B-3, C-2, D-l
American novel-writing turned from romanticism and transcendentalism
to rugged realism as a result of the
a. influence of Latin American literature.
b. impact of race relations.
c. higher educational level of the authors.
d. materialism of industrial society.
e. prominence of women writers.
The Comstock Law was intended to advance the cause of
a. racial equality.
b. public health.
d. woman suffrage.
e. sexual purity.
In the decades after the Civil War, changes in sexual attitudes and
practices were reflected in all of the following except
a. soaring divorce rates.
b. the spreading practice of birth control.
c. the fact that Americans were marrying at an earlier age.
d. increasingly frank discussion of sexual topics.
e. critiques of women's roles as mothers.
In the course of the late nineteenth century,
a. the birthrate increased.
b. the divorce rate fell.
c. family size gradually declined.
d. people tended to marry at an early age.
e. children lived longer at home.
By 1900, advocates of women's suffrage
a. argued that women's biology gave them a fundamentally different character from men.
b. temporarily abandoned the movement for the vote.
c. formed strong alliances with AfricanAmericans seeking voting rights.
d. argued that the vote would enable women to extend their roles as mothers and homemakers to the public
e. insisted on the inherent political and moral equality of men and women
One of the most important factors leading to an increased divorce
rate in the late nineteenth century was
a. decline in farm income.
b. stresses of urban life.
c. emerging feminist movement.
d. passage of more liberal divorce laws.
e. decline of religious organizations.
The National American Woman Suffrage Association
a. achieved its goal in 1898.
b. conducted an integrated campaign for equal rights.
c. abandoned the goals of Susan Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
d. elected Ida B. Wells as its president.
e. limited its membership to whites.
The subject of the Eighteenth Amendment was
a. income tax.
b. direct election of senators.
c. woman suffrage.
e. the poll tax.
The term Richardsonian in the late nineteenth century pertained
During industrialization, Americans increasingly
a. had less free time.
b. became more inefficient.
c. became less optimistic.
d. fell into the ways of lockstep living.
e. fragmented into diverse consumer markets.
The various racial and ethnic groups in large cities, though living
in different neighborhoods, shared which of the following
c. popular show business
e. all of the above
What occurrence directly spurred the abandonment of wood construction
for brick and steel in the downtown districts of most American
(a) The development of the electric elevator and skyscraper
(b) the collapse of numerous wooden tenements in New York City during the 1800s
(c) Cheaper brick-making and the replacement of iron by more durable steel for construction purposes
(d) The great Chicago fire of 1871
(e) The changing preference of architects such as Louis Sullivan toward designing steel and brick structures
All of the following characterized the new immigrants who came to the
United States from 1880 to 1990 EXCEPT
(a) some New Immigrants emigrated in response to violent religious persecutions organized by government officials and carried out by their countrymen
(b) they were subjected to discrimination and violence by nativist Americans because they practiced different religions and some were politically radical
(c) they were culturally different from previous immigrants to America
(d) they attempted to preserve their Old Country culture in America
(e) they made substantial efforts to convert Americans to Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or Judaism
What vital function did big-city political bosses and their machines perform in managing the social and economic demands of the new urban environment?
(a) They successfully lobbied state governments to pass political
ethics reform legislation to clean up the electoral process in
(b) They successfully leveraged grant money from the federal government to meet the social and economic needs of urban immigrants
(c) In exchange for political support, they provided many urban immigrants with jobs and social services that permitted these New Immigrants to raise a family, earn a livelihood and escape abject poverty
(d) They successfully lobbied state governments to provide public funds to build an extensive social services network and public housing program in the cities
(e) They allied with Protestant churches, the Republican party, and big business to provide jobs, social services, and educational opportunities to the New Immigrants
All of the following characterized the settlement-house movement led by leaders like Jane Addams, Lillian Wald, and Florence Kelley EXCEPT that it
(a) was led mostly by middle-class, reform minded women and
centered in poor immigrant neighborhoods of the city
(b) became a forerunner for the new profession of social work
(c) was motivated by the concern that the New Immigrants from eastern and southern Europe required basic education, child-rearing assistance, and learning American culture in order to assimilate successfully
(d) advocated on behalf of social reforms like antisweatshop and child-labor laws
(e) studiously avoided becoming involved in international efforts to advance worldwide peace and condemn war
Which of the following was NOT a reason that many labor unions
favored government-imposed restrictions on immigration?
(a) Union leaders were fearful of some immigrants' embrace of socialism, communism, or anarchism
(b) Immigrants were used by companies as strikebreakers
(c) Immigrants were often willing to work for lower wages and in dangerous working conditions
(d) Immigrants were sometimes difficult to unionize because of language barriers
(e) Immigrants were not willing or able to work in factory environments
Which of the following represents the best example of liberal
Protestantism's effort to accommodate religion to modern scientific
theories such as Darwinism?
(a) Attempting to demonstrate the scientific superiority of the religious beliefs of Protestantism over those of Catholicism and Judaism
(b) Utilizing Darwinism as an intellectual argument against the effort by liberal Protestant women to become members of the clergy
(c) Attempting to prove that the prayerful dogma of Christian Scientists like Mary Baker Eddy was rooted in scientific fact
(d) Proclaiming that Darwinism was an updated, authentic, and grander revelation of the ways of God
(e) Linking liberal Protestantism to theories of racial superiority and imperialistic survival-of-the-fittest political dogma
Which were the two major sources of funding for the powerful new
American research universities?
(a) Churches and numerous private individual donors
(b) State land grants and wealthy philanthropic industrialists
(c) Tuition paid by undergraduates and fees charged by those served by the universities
(d) The federal governemnt and local communities
(e) Income from successful patents and corporate research grants
What was the most important reason why Americans offered increasing
support for the establishment of a free public education
(a) Because Americans accepted the idea that a free government and a republic cannot function effectively without educated citizens
(b) Because private schools began to fold as a result of difficult economic circumstances
(c) To utilize public schools to identify an intellectual elite
(d) The decline of the Chautauqua movement
(e) To combat the growing strength and influence of Catholic parochial schools
Which statement best reflects the different approaches of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois toward black education?
(a) W.E.B. Dubois advocated that African Americans concentrate on
manual labor and technical education, while Booker T. Washington
emphasized African American access to higher education
(b) Booker T. Washington emphasized education for political action, while W.E.B. Dubois believed that black education should focus on industrial and technical education
(c) W.E.B. Dubois advocated developing separate black colleges and universities, while Booker T. Washington believed that securing access to traditionally white colleges and universities was critical to African American progress
(d) W.E.B. Dubois believed that African Americans should develop a talented tenth, while Booker T. Washington emphasized manual labor and industrial training for African Americans
(e) W.E.B. Dubois asserted that African Americans should develop separate black schools and colleges, while Booker T. Washington believed that African Americans should develop a talented tenth