The American Pageant: Chapter 24 Flashcards


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1

The vast, integrated, continental U.S. market greatly enhanced the American inclination toward

a) selling goods far away from their point of manufacture.
b) specialized goods produced by skilled labor.
c) government certification and regulation of consumer products.
d) mass manufacturing of standardized industrial products.
e) importing raw materials from overseas.

D

2

The major incentive that drove captains of industry to invent machines was

a) lucrative government grants that were offered to would-be inventors.
b) a chance to strike it rich via technological innovation.
c) that machines would enable them to replace expensive skilled workers with cheap unskilled workers.
d) that machines could do the work five times faster than humans did.
e) None of these

C

3

Which of the following was not among the technologies invented or improved by Thomas A. Edison?

a) The electric light bulb
b) The phonograph
c) The mimeograph
d) The electric dynamo
e) The motion picture

D

4

John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry except

a) employing spies.
b) extorting rebates from railroads.
c) using federal agents to break his competitors.
d) pursuing a policy of rule or ruin.
e) using high-pressure sales methods.

C

5

The South's major attraction for potential investors was

a) readily available raw materials.
b) a warm climate.
c) good transportation.
d) cheap labor.
e) ethnic diversity.

D

6

The largest southern-based monopolistic corporation was the one founded by James Duke to produce

a) steel.
b) oil.
c) textiles.
d) cigarettes.
e) Coca-Cola.

D

7

The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented a(n)

a) revival of the early American feminine ideal of republican motherhood.
b) portrayal of the modern corporate business woman.
c) exploitative image of the woman as a sex object.
d) romantic ideal of the independent and athletic new woman.
e) sentimental image of a woman as mother.

D

8

Much of the investment funds that enabled America to industrialize in the late nineteenth century came from

a) surplus wealth generated by agriculture.
b) the state governments.
c) private foreign investors.
d) individual Americans' savings.
e) the sale of confiscated Confederate land and property.

C

9

The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the

a) New York Central.
b) Northern Pacific.
c) Union Pacific.
d) Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe.
e) Great Northern.

E

10

The greatest economic consequence of the transcontinental railroad network was that it

a) spread the U.S. population across the whole continent.
b) enabled people from farms and small towns to visit the big cities.
c) united the nation into a single, integrated national market.
d) made it possible for some immigrants to settle in the West.
e) developed a skilled industrial workforce.

C

11

The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was

a) agriculture.
b) mining.
c) the steel industry.
d) electric power.
e) the railroad network.

E

12

Which of the following was not among the technological improvements that made the modern transcontinental railroad network possible?

a) Steel rails
b) Air brakes
c) Standard gauge tracks
d) The block signal
e) The caboose

E

13

The two industries that the transcontinental railroads most significantly expanded were

a) textiles and shoemaking.
b) mining and agriculture.
c) banking and real estate.
d) shipping and fishing.
e) electricity and telecommunications.

B

14

Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called

a) pools.
b) trusts.
c) rebates.
d) interlocking directorates.
e) holding companies

A

15

Which of the following was not among the common forms of corruption practiced by the wealthy railroad barons?

a) Bribing judges and state legislatures
b) Forcing their employees to buy railroad company stock
c) Providing free railroad passes to journalists and politicians
d) Watering railroad stocks and bonds in order to sell them at inflated prices
e) Receiving kickbacks from powerful shippers

B

16

In the case of Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois, the U.S. Supreme Court held that state legislatures could not regulate railroads because

a) the U.S. Constitution did not permit the government to regulate private industry.
b) the state legislatures were acting on behalf of a private interest, Illinois farmers.
c) the Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad was incorporated in Missouri, not Illinois.
d) railroad executives had committed no illegal acts in their business.
e) railroads were interstate businesses and could not be regulated by any single state.

E

17

The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the

a) Federal Trade Commission.
b) Interstate Commerce Commission.
c) Consumer Affairs Commission.
d) Federal Anti-Trust Commission.
e) Federal Communications Commission.

B

18

When Europeans owned or invested in private companies in the United States, they generally

a) appointed European managers to key positions in the company.
b) let Americans manage the business unless there was an economic crisis.
c) made American banks issue regular reports on the profitability of their companies.
d) steered most of the profits back into European investments.
e) insisted that the companies hire a portion of immigrants from the nation owning the company.

B

19

The single largest source of a critical raw material that fueled early American industrialization was the

a) copper mines of Montana and Arizona.
b) oil wells of Oklahoma and Texas.
c) lead mines of Wisconsin.
d) coal mines of Kansas and Nebraska.
e) Mesabi iron range of Minnesota

E

20

Which of the following was not among the critical U.S. raw materials, delivered by railroads to factories, that fueled early American industrialization?

a) Rubber
b) Iron
c) Coal
d) Copper
e) Oil

A

21

The American system of mass manufacture of standardized, interchangeable parts provided strong incentives for U.S. capitalists to

a) invest in training for their workforce.
b) hire American workers rather than foreign immigrants.
c) replace skilled labor with machinery.
d) build extremely large factories in dedicated industrial districts.
e) pay higher wages to retain a steady workforce.

C

22

Andrew Carnegie's system of vertical integration

a) combined all facets of an industry, from raw material to final product, within a single company.
b) created an industrial association through which member companies could wield much power.
c) embraced the notion of buying up competitors and forming a monopoly interest.
d) required smaller competitors to agree to standardized rates set by larger firms.
e) None of these

A

23

The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of

a) Jay Gould.
b) Henry Bessemer.
c) John P. Altgeld.
d) Thomas Edison.
e) Alexander Graham Bell.

B

24

To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to

a) help freedmen to work in factories.
b) incorporate big businesses.
c) allow the captains of industry to avoid paying taxes.
d) avoid corporate regulation by the states.
e) protect the civil rights of business people.

D

25

Many southerners saw employment in the textile mills as

a) high-wage positions.
b) unacceptable.
c) a poor alternative to farming.
d) institutions that broke up families.
e) the only steady jobs and wages available.

E

26

In the textiles mills of the industrializing South, all of the following are true statements except

a) rural black and white southerners landed plumb jobs in the new mills.
b) entire families worked long hours in the mills.
c) most workers were paid half the rate received by northern workers for the same tasks.
d) payment was typically made in credit to the company store.
e) workers were called "hillbillies" or "lintheads" by employers.

A

27

Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial workers were extremely vulnerable to all of the following except

a) economic swings and depressions.
b) employers' whims.
c) new educational requirements for jobs.
d) sudden unemployment.
e) illness and accident.

C

28

By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless

a) labor unions continued to decline in membership.
b) the American Federation of Labor failed to take advantage of the situation.
c) the vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor.
d) Congress declared the AFL illegal.
e) workers began to turn to the Socialist party.

C

29

The people who found fault with the captains of industry mostly argued that these men

a) had no real business ability.
b) built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers.
c) tried to take the United States back to an earlier age of aristocracy.
d) were environmentally insensitive.
e) slowed technological advances.

B

30

The United States changed to standard time zones when

a) Congress passed a law establishing this system.
b) the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could keep schedules and avoid wrecks.
c) factories demanded standard time schedules.
d) long-distance telephones required standard time coordination.
e) All of these

B

31

Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action by

a) Congress.
b) the Supreme Court.
c) private lawsuits charging unfair competition.
d) President Cleveland.
e) state legislatures.

E

32

Among the countries that provided the largest amounts of foreign capital investment in American industry were

a) Sweden, Denmark, and Norway.
b) Italy, Spain, and Greece.
c) Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.
d) Britain, France, and the Netherlands.
e) Canada and Mexico.

D

33

Two technological innovations that greatly expanded the industrial employment of women in the late nineteenth century were the

a) typewriter and the telephone.
b) electric light and the phonograph.
c) Bessemer steel process and the internal combustion engine.
d) streetcar and the bicycle.
e) electric refrigerator and stove.

A

34

One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was

a) increased competition.
b) supporting a centrally planned economy.
c) funding research on new technologies.
d) elimination of the tactic of vertical integration.
e) elimination of as much competition as possible.

E

35

John D. Rockefeller's organizational technique of horizontal integration involved

a) franchising Standard Oil gasoline stations to independent operators.
b) controlling all phases of the oil industry from drilling to commercial retailing.
c) creating standardized job assignments and fixed production and sales quotas for all employees.
d) forcing small competitors to assign stock to Standard oil or lose their business.
e) developing multiple uses for oil in transportation, lighting, and industry.

D

36

J.P. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as a(n)

a) interlocking directorates
b) trust.
c) vertical integration.
d) pool.
e) holding company.

A

37

America's first billion-dollar corporation was

a) General Electric (GE).
b) Standard Oil.
c) American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T).
d) The Union Pacific Railroad.
e) United States Steel.

E

38

The first major product of the oil industry was

a) kerosene.
b) gasoline.
c) lighter fluid.
d) natural gas.
e) heating oil.

A

39

The oil industry became a huge business

a) with the building of kerosene-fueled electric generators.
b) when the federal government granted a monopoly to Standard Oil.
c) with the invention of the internal combustion engine.
d) when diesel engines were perfected
e) when oil was discovered in Texas.

C

40

The "Gospel of Wealth" endorsed by Andrew Carnegie

a) based its theology on the teachings of Jesus.
b) held that the wealthy should display moral responsibility in the use of their God-given money.
c) stimulated efforts to help minorities.
d) was opposed by most late nineteenth century clergymen.
e) asserted that the more people prayed the better off they would become.

B

41

Although they were commonly called "Social Darwinists," advocates of economic, national, or racial "survival of the fittest" ideas actually drew less on biologist Charles Darwin than on

a) British laissez-faire economists like Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo.
b) German philosophers like G.W.F. Hegel and Friedrich Nietzsche.
c) American literary figures like Jack London and Theodore Dreiser.
d) European scientists like Gregor Mendel and Louis Pasteur.
e) racist theorists like Arthur Gobineau and Houston Stewart Chamberlain.

A

42

Believers in the doctrine of "survival of the fittest," like Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner, argued that

a) only a few large corporations were fit to survive in the industrial jungle.
b) society owed a basic standard of living to even its weakest members.
c) there should be eugenic biological breeding to produce a superior human race.
d) fitness to survive and thrive could be proven through physical competition.
e) the wealthy deserved their riches because they had demonstrated greater abilities than the poor.

E

43

The ____ Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by state governments.

a) Fifth
b) Fourteenth
c) Fifteenth
d) Sixteenth
e) Seventeenth

B

44

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act prohibited

a) companies from signing contracts without competitive bidding.
b) the federal government from favoring one business corporation over another.
c) the same corporation from doing business under different names.
d) private corporations or organizations from engaging in "combinations in restraint of trade."
e) competing companies from having interlocking corporate boards of directors.

D

45

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was at first primarily used to curb the power of

a) manufacturing corporations.
b) labor unions.
c) state legislatures.
d) railroad corporations.
e) banking syndicates.

D

46

During the age of industrialization, the South

a) took full advantage of the new economic trends.
b) received preferential treatment from the railroads.
c) turned away from agriculture.
d) held to its Old South ideology.
e) remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural.

E

47

In the late nineteenth century, tax and other benefits especially attracted ____ manufacturing to the new South.

a) textile
b) steel
c) machine tool
d) electrical appliance
e) farm equipment

A

48

One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was

a) their movement to the suburbs.
b) the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock.
c) the opportunity to relearn the ideals of Thomas Jefferson.
d) the narrowing of class divisions.
e) the encounter with other races.

B

49

The group whose lives were most dramatically altered by the new industrial age was

a) Native Americans.
b) African Americans.
c) women.
d) southerners.
e) small town residents.

C

50

Most women workers of the 1890s worked for

a) independence.
b) glamour.
c) economic necessity.
d) retirement savings.
e) personal spending money

C

51

127. Women were drawn into industry by

a) the promise of wages on par with those of men.
b) inventions like the typewriter and telephone switchboard.
c) economic downturns, which hit rural families hardest.
d) the lure of city life.
e) All of these

B

52

Reformers' efforts to raise public awareness about the hazards of child labor

a) made progress with the help of photography.
b) pertained only to native born children.
c) were focused primarily on the plight of new immigrants.
d) focused on blacklisting the most abusive companies.
e) None of these

A

53

Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor

a) labor unions.
b) corporations.
c) state regulatory agencies.
d) individual entrepreneurs.
e) independent workers and craftsmen.

B

54

In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National Labor Union won

a) an eight-hour day for all workers.
b) government arbitration for industrial disputes.
c) equal pay for women.
d) an eight-hour day for government workers.
e) the right to collective bargaining.

D

55

One group, barred from membership in the Knights of Labor, was

a) African Americans.
b) nonproducers.
c) women.
d) Irish.
e) social reformers.

B

56

The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions could be preserved from corrupt monopolies

a) when American workers achieved a greater degree of class consciousness.
b) by strengthening the economic and political independence of the workers.
c) through the destruction of the American Federation of Labor.
d) by the development of strong craft unions.
e) by forming an independent political movement.

B

57

One of the major reasons the Knights of Labor failed was its

a) racial exclusiveness.
b) support of skilled workers.
c) failure to admit women to its ranks.
d) abandonment of the concept of independent producers.
e) lack of class consciousness

E

58

The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was the

a) National Labor Union.
b) Knights of Labor.
c) American Federation of Labor.
d) Knights of Columbus.
e) Congress of Industrial Organizations.

C

59

Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism, generally concede that class-based protest has never been a powerful force in the United States because

a) most employers tried to treat their workers well.
b) few Europeans brought their political philosophies to the United States.
c) the captains of industry did not allow protest to take root.
d) many Americans inherited fortunes.
e) America has greater social mobility than Europe has.

E

60

All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion except

a) a large pool of unskilled labor.
b) an abundance of natural resources.
c) American ingenuity and inventiveness.
d) immigration restrictions.
e) a political climate favoring business.

D

61

Private railroad companies built the transcontinental rail lines by raising their own capital funds without the assistance of the federal government.

a) True

b) False

False

62

The railroads created an integrated national market, stimulated the growth in cities, and encouraged European immigration.

a) True

b) False

True

63

Railroad owners were generally fair and honest in their dealings with shippers, the government, and the public.

a) True

b) False

False

64

The early, weak federal efforts at railroad regulation did bring some order and stability to industrial competition.

a) True

b) False

True

65

The Rockefeller oil company's technique of "horizontal integration" involved combining into one organization all the phases of manufacturing from the raw material to the customer.

a) True

b) False

False

66

Rockefeller, Morgan, and others organized monopolistic trusts and "interlocking directorates" in order to consolidate business and eliminate cutthroat competition.

a) True

b) False

True

67

Corporations effectively used the Fourteenth Amendment and sympathetic court rulings to prevent much effective government regulation of their activities.

a) True

b) False

True

68

The pro-industry ideology of the "New South" enabled that region to make rapid economic gains by 1900.

a) True

b) False

False

69

Two new inventions that brought large numbers of women into the workplace were the typewriter and the telephone.

a) True

b) False

True

70

Industrialization generally gave the industrial wage earner greater status and control over his or her own life.

a) True

b) False

False

71

The impact of new machines and mass immigration held down wages and gave employers advantages in their dealings with labor.

a) True

b) False

True

72

The Knights of Labor organized skilled and unskilled workers, blacks and whites, women and men.

a) True

b) False

True

73

The Knights of Labor were severely hurt by the Haymarket Square episode, even though they had no connection with the bombing.

a) True

b) False

True

74

The American Federation of Labor tried hard but failed to organize unskilled workers, women, and blacks.

a) True

b) False

False

75

The federal government contributed to the building of the national rail network by

a) importing substantial numbers of Chinese immigrants to build the railroads
b) providing free grants of federal land to the railroad companies
c) building and operating the first transcontinental rail lines.
d) transporting the mail and other federal shipments over the rail lines.

B

76

The most efficient and public-minded of the early railroad-building industrialists was

a) Collis P. Huntington
b) Leland Stanford
c) Cornelius Vanderbilt
d) James J. Hill

D

77

The railroad most significantly stimulated American industrialization by

a) opening up the West to settlement
b) creating a single national market for raw materials and consumer goods
c) eliminating the inefficient canal system
d) inspiring greater federal investment in technical research and development

B

78

The railroad barons aroused considerable public opposition by practices such as

a) forcing Indians off their traditional hunting grounds
b) refusing to pay their employees decent wages
c) refusing to build railroad lines in less settled areas
d) stock watering and bribery of public officials

D

79

The first important federal law aimed at regulating American industry was

a) the Federal Communications Act
b) the Pure Food and Drug Act
c) the Interstate Commerce Act
d) the Federal Trade Commission

C

80

Financier J. P. Morgan exercised his economic power most effectively by

a) developing "horizontal integration" in the oil industry
b) lending money to the federal government
c) consolidating rival industries through "interlocking directorates"
d) serving as the middleman between American industrialists and foreign governments

C

81

Andrew Carnegie's industrial system of "vertical integration" involved

a) the construction of large, vertical steel factories in Pittsburgh and elsewhere
b) the cooperation between manufacturers like Andrew Carnegie and financiers like J.P. Morgan
c) the integration of diverse immigrant ethnic groups into the steel industry labor force.
d) the combination of all phases of the steel industry from mining to manufacturing into a single organization

D

82

The large trusts like Standard Oil and Swift and Armour justified their economic domination of their industries by claiming that

a) they were fundamentally concerned with serving the public interest over private profit
b) only large-scale methods of production and distribution could provide superior products at low prices
c) competition among many small firms was contrary to the law of economics
d) only large American corporations could compete with huge British and German international companies

B

83

The oil industry first thrived in the late 1880s by producing

a) natural gas and heating oil for home heating purposes
b) kerosene for oil lamps
c) gasoline for automobiles
d) heavy-duty diesel fuel for the railroads and industry

B

84

Andrew Carnegie's "Gospel of Wealth" proclaimed that

a) wealth was God's reward for hard work, while poverty resulted from laziness and immorality
b) churches needed to take a stronger stand on the economic issues of the day
c) faith in capitalist and progress should take the place once reserved for religion
d) those who acquired great wealth were morally responsible to use it for the public good

D

85

The attempt to create an industrialized "New South" in the late nineteenth century generally failed because

a) the South was discriminated against and held down as a supplier of raw materials to northern industry
b) southerners were too bitter at the Union to pursue national goals
c) continued political violence made the South an unattractive place for investment
d) there was little demand for southern products like textiles and cigarettes.

A

86

For American workers, industrialization generally meant

a) a steady, long-term decline in wages and the standard of living
b) an opportunity to create small businesses that might eventually produce large profits
c) a long-term rise in the standard of living but a loss of independence and control of work
d) a stronger sense of identification with their jobs and employers

C

87

In contrast to the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor advocated

a) uniting both skilled and unskilled workers into a single large union
b) concentrating on improving wages and hours and avoiding general social reform
c) working for black and female labor interests as well as those of white men
d) using secrecy and violence against employers.

B