A&P Chapter 13 Flashcards


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1

Which layer of protective connective tissue covers a nerve and fuses with the outer menix layer?

Epineurium

2

Sensory information travels to the brain via

Ascending tracts

3

Which structure listed contains cerebrospinal fluid?

subarachnoid space

4

Spinal nerves

1. Are part of the PNS.
2. connect the CNS to sensory receptors and effectors in all parts of the body.
3. are named according to the region of the vertebral column from which they emerge.
4. are mixed nerves.
5. only transmit sensory information.
6. only transmit motor information.

1, 2, 3, 4

5

Which statements describe dermatomes? Select all that apply.

Can be used clinically to determine area of spinal cord damage

Complete anesthesia of a single dermatome often requires blocking three adjacent spinal nerves

The dermatome serving the face is supplied by the trigeminal cranial nerve

Dermatomes are designated based on the cranial or spinal nerve that serves that area of the skin

6

Which of the following lists the connective tissue coverings of the axons, fascicles, and entire nerve in the correct order?

endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium

7
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In this diagram which portion of the spinal cord contains cell bodies and axons of interneurons as well as incoming axons of sensory neurons?

C

8
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Which of the following structures travels from the area labeled D in the diagram?

obturator nerve

9

Which of the following parts of a reflex arc would involve the posterior root ganglion?

Sensory neuron

10

Which branch of a spinal nerve serves the deep muscles and skin of the posterior surface of the trunk?

Posterior ramus

11
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If you had a rash on the anterior surface of your trunk, what labeled structure would serve the muscles and skin of that area?

H

12
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On what labeled structure would a ganglion be found?

C

13

A nerve impulse initiated at a muscle spindle has to travel through which of the following structures to enter the integrating center?

Posterior root of spinal nerve

14

When the quadriceps muscle extends the lower leg in the patella reflex, what is occurring in the motor neuron to produce an action potential?

Influx of sodium and efflux of potassium

15

In response to a muscle being stretched, a muscle spindle initiates a somatic spinal reflex that causes

1. contraction of the effector muscle.
2. relaxation of the antagonist muscle.
3. contraction of the antagonist muscle.
4. relaxation of the effector muscle.

1 and 2

16
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In this diagram, which layer is the thickest protective covering?

I

17
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In this diagram, where is the space that contains a buoyant liquid to form a hydraulic cushion that absorbs shock?

E

18

A severed obturator nerve will lead into paralysis of which region of the body?

Thigh

19

The nerves that supply the thigh and calf of leg emerge from the

lumbar enlargement

20
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A gymnast has damaged their hip flexor muscles. The nerve that innervates these muscles arise from which group of spinal nerves in this diagram?

F

21

Excitation of the quadriceps femoris group and inhibition of the hamstring group is termed _______ innervation.

reciprocal

22

Which of the following spinal nerves does not travel through an intervertebral foramen to reach its destination?

cervical spinal nerve 1

23

Which type of descending motor pathway conveys nerve impulses that originate in the cerebral cortex and allows you to use your fingers for sewing and sign language?

corticospinal tract

24
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In this diagram where are tracts located? Select all that apply.

B, D, I

25

Intercostal nerves can be described by what statements below? Select all that apply

are also known as thoracic nerves

do not enter into a plexus

directly connect to the structures they supply

26

An individual suffers a stroke and looses control over their left arm. The individual is affected with __________ paralysis.

Monoplegia

27
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In this diagram where would the medial reticulospinal tract be located?

I

28
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In this diagram, where is the avascular structure located between the subdural and subarachnoid space?

H

29
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Which of the nerves in this diagram would be involved with ‘flexing’ the chest wall to bring the ribs together?

D

30
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In this diagram which structure is the conus medullaris?

E

31

Place the reflex arc components in order from detecting a stimulus to response.

1. motor neuron
2. effector
3. sensory neuron
4. integration center
5. sensory receptor

5, 3, 4, 1, 2

32

A patient who has loss of pin prick sensation starting at the level of the nipple and downward on the right side would have a lesion in the spinal cord at which level?

T6-T7

33

Which of the following parts of a reflex arc would be represented by the contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle or the radial iris muscles?

Effector

34
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In this diagram, where is the structure that adheres to the spinal cord and brain?

G

35
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In this diagram, where would the axons of unipolar neurons be located?

C

36

An individual with shingles presents with pain and lesions in the mouth, ears, and pharynx. Which dermatomal region would be sending the afferent signals?

Trigeminal

37
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In this diagram which portion of the spinal cord contains cell bodies that regulate cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands?

F

38
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A child was in a diving accident. When brought into the emergency room, the doctor used sharp and blunt objects to determine if there was any sensation on the bottom of the foot and the lateral aspect of their palm. The child stated they could not feel the stimulus in either area. What nerves were most likely damaged?

S1 and C6

39

The area of the skin that provides sensory input to the CNS via one pair of spinal nerves is called

a dermatome.

40
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Which of the labeled structures is composed of squamous to cuboidal cells and is very vascular?

E

41

In reciprocal innervation of the tendon reflex stimulation of afferent fibers causes

excitation of antagonist muscles

42
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Which of the nerves in this diagram only have anterior and posterior rami branches and do not form plexuses?

D

43
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In this diagram which area is continuous with the 4thventricle of the brain?

G

44
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In the diagram which structure contains nerve roots that arise from the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal region of the spinal cord?

G

45

If these structures were severed, the nerve impulses from pain and stretch receptors would not reach the CNS.

posterior root of spinal nerves

46

Which statements describe the spinothalamic tract? Select all that apply

Begins in the spinal cord

Terminates in the thalamus

Carries information for pain, temperature and tickle

47
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Which plexus arises from the structure labeled B in the diagram?

brachial plexus

48

Which spinal meninges is composed of collagen fibers arranged in an irregular pattern that is very strong?

Dura mater

49

A typical spinal nerve has how many connections to the spinal cord?

2

50
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Which of the labeled structures allows doctors to safely introduce antibiotics or anesthetics and measure CSF pressure?

A

51

Which of the following parts of a reflex arc can be monosynaptic or polysynaptic?

Integrating center

52

The spinal cord ends

between L1 and L2

53

In the 400 meter relay, runners handoff the baton to the person in front of them. The second runner in the relay team had to be replaced. They were unable to pronate their forearm to reach behind for the baton because of injury to their brachial plexus. What is the most likely site of their injury?

Median nerve

54
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Which of the nerves in this diagram innervates muscles that extend the toes and if damaged results in foot drop (plantar flexion)?

F

55

Which type of descending motor pathway excites antigravity muscles in order to exert control over postural changes necessary to compensate for tilts and movements of the body?

vestibulospinal tract

56

Which are functions of the spinal reflexes that use muscle spindles and tendon organs as sensors? Select all that apply.

Awareness of muscle tension in body

Prevention of damage to muscles

Awareness of muscle length

Prevention of damage to tendons

Maintenance of muscle tone

57

Which region of the spinal cord allows a dancer to be aware of their movements and body position?

Posterior white column

58
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In this diagram where would somatic motor nuclei be located?

H

59

What parts of a neuron within a nerve is/are wrapped in a protective endoneurium?

1. Myelinated axon
2. Unmyelinated axon
3. Dendrites

Both 1 & 2

60

The ______ nerve would be involved with a dancer performing pointe (standing on their toes). Select all that apply

obturator nerve

tibial nerve

61

A patient is being examined for muscle weakness. To assess their condition, the doctor tests their knee-jerk reflex by tapping the patella tendon with a reflex hammer and tapping his lower jaw with your finger. Both pathways are considered monosynaptic. What do they have in common?

They both a two neuron pathway, sensory to motor

62
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In this diagram, where is the space that contains interstitial fluid?

F

63

Why is a spinal tap performed below L2 of the spinal cord?

The spinal meninges and spaces extend passed the proper spinal cord, allowing fluid to be withdrawn with a minimal risk of damage to the spinal cord.

64

A pupillary reflex is integrated in the brain stem so it is classified as a ________ reflex. The smooth muscle of the iris is the effector, so this is classified as a(n) ___________.

Cranial; autonomic

65

In response to a tendon being stretched excessively, a tendon organ initiates a somatic spinal reflex that causes

1. contraction of the effector muscle.
2. relaxation of the antagonist muscle.
3. contraction of the antagonist muscle.
4. relaxation of the effector muscle.

3 and 4

66
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Which of the labeled structures contains both sensory and motor axons? Select all that apply.

G & H

67

Which of the following parts of a reflex arc monitors the rectus femoris muscle stretching?

Sensory receptor

68

Which nerve innervates the muscle that abducts the arm at the shoulder and the skin overlying the deltoid?

axillary nerve

69
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Which of the labeled structures would receive injections to cause loss of sensation to control pain in childbirth?

F

70
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Christopher Reeve, a famous actor and competitive equestrian, suffered fractures to the top two vertebra and could not breathe without the help of a respirator. Which of the nerves in this diagram were likely damaged?

A

71
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In this diagram, respiratory distress can occur if damage occurs to which group of spinal nerves?

A