After birth Schwanncells
increase their presence and amount of myelination in the peripheral nervous system.
Which organelle is a common site of protein synthesis in neurons?
Which electrical signal can allow for rapid long-distance communication within the nervous system?
nerve action potential
Which of the following structures is labeled A in the diagram?
Which of the structures in this diagram would be included in a ganglion?
_____ is a neurotransmitter that is made on demand and can be used for microbial defense. ______ is a neurotransmitter that is made on demand and is used for vasodilation and special sensory recognition.
nitric oxide; carbon monoxide
Na+/K+–ATPase is considered to be an electrogenic pump because
it contributes to the negativity of the resting membrane potential.
In this diagram, which of the channels is predominantly located on sensory neurons somas and dendrites and responds to vibration, touch, and stretch?
The nervous system can distinguish between a light touch and a heavier touch because
the frequency of impulses sent to sensory centers is changing.
Which ion channelsare used in the production of electrical signals in neurons? Select all that apply
Mechanically gated channel
This type of neural circuit consists of a single presynaptic neuron synapsing with several postsynaptic neurons.
Which division of the peripheral nervous system only innervates the gastrointestinal tract’s wall?
Enteric nervous system
In an action potential, the electric current that flows is generated by the movement of ______ across the membrane.
In this diagram, which structure would be produced by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system?
During an action potential’s ___________, a second stimulus can be produced only if the stimulus is greater than the threshold stimulus. This event corresponds to the period when the __________ remain open and sodium inactivation gates have reopened.
relative refractory period; potassium voltage-gated channels
A postsynaptic neuron responds to acetylcholine neurotransmitter by creating
either EPSP or IPSP
Acetylcholine is _________ at the neuromuscular junctions and ________ at cardiac muscle in the parasympathetic pathway.
During an action potential’s ___________, a second stimulus will not produce a second action potential (no matter how strong that stimulus is). This event corresponds to the period when the __________ remain open and the sodium inactivation gates have not reopened.
absolute refractory period; voltage-gated potassium channels
Which of the labeled cells in the diagram is a neuroglial cell that produces and assists in the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid?
In this diagram, which of these types of channels contributes to more potassium diffusing down their concentration gradient compared to sodium?
In temporal summation, a single presynaptic neuron stimulates the creation of action potentials in a postsynaptic neuron when it
fires at a fast enough rate that the sum of EPSPs in the postsynaptic neuron moves above threshold.
Which part of the neuron in this diagram would be called a nerve fiber? Select all that apply.
A, D, E
Plasticity means the ability to
change based on experience.
Which of the structures in this diagram contains a higher amount of voltage-gated sodium channels where action potentials are propagated?
Which of the cells in this diagram sends electrical signals to glands, muscles and other neurons?
In this diagram, where is a node of Ranvier?
Which of these allows more potassium to exit the neuron and helps in maintaining the resting membrane potential?
Electrical excitability is seen in which cell? Select all that apply.
Manic-depressive illness is associated with
What specific type of unipolar neuron detects a sharp pain?
Which of the cells in the diagram produces a myelin sheath but lacks a neurolemma?
When a graded potential summates to threshold at the axon hillock,
voltage-gated Na+ channels open rapidly.
What events must occur for the creation of an action potential? Select all that apply.
Summation of depolarizing graded potential.
Threshold at the trigger zone.
An excitatory neurotransmitter ______ the postsynaptic membrane.
Wallerian degeneration refers to
degeneration of the distal end of axon and myelin sheath after neural injury.
Diffusion, enzymatic degradation, and uptake by cells are all ways to
remove a neurotransmitter
Which part of the neuron in this diagram produces proteins that can regenerate damaged axons in the PNS?
Which diagram represents a circuit that helps coordinated muscular activities, breathing, and short-term memory?
The neuron labeled B in this diagram would be classified as what type of functional neuron?
special senses neuron
In this diagram, which of these types of channels represents a gate that opens to a depolarizing event?
In this diagram, which structure electrically insulates the axon of a neuron to increase the speed of nerve impulse conduction?
Which of the following types of neurons is exclusively found in the cerebellum?
Hearing your cell phone ring in an quiet lecture hall is an example of which nervous system functions?
Saltatory conduction is described by which statements?
1) current passes through the entire unmyelinated axon membrane
2) current passes through a myelinated axon only at the nodes of Ranvier
3) current occurs at faster rates
4) voltage-gated channels are concentrated in unmyelinated regions
5) More energy is used to increase speed of conduction
In the process of spatial summation, _____ are added together and _____ are subtracted from that total to determine whether _____ will be created at the trigger zone of the postsynaptic neuron.
EPSPs; IPSPs; action potentials
These statements describe what part of an action potential?
• Sodium activation gates are closed
• Sodium inactivation gates are open
• Potassium gates are open
• Repolarization is occurring
Relative refractory period
During the resting state of a voltage-gated Na+channel, 1. the inactivation gate is open. 2. the activation gate is closed. 3. the channel is permeable to Na+.
both 1 and 2 are true.
Which types of membrane channels can cause an IPSP on a neuron when acetylcholine binds to the receptor? Select all that apply.
Ionotropic ligand-gated channels
Metabotropic ligand-gated channels
Which diagram represents the type of circuit commonly used to send sensory signals to multiple areas of the brain?
Which of the labeled cells in the diagram is a neuroglial cell that can be found in gray or white matter and makes contact with blood capillaries, neurons and pia mater of brain and spinal cord?
Which of the neurons is located deep in the dermis or hypodermis and detect deep pressure?
Which neurotransmitters are used in virtually all of the inhibitory synapses found in the spinal cord?
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine
Which part of the neuron in this diagram will contain voltage-gated ion channels?
Which is a function of the nervous system? Select all that apply.
Which diagram represents the type of circuit used to solve algorithms and geometry?
In the diagram, where do graded potentials occur? Select all that apply?.
All of the following statements are true for which type of cell?
• has a charge imbalance across its membrane.
• includes most cells of the body.
• exhibits a membrane potential.
inside is more negative relative to outside.
__________ open and close in response to physical deformation of receptors.
Mechanically gated channels
A depolarizing graded potential
makes the membrane less polarized.
Faster communication and synchronization are two advantages of
Which type of central nervous system tissue contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, axon terminals, and neuroglial cells?
Which diagram represents the type of circuit involved in controlling the movement of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii skeletal muscles?
Chromatolysis refers to
break up of Nissl bodies after neural injury.
With respect to neurons, the term “nerve fiber” refers to what structure? Select all that apply.
This type of neuron has one dendrite and one axon emerging from the cell body.
The motor portion of the autonomic nervous system can be divided into
sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
Which of the following types of neurons is the most common type of neuron found in the brain and spinal cord?
Which of the labeled cells in the diagram is a neuroglial cell that removes debris and acts as a phagocyte?