Herb 541 Module 2 Flashcards

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__________ excretion is a very efficient route for the elimination of small lipid-soluble compounds including certain antiseptic monoterpenes (from essential oils such as Thyme and Eucalyptus), volatile sulfur compounds in fresh Garlic, and substances that exist predominantly in a gas phase.
a. Epithelial
b. Urinary
c. Biliary
d. Respiratory

d. Respiratory


__________ is responsible for the removal of wastes and toxins including large polar compounds such as glutathione conjugates and bilirubin. It is an active excretion process that can become saturated, leading to an increasing concentration of toxins in the organ in which it occurs.
a. Biliary excretion
b. Hepatic excretion
c. Urinary excretion
d. Metabolic excretion

a. Biliary excretion


A compound that has no electric charge (is electrically neutral) is __________; a compound that has a partial charge is __________; a compound with a full negative or positive charge is __________.
a. nonpolar; covalent; ionic
b. polar; nonpolar; ionic
c. nonpolar; polar; ionized
d. covalent; polar; ionic

c. nonpolar; polar; ionized


A drug molecule is known to produce its toxic side effects by damaging certain cell membranes through the process of lipid peroxidation. This is an example of a toxic mechanism called a:
a. secondary event
b. primary event
c. tertiary event
d. molecular event

b. primary event


An immunotoxic compound which can elicit an immune system response by binding to endogenous proteins in a biological system and marking those proteins as ‘foreign’ to that system is called a/n:
a. endogen
b. cytotoxin
c. antibody
d. hapten

d. hapten


Base-pair additions and base-pair deletions are examples of DNA damage that can occur as a result of exposure to genotoxic chemicals. They result in __________ which can cause serious errors when the cell attempts to translate the DNA’s instructions for making proteins.
a. clastogenesis
b. frame shift mutations
c. aneuploidization
d. chromosomal mutations

b. frame shift mutations


Cancer is believed to be a multi-stage process requiring initiation, promotion, and progression. An example of an initiating event would be exposure to a type of carcinogen called a/n __________, which disrupts DNA function by bonding to its base-pairs.
a. cytotoxin
b. peroxisome proliferator
c. phorbol ester
d. alkylating agent

d. alkylating agent


Compounds absorbed through the skin, the lungs, or intravenous injection are not subject to __________, while those absorbed through the organs of the digestive tract are. Consequently, less of the compound may enter the bloodstream after being ingested orally than if absorbed via the skin or lungs.
a. enterohepatic recirculation
b. first-pass metabolism
c. biliary excretion
d. protein binding

b. first-pass metabolism


Lipophilic toxicants with a high lipid /water partition coefficient are often stored in _______.
a. bones
b. body fat
c. liver
d. kidney

b. body fat


Small, water-soluble molecules are most likely to be excreted through the __________ by a process of filtration, diffusion, and active transport.
a. sweat glands
b. alveoli
c. lobules
d. nephrons

d. nephrons


The __________ of a compound is calculated from a graph of the concentration of the compound in the blood plasma plotted against time. It shows how long it takes for 50% of the plasma concentration to be removed by absorption across cell membranes, metabolism, and/or excretion.
a. half-life
b. plasma kinetics
c. clearance rate
d. distribution rate

a. half-life


The irreversible process in which a cell degenerates, its proteins denature, and its nucleus fragments, is known as __________. It is accompanied by inflammation.
a. steatosis
b. necrosis
c. apoptosis
d. nucleosis

b. necrosis


The major mechanism for the absorption of xenobiotic compounds (toxins, drugs, phytochemicals, etc.) through the cell membranes is _______.
a. filtration
b. active transport
c. pinocytosis
d. simple diffusion

d. simple diffusion


The mechanism which inhibits the absorption of substances across the capillaries serving the central nervous system, relative to that of other tissues, is called __________.
a. INA (inhibition of neural absorption)
b. the blood-brain barrier
c. plasma exchange inhibition
d. the CNS polarity barrier

b. the blood-brain barrier


The repeated exposure to a compound, which can lead to the accumulation of that compound in cells such as adipocytes and to toxic effects which may not occur with only short-term dosing, is called:
a. acute exposure
b. systemic exposure
c. chronic exposure
d. cumulative exposure

c. chronic exposure


The type of immune system reaction that results when an organism becomes sensitized to a substance, and is characterized by symptoms that may include itching, hives, swelling, bronchoconstriction, or asthma, is called a/n __________.
a. cytolytic reaction
b. delayed reaction
c. anaphylactic reaction
d. cell-mediated reaction

c. anaphylactic reaction


Thickness of __________ limits absorption of toxicants through the skin. Toxicants pass this layer via __________.
a. stratum granulosum, filtration
b. stratum corneum, pinocytosis
c. stratum corneum, passive diffusion
d. epidermis, xenobiotic transporters

c. stratum corneum, passive diffusion


Which of the following is not one of the types of measurable indicators commonly used to gauge the body’s interaction with a foreign compound?
a. biomarkers of response
b. biomarkers of susceptibility
c. biomarkers of toxicity
d. biomarkers of exposure

c. biomarkers of toxicity