Chapter 22 Digestive system Flashcards

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1. An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion is

  • secretin
  • cholecystokinin
  • enteropeptidase
  • gastrin
  • gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)



2. An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is

  • secretin.
  • gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
  • enteropeptidase.
  • cholecystokinin.
  • vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).

Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)


3. The hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach is

  • enteropeptidase.
  • rennin.
  • gastrin.
  • cholecystokinin.
  • secretin.



4. Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?

  • anus
  • small intestine
  • large intestine
  • stomach
  • esophagus

Large intestine


Name the major functions of the large intestine. (Module 22.16A)

  • detoxifying alcohol and drugs, producing bile, storing bile
  • producing buffers, absorbing vitamins, and storing bile
  • producing digestive enzymes, producing acidic chyme, digesting proteins, fats and carbohydrates
  • reabsorbing water and compacting material into feces, absorbing vitamins, and storing fecal material
  • emulsifying lipids, synthesizing clotting factors, and absorbing and inactivating lipid-soluble drugs

reabsorbing water and compacting material into feces, absorbing vitamins, and storing fecal material


Which of the following descriptions is not related to cholecystokinin (CCK)?

  • increases the sensation of hunger
  • causes the gallbladder to contract and eject bile
  • causes the relaxation of the hepatopancreatic sphincter
  • accelerates the production and secretion of digestive enzymes
  • secreted when chyme enters the duodenum

Increases the sensation of hunger


What organ is primarily responsible for water absorption?

  • large intestine
  • anus
  • esophagus
  • small intestine
  • stomach

Large intestine


The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by the

  • entry of chyme into the small intestine.
  • release of cholecystokinin and secretin by the small intestine,
  • entry of food into the stomach.
  • entry of chyme into the large intestine.
  • sight, thought, or smell of food.
  1. Entry of food into the stomach


Which of the following does not enhance the absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine?

  • microvilli
  • circular folds
  • cilia
  • villi
  • intestinal movements



Mary had most of her stomach surgically removed in an effort to overcome obesity. As a result, Mary can expect to be at risk for

  • dehydration.
  • an ulcer.
  • diarrhea.
  • vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • protein malnutrition.

Vitamin B12 deficiency


Circular folds are

  • circumferential folds in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine.
  • abnormal structures formed by excessive pressure in the small intestine.
  • ridges in the wall of the stomach.
  • ridges on the external edges of the colon.
  • fingerlike projections on the surface of the mucosa of the small intestine.

Circumferential folds in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine.


A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in

  • a higher pH in the stomach during gastric digestion.
  • a lower pH in the stomach during gastric digestion.
  • increased protein digestion in the stomach.
  • decreased gastrin production.
  • decreased production of pepsinogen by chief cells.

A higher pH in the stomach during gastric digestion


The enzyme pepsin digests

  • proteins.
  • carbohydrates.
  • nucleic acids.
  • vitamins.
  • lipids.



The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum is the

  • haustrum.
  • duodenum.
  • ileum.
  • appendix.
  • jejunum.



Submucosal glands that secrete mucus are characteristic of the

  • liver.
  • pancreas.
  • ileum.
  • jejunum.
  • duodenum.



All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach except that it

  • contains gastric pits.
  • recycles bile.
  • is covered by thick, alkaline mucus.
  • is constantly being replaced.
  • has a simple columnar epithelium.

Recycles biles


Name the three pairs of salivary glands. (Module 22.19A)

  • caudate, quadrate, falciform
  • lingual, sublingual, and submandibular
  • buccal, parotid, lingual
  • sublingual, submandibular, and parotid
  • serous, mucous, and parotid



and parotid


Which of the following is false about secretions from the salivary glands?

  • help control bacterial populations in the mouth
  • help lubricate the oral cavity and its contents
  • contain enzymes for the digestion of lipids
  • contain enzymes for the digestion of carbohydrates
  • are mostly water

Contain enzymes for the digestion of lipids


Serous cells in the submandibular salivary gland secrete what substance(s)?

  • lingual lipase
  • lysozyme and salivary amylase
  • mucins and water
  • intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid
  • gastrin

Lysozyme and salivary amylase


What is the function of the gallbladder? (Module 22.20D)

  • synthesize and secrete bile
  • store glycogen and lipids
  • synthesize clotting factors
  • store fat-soluble vitamins
  • store and concentrate bile

Store and concentrate bile


Which of the following is not a function of the adult liver?

  • producing bile
  • synthesizing clotting factors
  • producing blood cells
  • synthesizing and releasing cholesterol
  • storing iron

Producing blood cells


Describe cholecystitis. (Module 22.24B)

  • Cholecystitis is inflammation of the liver.
  • Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder.
  • Cholecystitis is inflammation of the large intestine.
  • Cholecystitis is inflammation of the small intestine.
  • Cholecystitis is inflammation of the pancreas.

Cholecystokinin is inflammation of the gallbladder


All of the following enzymes are secreted by the pancreas except

  • trypsin.
  • amylase.
  • insulin.
  • chymotrypsin.
  • nuclease.



Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with digestion of

  • complex carbohydrates.
  • vitamins.
  • disaccharides.
  • fats.
  • proteins.



Which of the following describes a correct connection with the digestive system?

  • Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) is found throughout the large intestine.
  • Capillaries receive fluids delivered by lymphatic vessels.
  • The autonomic nervous system directs peristalsis of the intestines.
  • The stomach releases hormones such as pepsin and intrinsic factors that assist in digestion.
  • Newly absorbed nutrients travel first to the liver via hepatic portal artery.

The autonomic nervous system directs peristalsis of the intestines


What effects might a shortened frenulum of tongue cause? (Module 22.6D)

  • difficulty tasting spicy foods
  • difficulty tasting sweet foods
  • difficulty fighting off infections
  • difficulty eating or talking
  • difficulty trapping bacteria and other pathogens that enter the oral cavity

Difficulty eating or talking


Explain the significance of peritoneal fluid. (Module 22.9C)

  • nutrients pass from the digestive lumen into the peritoneal fluid before entering the bloodstream
  • provide a liquid medium for the intestines to be suspended in
  • gas exchange occurs in the peritoneal fluid
  • prevent friction and irritation when digestive organs move
  • hormones travel through the peritoneal fluid to their target digestive organs

Prevent friction and irritation when digestive organs move


The oral mucosa has ________ epithelium.

  • stratified columnar
  • transitional
  • simple squamous
  • pseudostratified
  • stratified squamous

Stratified squamous


Name the three main parts of a typical tooth. (Module 22.7A)

  • papilla, cortex, and medulla
  • bulb, shaft, and root
  • labia, body, and root
  • canal, cavity, and socket
  • crown, neck, and root





The functions of the oral cavity include all of the following except

  • digestion of carbohydrates.
  • mechanical processing of food.
  • absorption of monosaccharides.
  • analysis of material before swallowing.
  • lubrication.

Absorption of monosaccharides


The movement of organic molecules, electrolytes, minerals, and water across the digestive epithelium into interstitial fluid is known as

  • ingestion.
  • filtration.
  • compaction.
  • absorption.
  • peristalsis.



Chemical breakdown of materials by acid and enzymes takes place in the

  • oral cavity.
  • stomach.
  • small intestine.
  • large intestine.
  • esophagus.



The root of each tooth sits in a bony cavity known as a(n)

  • sulcus.
  • buccal.
  • ileum.
  • alveolus.
  • cement.



Starting at the mouth, identify the major organs of the digestive tract. (Module 22.1B)

  • oral cavity (mouth), teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
  • oral cavity (mouth), larynx, trachea, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, galibladder
  • oral cavity (mouth), pharynx, gallbladder, pancreas, liver, small intestine, large intestine
  • oral cavity (mouth), pharynx, larynx, trachea, stomach, small intestine, liver
  • oral cavity (mouth), pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

Oral cavity (mouth), pharynx, esophagus, stomach , small intestine, large intestine.


The ability of smooth muscle to contract over a wide range of lengths is called ________, while its normal background level of activity is known as ________.

  • extensibility; plasticity
  • electicity; spasticity
  • plasticity; tone
  • plasticity; compaction
  • elasticity; tone

Plasticity; tone


Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called

  • peristalsis.
  • churning movements.
  • segmentations.
  • pendular movements.
  • mastication.



Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract except the

  • stomach.
  • bladder.
  • pharynx.
  • colon.
  • esophagus.



Contraction of the ________ alters the shape of the intestinal lumen and moves epithelial pleats and folds.

  • mucosa
  • submucosa
  • adventitia
  • muscularis mucosa
  • submucosal plexus

Muscularis mucosa