ABO - Anatomy Flashcards


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1

Cornea

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The refractive, transparent, anterior wall of the eye, equal to 43 diopters power. It is the most important part of the focusing system of the eye and brings objects into focus on the retina.

The cornea is the fastest healing part of the body.

2

Anterior Chamber

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Front cavity or compartment of the eye, located between the cornea and iris. Contains the aqueous humor.

3

Anterior Chamber Angle

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The structure formed by the junction of the iris with the corneo-sclera. Normal fluid drainage from the eye occurs through the trabecular meshwork which lies in the chamber angle. Malfunction of the chamber angle is the cause of glaucoma (high pressure in the eye).

4

Iris

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The colored, circular membrane suspended behind the cornea and immediately
in front of the lens. The iris regulates the amount of light entering the eye by
changing the size of the pupil.

5

Pupil

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The central opening of the iris through which light is permitted to enter the eye.

6

Crystalline Lens

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A transparent, colorless body suspended in the front part of the eyeball, between
the aqueous humor and the vitreous humor. Its function is to bring light rays to a focus on the retina.

7

Ciliary Body

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A thick ring of tissue lying at the base of the iris. Its muscle fibers serve to change the curvature of the lens and thereby provide fine focusing of light onto the retina.

8

Zonules
(AKA Zonule of Zinn)

Threadlike filamentous attachments which hold the crystalline lens in place in the eye.

9

Vitreous Humor

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The clear jelly which fills the space between the lens and the retina. It helps to keep the retina intact. Eighty percent of the eye is filled with vitreous.

10

Sclera

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The sclera is tough and fibrous, protecting the interior components of the eye from injury, and makes up the exterior coating of the eye. The sclera forms the entire visible white exterior of the eye.

11

Choroid

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A spongy layer filled with blood vessels. It lies between the sclera and the retina. The choroid nourishes the outer layers of the retina.

12

Retina

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The vital thin layer of tissue composed of millions of visual cells which lines the inside back two-thirds of the eye. The retina is analogous to a film in a camera. It receives light and sends tiny electrical impulses to the brain to give sight.

13

Optic Nerve

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A cable-like structure composed of thousands of nerve fibers which carry impulses from the retina to the brain where visual perception occurs.

14

Macula

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The highly developed central zone of the retina. The macula gives critical vision for reading and discrimination small objects.

15

Optic Disc

The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. Because there are no rods or cones overlying the optic disc, it corresponds to a small blind spot in each eye.

16

Palpebra

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Eyelid. Protects the eye, helps remove foreign bodies.

17

Canthus

The angle at either end of the slit between the eyelids.

18

Cones

Light sensitive cells in the retina responsible for color vision, daytime vision, and the central portion of the visual field.

19

Rods

Specialized visual cell in the retina responsible for peripheral and night vision.

20

Conjunctiva

The clear membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the
eyeball. Microbial barrier.