Chapter 7 Microbial Genetics

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Microbiology
Chapter 7
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1

the transmission of genetic material (DNA and RNA) from an organism to its offspring

heredity

2

DNA + protein

chromosome

3

a sequence of DNA that codes for a particular trait

gene

4

basic unit of heredity

gene

5

also means location

locus

6

genes with different information at the same location

alleles

7

a permanent alternation in DNA

mutation

8

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DNA

9

Ribonucleic Acid

RNA

10

refers to the genetic information contained in the DNA of the organism

genotype

11

refers to the specific characteristics displayed by the organism

phenotype

12

linear sequence of nucleotides of DNA that form a functional unit of a chromosome or a plasmid

gene

13

information in a specific gene, found at a particular place on the chromosome or plasmid

locus

14

In what three major ways can the information in DNA be transferred?

1. DNA Replication
2. Transcription
3. Translation

15

What are the reasons we copy/replicate DNA?

growth
repair
maintenance

16

In this transferring of information in DNA, DNA produces more DNA

DNA Replication

17

in this transferring of information in DNA one strand of each DNA molecule is half old and the olther is half new

Semiconservative replication

18

governs strand assembly and proofreads

DNA polymerase

19

What do ribosomes make?

proteins

20

In this part of transferring information in DNA RNA is produced using DNA as a template

transcription

21

Refers transcription occurs in what?

viruses

22

forms ribosomes

ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

23

carries instructions to build proteins to the ribosomes (each three RNA bases specify a particular amino acid or a stop code)

messenger RNA (mRNA)

24

transfers needed amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosomes

trandfer RNA (tRNA)

25

Why do ribosomes need amino acids?

to build proteins

26

in this porption of transferring information within DNA ribosomes "read"messenger RNA and link the coded for amino acids together into proteins

translation

27

Approximately what percentage of a bacterial cell's energy is used to produce proteins?

80 to 90

28

What two causes of mutations does your book list?

1. spontaneous
2. induced

29

mutations that have no know cause

spontaneous

30

mutations caused by mutagens

induced

31

tend to increase the mutation rate above the spontaneous rate

mutagens

32

give two examples of known mutagens

radiation
some chemicals

33

something that can cause a mutation

mutagen

34

What are the two tyoes of mutations?

1. Point Mutation
2. Frameshift Mutation

35

in this type of mutation a single base is replaced and it may or may not cause problems

point mutation

36

in this type of mutation an insertion or deletion of one or more bases takes place and it always causes a problem

frameshift mutation

37

these are found in cured meat such as deli meats, hot dogs, and bacon

nitrates and nitrites

38

cancer causing

carcinogens

39

one of the first tests done on new products to see if there are mutations

Ames Test

40

The ames test uses what that can not make histidine

salmonella strain

41

Why does the ames test use a certain strain of salmonella?

it uses a strain that can not make histidine amino acids so it can't make proteins

42

What is the end result of the ames test believed to be if the new product does contain mutagens

if salmonella makes histidine right away

43

removes an amino group (-NH2) from a nitrogenous base to point mutations

deaminating agent

44

Bacteria have _______ as their genetic material

RNA

45

Which base is NOT found in DNA?

uracil

46

The first bacterium to have its genome completely sequenced was:

Haemophilus influenza

47

The process of reverse transcription creates:

DNA from RNA

48

During DNA repliction, DNA ploymerase adds nucleotides:

to the 3' end of the growing strand

49

During DNA replication, the new strand has a sequence ______ to the strand being copied

identical

50

DNA replication is termed

conservative

51

The enzyme responsible for transcription is called:

RNA polymerase

52

In prokaryotes, transcription takes place in the:

ribosomes

53

Ribosomes are made of

RNA and protein

54

tRNA is responsible for transporting _______ to the ribosome

amino acid

55

Each tRNA has a/an _______ that allows it to match up with the correct mRNA codon

DNA sequence

56

The bond that is created between amino acids is called a _______ bond

ionic

57

Repressors are molecules that inhibit:

DNA replication

58

A phenotypoe refers to the ________of an organism

expressed physical characteristics

59

A mutation that results in a change in DNA sequence, but no change in the amino acid sequence of the protein, is termed ______ mutation

silent

60

Which of the follwing can induce mutations?

base analogs
ionizinhg radiation
ultraviolent radiation

61

The Ames Test is used to test whether or not:

a chemical is mutagenic