Ch. 15

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1

phenotypic

observation of microbe's morphology, physiology, and biochemical properties

2

immunologic

analysis of antibodies

3

genotypic

analysis of DNA or RNA

4

Analyzing the chemical composition of a microbe's cell wall or membranes is a(n)____________________ method of microbial identification.

phenotypic

5

Immunological methods are used to identify microbes when microbial antigens in a patient sample are tested with _____.

antibodies of known specificity

6

Which represent advantages of genotypic methods for diagnosing infections?

  • Identifies organisms that are not easily cultured in the lab
  • Speed of obtaining results
7

Using sterile sample containers is an essential feature of the general ______ procedures used to prevent contamination during specimen

aseptic

8

Correctly match each identification technique with the correct category of identification methods
Gram stain reaction

Phenotypic Method

9

Correctly match each identification technique with the correct category of identification methods

DNA sequence analysis

Genotypic Method

10

Correctly match each identification technique with the correct category of identification methods

Antibody precipitation reaction

Immunologic Method

11

examples of phenotypic methods of identification?

  • susceptibility to tetracycline
  • enzymatic activities
  • optimal pH for growth
12

Immunological methods are used to identify microbes when a patient sample is tested for the presence of antibodies to _____.

a suspected pathogen

13

Before collecting specimens to examine for possible bacterial infection, a health care provider should first examine the patient for signs like _____.

  • wound exudate
  • abnormal lesions
  • fever
14

Performing an assay for the presence of oxidase or determining susceptibility to antibiotics are _____ methods of bacterial identification.

phenotypic

15

NOT phenotypic methods for direct examination of a specimen?

  • hybridization to probe
  • DNA sequencing
  • PCR
16

Immunological methods are used to identify microbes when microbial antigens in a patient sample are tested with _____.

antibodies of known specificity

17

Which term refers to nutrient media designed to favor the growth of certain bacteria over others?

selective media

18

Selective media should be used to enrich a patient sample for a suspected pathogen when _____

  • the normal microbiota will grow faster than the pathogen
  • the pathogen is present in small numbers
19

Nutrient media designed to discriminate between species of microorganisms based upon their appearance due to different chemical reactions are called ________ media

differential

20

Before collecting specimens to examine for possible bacterial infection, a health care provider should first examine the patient for _____.

signs like fever, wound exudate, or abnormal lesions

21

Observations of the physiological reactions of bacteria to various substrates and the actions of other enzyme products are used in

biochemical testing

22

Phenotypic methods for microbial identification include microscopic observation of ______.

Multiple select question.

  • stained specimens
  • fresh specimens
23

When a pathogen is present in small numbers or the normal microbiota will rapidly outgrow it, _____ media should be used to enrich a patient sample for the suspected pathogen.

selective

24

Media that change in appearance based on chemical reactions and discriminate between different bacterial species are called

differential media

25

Physiological reactions of bacteria to carbohydrates, gelatin, starch, and other substrates are examples of

biochemical

26

Which of the following is one of the most rapid ways of determining the general characteristics of a specimen?

Microscopic observation

27

would NOT be clinically significant in determining the presence of an infection?

  • Absence of microbes in blood
  • Isolation of small numbers of E. coli from urine sample
  • Isolation of Staphylococcus species from the skin
28

Selective media should be used to enrich a patient sample for a suspected pathogen when _____.

  • the pathogen is present in small numbers
  • the normal microbiota will grow faster than the pathogen
29

Nutrient media designed to discriminate between species of microorganisms based upon their appearance due to different chemical reactions are called

differential media

30

Testing that is based on visualization of specific antibody and antigen reactions, where the use of a known antigen can identify the presence of an unknown antibody or the use of a known antibody can identify the presence of an unknown antigen, is called

Immunological testing

31

Observations of the physiological reactions of bacteria to various substrates and the actions of other enzyme products are used in

biochemical testing

32

At the molecular level, immunologic testing involves the binding of an antibody to a specific site called the

epitope on an antigen.

33

NOT phenotypic methods for direct examination of a specimen?

  • PCR
  • DNA sequencing
  • hybridization to probe
34

Which of the following would be clinically significant in determining presence of an infection?

Presence of a few colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a sputum culture

35

immunologic testing is based on visualization of specific antibody and antigen reactions, where the use of a known antigen can identify the presence of an unknown _______ or the use of a known antibody can identify the presence of an unknown ___________________ .

anitbody

antigen