Anatomy & Physiology: CH 10- Muscle Tissue Flashcards


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1

Muscle that has a striped appearance is described as
being ________.
a. elastic
b. nonstriated
c. excitable
d. striated

striated

2

Which element is important in directly triggering
contraction?
a. sodium (Na+)
b. calcium (Ca++)
c. potassium (K+)
d. chloride (Cl-)

calcium (Ca++)

3

Which of the following properties is not common to all three muscle tissues?
a. excitability
b. the need for ATP
c. at rest, uses shielding proteins to cover actin-binding sites
d. elasticity

at rest, uses shielding proteins to cover actin-binding sites

4

The correct order for the smallest to the largest unit of organization in muscle tissue is ________.
a. fascicle, filament, muscle fiber, myofibril
b. filament, myofibril, muscle fiber, fascicle
c. muscle fiber, fascicle, filament, myofibril
d. myofibril, muscle fiber, filament, fascicle

filament, myofibril, muscle fiber, fascicle

5

Depolarization of the sarcolemma means ________.
a. the inside of the membrane has become less
negative as sodium ions accumulate
b. the outside of the membrane has become less
negative as sodium ions accumulate
c. the inside of the membrane has become more
negative as sodium ions accumulate
d. the sarcolemma has completely lost any electrical
charge

the inside of the membrane has become less
negative as sodium ions accumulate

6

In relaxed muscle, the myosin-binding site on actin is
blocked by ________.
a. titin
b. troponin
c. myoglobin
d. tropomyosin

tropomyosin

7

According to the sliding filament model, binding sites
on actin open when ________.
a. creatine phosphate levels rise
b. ATP levels rise
c. acetylcholine levels rise
d. calcium ion levels rise

calcium ion levels rise

8

The cell membrane of a muscle fiber is called
________.
a. myofibril
b. sarcolemma
c. sarcoplasm
d. myofilament

sarcolemma

9

Muscle relaxation occurs when ________.
a. calcium ions are actively transported out of the
sarcoplasmic reticulum
b. calcium ions diffuse out of the sarcoplasmic
reticulum
c. calcium ions are actively transported into the
sarcoplasmic reticulum
d. calcium ions diffuse into the sarcoplasmic
reticulum

calcium ions are actively transported into sarcoplasmic reticulum

10

During muscle contraction, the cross-bridge detaches
when ________.
a. the myosin head binds to an ADP molecule
b. the myosin head binds to an ATP molecule
c. calcium ions bind to troponin
d. calcium ions bind to actin

calcium ions bins to troponin

11

Thin and thick filaments are organized into functional
units called ________.
a. myofibrils
b. myofilaments
c. T-tubules
d. sarcomeres

sarcomeres

12

During which phase of a twitch in a muscle fiber is
tension the greatest?
a. resting phase
b. repolarization phase
c. contraction phase
d. relaxation phase

contraction phsase

13

Muscle fatigue is caused by ________.
a. buildup of ATP and lactic acid levels
b. exhaustion of energy reserves and buildup of
lactic acid levels
c. buildup of ATP and pyruvic acid levels
d. exhaustion of energy reserves and buildup of
pyruvic acid levels

exhaustion of energy reserves and buildup of lactic acid levels

14
card image

smooth

15
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Which type of muscle tissue is this?

skeletal

16
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Which type of muscle tissue is this?

cardiac

17

A sprinter would experience muscle fatigue sooner than
a marathon runner due to ________.
a. anaerobic metabolism in the muscles of the
sprinter
b. anaerobic metabolism in the muscles of the
marathon runner
c. aerobic metabolism in the muscles of the sprinter
d. glycolysis in the muscles of the marathon runner

anaerobic metabolism in the muscles of the sprinter

18

What aspect of creatine phosphate allows it to supply
energy to muscles?
a. ATPase activity
b. phosphate bonds
c. carbon bonds
d. hydrogen bonds

phosphate bonds

19

Drug X blocks ATP regeneration from ADP and
phosphate. How will muscle cells respond to this drug?
a. by absorbing ATP from the bloodstream
b. by using ADP as an energy source
c. by using glycogen as an energy source
d. none of the above

none of the above

20

The muscles of a professional sprinter are most likely
to have ________.
a. 80 percent fast-twitch muscle fibers and 20
percent slow-twitch muscle fibers
b. 20 percent fast-twitch muscle fibers and 80
percent slow-twitch muscle fibers
c. 50 percent fast-twitch muscle fibers and 50
percent slow-twitch muscle fibers
d. 40 percent fast-twitch muscle fibers and 60
percent slow-twitch muscle fibers

80 percent fast-twitch muscle fibers and 20 percent slow-twitch muscle fibers

21

The muscles of a professional marathon runner are
most likely to have ________.
a. 80 percent fast-twitch muscle fibers and 20
percent slow-twitch muscle fibers
b. 20 percent fast-twitch muscle fibers and 80
percent slow-twitch muscle fibers
c. 50 percent fast-twitch muscle fibers and 50
percent slow-twitch muscle fibers
d. 40 percent fast-twitch muscle fibers and 60
percent slow-twitch muscle fibers

20 percent fast-twitch muscle fibers and 80 percent slow-twitch muscle fibers

22

Which of the following statements is true?
a. Fast fibers have a small diameter.
b. Fast fibers contain loosely packed myofibrils.
c. Fast fibers have large glycogen reserves.
d. Fast fibers have many mitochondria.

fast fibers have large glycogen reserves.

23

Which of the following statements is false?
a. Slow fibers have a small network of capillaries.
b. Slow fibers contain the pigment myoglobin.
c. Slow fibers contain a large number of
mitochondria.
d. Slow fibers contract for extended periods

slow fibers have a small network of capillaries.

24

Cardiac muscles differ from skeletal muscles in that
they ________.
a. are striated
b. utilize aerobic metabolism
c. contain myofibrils
d. contain intercalated discs

contain intercalated discs

25

If cardiac muscle cells were prevented from undergoing
aerobic metabolism, they ultimately would ________.
a. undergo glycolysis
b. synthesize ATP
c. stop contracting
d. start contracting

stop contracting

26

Smooth muscles differ from skeletal and cardiac
muscles in that they ________.
a. lack myofibrils
b. are under voluntary control
c. lack myosin
d. lack actin

lack myofibrils

27

Which of the following statements describes smooth
muscle cells?
a. They are resistant to fatigue.
b. They have a rapid onset of contractions.
c. They cannot exhibit tetanus.
d. They primarily use anaerobic metabolism

they are resistant to fatigue

28

From which embryonic cell type does muscle tissue
develop?
a. ganglion cells
b. myotube cells
c. myoblast cells
d. satellite cells

myoblast cells

29

Which cell type helps to repair injured muscle fibers?
a. ganglion cells
b. myotube cells
c. myoblast cells
d. satellite cells

satellite cells

30

Skeletal muscle is _________

attached to tendons/bones, striated, under voluntary control, multinucleated

31

Cardiac muscle __________

forms most of the wall of the heart, striated, involuntary control, one centrally located nucleus

32

Smooth muscle

non-striated, involuntary, one centrally located nucleus, found in walls of hollow internal structures

33

The four properties of muscle tissue include___________

excitability, contractility, extensibility, and elasticity

34

excitability

ability to respond to stimuli by producing electrical signals

35

contractility

ability to contract and generate force when stimulated

36

extensibility

ability to be stretched without damaging the tissue

37

elasticity

ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension

38

Each skeletal muscle is considered an ______

organ

39

deep fascia is composed of _____

dense irregular connective tissue around muscle with similar functions

40

epimysium_____

surrounds the whole muscle

41

perimysium______

surrounds bundles (fascicles) of 10-100 muscle cells

42

endomysium______

separates individual muscle fibers

43

aponeurosis _____

a sheet-like tendon joining one muscle with another or bone; formed when all connective tissue components come together

44

Each skeletal muscle is typically supplied by ______

a nerve, artery, and two veins

45

capillaries in skeletal muscle_____

bring oxygen and nutrients and remove heat and wastes

46

How do mature muscle cells develop?

from 100 myoblasts that fuse together in the fetus

47

What fills the sarcoplasm?

myofibrils, glycogen, and myoglobin (red-colored, oxygen-binding protein)

48

The filaments of myofibrils are arranged into ______

sarcomeres

49

Four steps of contraction cycle include:

1) ATP hydrolysis 2) attachment of myosin to actin to form crossbridges 3) power stroke 4) detachment of myosin from actin

50

Four steps of nerve impulse illiciting muscle action potential

1) release of ACh 2) activation of ACh receptors 3) production of muscle action potential 4) termination of ACh activity