1. Develop skills to know when ethical issues occur
2. consider relevant APA ethics
3. determine relevant laws
4. understand other perspectives
5. generate ethical alternatives
6. monitor effectiveness
Beneficence and non-maleficence
- means to do good and avoid doing harm.
Fidelity and Responsibility
- faithfulness and avoiding conflicts of interest. Also includes consulting when necessary.
- honesty, only using deception when necessary
- strive for equal treatment
- selecting the right treatment for the individual
Respect for people's rights and dignity
- respect worth of all people
- respect people's rights (e.g. informed consent)
1.01: Misuse of Psychologist's Work
1.01 - upon learning of misrepresentation of a psychologists' work, take reasonable steps to correct or minimize misuse or misrepresentation
1.02 - Conflict between ethics and law, regulations, or other governing legal authority
1.02 - when there is conflict between ethics and law, psychologists should 1. clarify the nature of the conflict
2. make known their commitment to ethics code
3. take reasonable steps to resolve the issue
***Standard must NOT be used to violate human rights. Basically, follow rules/laws/ordinances (while trying to still follow ethics code) unless it causes harm.
1.03 - Conflicts between ethics and organizational demands
If an organization a psychologist is working for has conflicts with the ethics code, you should...
1. clarify nature of the conflict
2. make known your commitment to the ethics code
3. take reasonable steps to resolve the issue
1.04 - Informal resolution of ethical violations
If there is an ethical violation with another psychologist, you should try to resolve the issue with the psychologist if it is appropriate and will not breach confidentiality.
1.05 - Reporting ethical violations
if informal resolutions (1.04) doesn't work or is not appropriate, you can...
a. referral to state or national committee
b. refer to state licensing board
c. refer to an institutional authority
1.06 - cooperating with ethics committees
cooperate with investigations and APA requirements
1.07 - improper complaints
psychologists do not file complaints if they are unsure. The reporting psychologist is at fault if there was evidence (even if they did not know of it but could have reasonably found it) of no wrongdoing.
1.08 - Unfair Discrimination against complaints and respondents
Psychologists do not deny...
a. employment advances
...based on an ethics complaint which is still pending.
2.01 - Boundaries of Competence
**Competence is based on consultation, study, or professional experience
a. Psychologists only provide services, tech, and provide research based on their competence
b. must have diversity competence for your client or you should make appropriate referrals to those who do.
c. should have proper competence for using technology
d. if you aren't competent, but other health services are not available to your client, you may take the client but must make reasonable efforts to obtain competence
e. in new treatments without competence measures, psychologist must take reasonable steps to be competent
f. in forensic roles, psychologists must become reasonably familiar with judicial rules governing their roles.
2.02 - Providing services in emergencies
a psychologist may provide emergency services even if not competent until appropriate services are available or the emergency is over
2.03 - maintaining competence
ongoing efforts to maintain competence
2.04 - bases for scientific and professional judgements
psychologists' work is based upon established scientific and professional knowledge
2.05 - delegation of work to others
1. avoid delegating work if it could cause multiple relationships
2. only refer to those who will be competent for your client
3. watch over client after referral
2.06 - personal problems and conflicts
a. refrain from activities which will affect your work
b. if a problem does occur which conflicts with your professional life, take reasonable measures to solve the problem.
4.01 - maintaining confidentiality
protect confidential information of your clients.
4.02 - discussing the limits of confidentiality
a. discuss the relevant limits of confidentiality and the foreseeable uses of the information generate through activities
b. tell them about confidentiality limits before providing services
c. psychologists who work online explain the risks of potential leak of confidential information
4.03 - recording
obtain consent before recording
4.04 - minimizing intrusions on privacy
a. only write in reports information that is pertinent to whatever reason you're sending a report. No unnecessary information to what is being asked of you.
b. discuss confidential information only for professional purposes such as consultation.
4.05 - disclosures
a. you may disclose confidential information with the client's consent
b. you may disclose without consent IF
1. to provide necessary services
2. to obtain consultations
3. to protect someone from harm
4. to obtain payment
4.06 - Consultations
1. do not disclose identifying information
2. only disclose information important to consultation
Resolving Ethical Issues
Privacy and Confidentiality
The Virtue Drive Ethical Decision Making Model
Purpose of the Ethics Code
- Public Trust
- Hold people accountable
What is the difference between a boundary crossing and a boundary violation?
A boundary crossing is a deviation from classical therapeutic activity that is harmless, non-exploitative, and possibly supportive of the therapy itself. In contrast, a boundary violation is harmful or potentially harmful, to the patient and the therapy. It constitutes exploitation of the patient.
What do you do if someone is legally incapable of giving consent?
psychologists nevertheless provide an appropriate explanation, seek the individual’s assent, consider such persons’ preferences and best interests, and obtain appropriate permission from a legally authorized person, if such substitute consent is permitted or required by law.
Psychologists who work in environments where individuals may not be qualified to perform their duties should:
discuss their concerns with those responsible for the assignments
Dr. J works in a small, rural community in which he is the only psychologist providing mental health services. It is not always possible to avoid multiple relationships. Fried (2015) made all the following recommendations for psychologists in Dr. J's situation to help avoid unethical multiple relationships, except:
to ignore encounters in public
According to Standard 1.01, if psychologists learn of the misuse of their work, they must:
take reasonable steps to correct the misuse
Dr. G is a psychology professor at a southern university. Most of her exams are essay type exams. After the mid-term exams were graded and returned to her students, Dr. G was notified that she is being accused of harassment due to a low grade on one of the exams. Dr. G is in violation of which Standard?
Standard 3.01 requires psychologists offering therapeutic services to accept as clients all individuals who request mental health services.
Psychologists do not knowingly engage in behavior that is _____________ or ______________ to person with whom they interact in their work.
Failure to terminate treatment when it becomes clear that continuation would be harmful is a violation of Standard 3.04.
Reporting of an ethical violation committed by another psychologist should be made if:
the informal resolution has not been successful
According to Standard 1.01, if psychologists learn of ________ or _____________ of their work, they take reasonable steps to correct.
Dr. M has been hired by the courts to evaluate the actions of a psychologist who appears to have engaged in sexual relationships with a client. Under Standard 1.05, Dr. M is:
exempted from reporting requirements
The primary purpose of Standard 3.10, Informed Consent is to:
protect the self-governing and privacy rights of individuals
Dr. Lane's practice has been limited to adult clients. However, she has been asked to consider taking on younger clients. Dr. Lane should:
gain some relevant education and training in working with younger clients
If psychologists' ethical responsibilities conflict law, regulations, or other legal authority, psychologists should do all of the following, except:
must follow the law
Standard 1.05 prioritizes the protection of ________________ over the duty to report an ethical violation.
Dr. Allen's client has just informed him that she had been in an intimate relationship with another psychologist in the clinic, but that the psychologist had broken up with her. The client is very upset and has asked Dr. Allen to take action against the violating psychologist. Dr. Allen should:
report the violating psychologist
Appropriate skills for competent practice may be obtained from ______________, _______________, ___________________, or ____________________.
training, experience, consultation, or supervision
Dr. A and Dr. B, both psychologists are partners in a private practice. Dr. A has on one or two occasions patted the secretary on the shoulder when he praises her work. Dr. B hugs the secretary when she comes in to work and when he passes her will put his hand on her shoulder. Which of these actions could constitute sexual harassment?
Psychologists provide services within the boundaries of their __________________.
Professional and scientific misconduct by psychologists can do all of the following, except:
to instill client trust
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Final Rule (2013) requires professionals to:
protect health information
Under Standard 3.01, psychologists respect the __________ and ________ of all people
If a conflict between an ethical responsibility and a law or regulation cannot be resolved, Standard 1.02 permits the psychologist to:
comply with the law if it does not violate human rights
In emergencies psychologists may provide services to individuals for whom other mental health services are not available, but they should:
discontinue as soon as the emergency has ended or appropriate services are available
Sexual relationships with individuals with whom psychologists have a current professional relationship are __________ unethical.
When a psychologist wishes to implement new practices for which there is no generally agreed upon scientific or professional training, they should take reasonable steps:
to ensure competence, safety of their work and protection of their clients
Boundaries are designed to do all of the following, except:
to create a safe place
Standard 3.11 requires psychologists who deliver services to or through organizations provide information related to objectives of services, intended recipients, which individuals are clients, and limits of confidentiality. Psychologists are required to provide this information to:
client and organization
___________________________refers to information generated according to accepted principles of research practice.
Psychologist who use the internet, mobile phones, and other technology in their practice need to obtain __________ competencies related to technology.
Dr. A has just been called to testify in court. She was unaware that her work would be used in a legal setting. Under Standard 2.01f, Dr. A is responsible to
become reasonably familiar with the rules governing her role in court
_______________________ embedded within organizations and social institutions are most often the driving force behind human rights violations.
Multicultural _______________________________ is just the first step toward multicultural ethical competence.
When a psychologist becomes aware that their personal problems are interfering with their work, under Standard 2.06b they need to:
take appropriate steps to remedy the problem
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 is required legal information for which psychologists:
Conflicts of interests can extend to financial or other gains that accrue to psychologists directly or indirectly.
If psychologists learn of misuse or misrepresentation of their work, they take:
reasonable steps to correct or minimize the misuse
Standard 1.06 requires psychologists to cooperate with ethics committees. This cooperation may be limited by:
An informal resolution to an ethical violation would not be appropriate if:
substantial harm has occurred
When psychological services are court ordered, the psychologist should inform the individual of:
nature of the services, limits of confidentiality
A psychologist refrains from entering into a multiple relationship if the multiple relationship could reasonably be expected to:
impair psychologist's objectivity and performance
Sexual harassment includes all of the following, except:
verbal conduct nonsexual in nature
Under Standard 2.01b, psychologists have related obligations:
familiarity with professional and scientific knowledge, appropriate skills, knowledge when to refrain and refer
Standard 3.03 prohibits psychologists from making critical comments about a students work.
When appropriate mental health services are not available, psychologists with __________ _____________ training or experience may provide services if they make reasonable efforts to obtain competency.
Dr. James has been interviewing applicants to fill the vacancy for a psychologist on staff at the university. The current applicant had filed a sexual harassment complaint at her previous place of employment. Dr. James may:
deny her the position based on previous work reviews
Standard 2.03 requires that psychologists maintain their competency. This is accomplished through all, except:
Dr. Stevens was providing assessment services to a university disability center. The center has been sharing the results of the assessments with the students' professors without the students' consent. Dr. Stevens realizes this is a violation of the students' confidentiality. Dr. Stevens needs to do all of the following, except:
to not inform the center of the ways in which this action violates the Ethics Code
Dr. F has a client in his private practice who suffers from panic attacks. During one session, Dr. F revealed that he has in the past suffered from panic attacks in order to help the client that he is not alone in experiencing these symptoms. This self-disclosure would be considered:
Dr. G has received notice from the state ethics committee that a complaint has been filed against him. He may take all of the following steps, except:
to ignore the notice
Dr. Moore has just discovered that her secretary has leaving client files on her desk overnight. Rather than putting them back in the locked file cabinet, she leaves those she has been working on on top her desk for the next day. As this could be considered an ethical violation, particularly violation of confidentiality, Dr. Moore needs to recognize that:
she is responsible for her secretary's behavior
Dr. Franks was spending an evening out to dinner with his family. Upon reaching the restaurant they notice a crowd had gathered around an individual who was threatening to kill himself. Dr. Franks' work has been entirely in the area of disability assessment. He has no training in suicidality. In the current situation, Dr. Franks may:
provide immediate services to the suicidal individual, but also call for emergency services
A culturally competent psychologist should do all of the following, except:
to treat all clients the same no matter the culture
Sexual harassment may be ____________ or __________ conduct that is sexual in nature
When psychologists are required by law, institutional policy, or extraordinary circumstances to serve in more than one role in judicial or administrative proceedings, they need to:
clarify the role expectation
When a psychologist believes that another psychologist has committed an ethical violation, the ethical issue may be addressed in a __________________ or _____________________ manner.
Dr. James has just discovered that his colleague has been diagnosed with a terminal illness. In conversation with his colleague, Dr. James learns that his colleague has decided not to take steps to provide for his clients if he becomes incapacitated. Dr. James should:
talk to his colleague about the ethical violation
Pope and Vasquez (2007) provided recommendations for psychologists to prepare for unplanned interruptions such as sudden illness or death. Their recommendations included all of the following, except:
to create a personal will
Dr. S supervises practicum and internship students at a local mental health clinic. During the supervision time, Dr. S requires that the students balance his personal check book, clean his office, and at times collect his clothes from the laundry. Dr. S is engaging in an __________________________.
Dr. C has been providing therapy to a client for approximately six months. During this time, there has been no significant improvement in the client's symptoms. Dr. C should consider all of the following options, except:
to continue with current treatment plan
Dr. C is going through a very nasty divorce. She has been attending numerous court dates in order to deal with the ongoing divorce litigation. Through this time, she has been attempting to see her client in her private practice at their regular dates and times. Dr. C is considering whether she should accept new clients at this time. Under 2.06, Dr. C decision should:
refrain from taking on new clients if there is a substantial likelihood her personal problems will impair her competence
Psychologists take ____________________ to avoid harming their clients/patients, students, supervisees, and others with whom they work.
Dr. Jones who has a private practice working with children has been asked to provide assessment services for child custody evaluations. Dr. Jones has never performed a custody evaluation before. If he accepts this position, he will be:
practicing outside the boundaries of his competence
Dr. Brown has a new client with a psychological disorder that he has never encountered and has no training or experience in treating. He has been unable to find any trainings related to the specific disorder. According to Standard 2.01b, Dr. Brown should:
refer the client