ch 14 post lecture Flashcards


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1

A healthcare-associated infection (traditionally known as a nosocomial infection) is

acquired during the course of hospitalization.

2

Which of the following is NOT a predisposing factor of disease?

genetic background

occupation

lifestyle

climate

All of these are predisposing factors of disease.

3

Which of the following is NOT a communicable disease?

tetanus

4

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

At least one member must benefit in a symbiotic relationship.

5

Reservoirs of infections are always inanimate objects.

False

6
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7

Which of the following definitions is INCORRECT?

epidemic: a disease that is constantly present across the world

8

Testing the effectiveness of a new drug for anthrax would be best performed as an experimental study.

True

9

If a prodromal period exists for a certain disease, it should occur prior to

illness

10

Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of a

nosocomial infection.

11

Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota in that transient microbiota

are present for a relatively short time.

12

The rise in herd immunity amongst a population can be directly attributed to

vaccinations

13

A commensal bacterium

may also be an opportunistic pathogen.

14

During a six-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever ≥ 39°C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Wind blew from the northwest, and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous three years.

vehicle

15

Which of the following is classified as a latent disease?

shingles

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17

Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms

are changes felt by the patient.

18
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19

Which of the following would be an example of disease transmission via indirect contact?

A student sneezes on her test booklet. The instructor grades it and catches her cold.

20

One effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. This can result in

increased susceptibility to disease.Submit

21

Emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT

The emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of these.Submit

22

In which of the following diseases can gender be considered a viable predisposing factor?

urinary tract infectionsSubmit

23

Which of the following is NOT an example of microbial antagonism?

bacteria causing diseaseSubmit

24

During a six-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever ≥ 39°C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Wind blew from the northwest, and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous three years.

Coxiella burnetii.

25

A disease in which the causative agent remains inactive for a time before producing symptoms is referred to as

latent

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27
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28

Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is the condition specifically called when bacteria are multiplying in the blood?

septicemia

29

Which of the following is a fomite?

a hypodermic needle

30

Which one of the following does NOT contribute to the incidence of healthcare-associated infections?

gram-negative cell wallsSubmit

31

A needlestick is an example of

indirect contact transmission by fomite.

32

The major significance of Robert Koch's work is that

microorganisms cause disease.

33

Which of the following statements about biological transmission is FALSE?

Houseflies are an important vector.

34

Both normal and transient flora can become opportunistic pathogens.

True

35

Biological transmission differs from mechanical transmission in that biological transmission

involves reproduction of a pathogen in an arthropod vector prior to transmission.

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37

Focal infections initially start out as

local infections.

38

Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet infection?

botulism

39

The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called

epidemiology

40

In which of the following patterns of disease does the patient experience no signs or symptoms?

both incubation and convalescenceSubmit

41

Which of the following is an example of the symbiotic relationship known as mutualism?

E. coli within the large intestine

42

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

malaria – foodborne transmission

43

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by infection with a protozoan. In certain tropical regions, malaria is constantly present. We would say that malaria is a(n) __________ disease in these regions.

endemic

44

For a particular disease at a specific time period, morbidity rates should always be equal or greater than mortality rates.

True