American Pageant Chapter 27

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1

Imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, religiously and/or economically.

2

Yellow Journalism

sensational, biased and often false journalism. helped fuel desire for the Sp-Am War

3

The Anti-Imperialist League

organization that fought the McKinley administration's expansionist moves; included the presidents of Stanford and Harvard Universities, and novelist Mark Twain, Gompers, Carnegie, Jane Addams, and W J Bryan

4

Hawaiian annexation

(1898) intended to extend US territory into the Pacific & highlighted resulted from economic integration & rise of US as a Pacific power. Key provision spot for Ame whaling ships, fertile ground from Ame protestant missionaries and a new source of sugar cane production

5

The Influence of Sea Power Upon History

an influential treatise on naval warfare written in 1890 by Alfred Thayer Mahan. It details the role of sea power throughout history and discusses the various factors needed to support a strong navy.

6

Spanish American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

7

Splendid Little War

Nickname for Spanish American war coined by Hay, indicative of US attitude and cockiness

8

USS Maine

President McKinley sent this ship to Havana, Cuba, to protect the American citizens and property (eventually blew up and the U.S. blamed Spain)

9

Teller Amendment

U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but this amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba

10

Platt Amendment

Amendment to the Cuban constitution (passed b/c of pressure from the US) that allowed the United States to intervene in Cuba and gave the United States control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay.

11

Philippine-American War

The conflict that arose when the US tried to annex this Pacific Island chain

12

Insular cases

court cases that determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.

13

Spheres of Influence

areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China during Open Door era)

14

Open Door Policy

A policy that asked powerful and influential countries to respect Chinese rights and promote fair trade with low tariffs. This policy was accepted by other countries and prevented any country from creating a monopoly on Chinese trade.

15

Boxer Rebellion

1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops

16

Big Stick Diplomacy

Diplomatic policy developed by TR that emphasizes US power and TR's readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.

17

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

18

Xenophobia

fear of foreigners/outsiders

19

Panama Canal

Ship canal cut across the isthmus of ___ by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915.

20

Dollar Diplomacy

President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad

21

Missionary Diplomacy

Woodrow Wilson's policy contingent on the belief that it was America's responsibility and destiny to spread its institutions and values to the far corners of the globe; also called "moral diplomacy"

22

William Randolph Hearst

United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951)

23

Joseph Pulitzer

creator of the "New York World;"cut the prices so people could afford it; featured color comics and yellow journalism

24

Alfred Thayer Mahan

Captain of the U.S. Navy who was for imperialism. He thought that a bigger navy was needed to protect American ships.

25

William McKinley

25th president, Republican, Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism

26

Queen Liliuokalani

The Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests.

27

Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.

28

Teddy Roosevelt

26th President (1901-1909) Republican, Harvard Grad, youngest to be president (after McKinley died), filed anti-trust suits

29

William Howard Taft

27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.

30

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize

31

Reverend Josiah Strong

Author of "Our Country: Its possible Future and Its present crisis", summoned Americans to spread their religion and values to the "backward" peoples

32

Richard Olney

Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.

33

patting the eagle's head

British policy after the Great Rapprochement with America; Britain was determined to cultivate American friendship. Began around the start of the 20th century.

34

"twisting the lion's tail"

American tradition of acting against the British or insulting them to gain support of anti-British voting blocks such as the Irish. It persisted for about a century until the start of the 20th century, when the British began the policy of "patting the eagle's head."

35

Great Rapprochement

After decades of occasionally "twisting the lion's tail," American diplomats began to cultivate close, cordial relations with Great Britain at the end of the nineteenth century—a relationship that would intensify further during World War I.

36

Annexation

Legally adding land area to a city in the United States

37

Scorched Earth Policy

Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land

38

"Butcher" Weyler

Spanish general whose brutal tactics against Cuban rebels outraged American public opinion

39

Dupuy de Lome

He was a Spanish minister in Washington who wrote a private letter to a friend concerning President McKinley (called him basically usless and indecisive) The discovery of his letter strained Spanish-American relations, which helped initiate the Spanish-American War.

40

Admiral H. G. Rickover

figured out what happened to the Maine and that the Spanish were innocent

41

Commodore George Dewey

Followed Roosevelt's order to attack Spanish forces in the Philippines when war was declared; completely destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898; was immediately promoted to admiral, becoming the first her of the war; his victory shed light on the adjusted purpose of war with Spain from just freeing Cuba to stripping Spain of all of its colonies

42

General William R. Shafter

The commander of the American forces invading Cuba in 1898.

43

Rough Riders

Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War

44

Colonel Leonard Wood

Leader of the Rough Riders

45

Theodore Roosevelt

1858-1919. 26th President. Increased size of Navy, "Great White Fleet". Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France.

46

Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines

Americans secured this remote Pacific island from Spain after the war over Cuba. Americans had captured it earlier, before the residents even knew that there was a war going on.

47

Rudyard Kipling

British writer who wrote of "the white man's burden" and justified imperialism

48

Foraker Act of 1900

Congress accorded the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular gov't and in 1917, granted then US citizenship. Worked wonders in education, sanitation, transportation, + more

49

Insular Cases

Beginning in 1901, a badly divided Supreme Court decreed in these cases that the Constitution did not follow the flag. In other words, Puerto Ricans and Filipinos would not necessarily enjoy all American rights.

50

General Leonard Wood

set up an American military government in Cuba, that advanced government, finance, education, agriculture, and public health; helped Walter Reed attack on yellow fever

51

Dr. Walter Reed

Doctor who was the head of the Army's Yellow Fever Commission. He proved that Yellow Fever and Malaria was transmitted by Mosquitoes.

52

Benevolent Assimilation

McKinley and the U.S. were trying to assimilate the Philippines to help them become better. American dollars went to the Philippines to improve roads, sanitation, and public health. Although the U.S. might have looked intrusive, they were actually trying to improve the condition of the Philippines.

53

Secretary of State John Hay

ex-Lincoln secretary; worked to gain Open Door Notes' acceptance from the major powers

54

Mark Hanna

An industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. The campaign manager of McKinley in the 1896, in what is considered the forerunner of the modern political campaign, and subsequently became one of the most powerful members of the U.S. Senate.

55

William Jennings Bryan

United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)

56

Panama Revolution

The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.

57

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.

58

Colonel George Washington Goethals

the autocratic West Point engineer in charge of digging the Panama Canal in 1904

59

Bad Neighbor Policy

Twist on TR's policy, L. America irritated at US' imposing sphere of influence in the Caribbean Sea. Term used to refer to American policy by foreign nations when the U.S. was using military power to take over Latin American countries...

60

Russia and Japan

President Theodore Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize for helping to negotiate a peace treaty between to end their war

61

Yellow Peril

Western term for perceived threat of Japanese imperialism around 1900; met by increased Western imperialism in region

62

Gentleman's Agreement with Japan

Theodore Roosevelt convinced San Francisco School Board to integrate their Asian students and in return Japan prohibit any more emigration to the US. Ended by Immigration Act of 1924.

63

Great White Fleet

1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."

64

Root-Takahira Agreement

1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.