A&P II Chapters 20 21 and 22 Attendance Quiz 6 and 7 Unit Test 6 Northeast Mississippi Community College Flashcards


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anatomy and physiology 2 NEMCC BIO 2524
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1

Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.

too little oxygen in the atmosphere

2

Which of the choices below is NOT a role of the pleurae?

aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

3

Inspiratory capacity is:

the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

4

Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?

Emohysema

5

Intrapulmonary pressure is the:

Pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

6

Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?

C-shaped cartilage rings

7

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ____________.

Inspiratory reserve

8

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

partial pressure gradient

9

Regulatory T cells ___________.

may function in preventing autoimmune reactions

10

Which immunoglobulin class is attached to the external surface of B cells and acts as an antigen receptorf the B cell?

igD

11

Activated T cells and macrophages release to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.

Cytokines

12

Natural killer (NK) cells __________.

can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated

13

T-cell activation requires ________.

antigen binding and co-stimulation

14

Phagocyte mobilization involves ________.

mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

15

Cytotoxic t cells ___________.

are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells

16

Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________.

Haptens

17

The primary immune response __________.

has a lag B period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

18

Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except

Juvenile diabetes

19

Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?

allergic contact dermatitis

20

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?

chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing

21

Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?

red blood cells

22

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.

plasma cells

23

What is a bubo?

an infected lymph node

24

A sentinel node is ________.

the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous

25

Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?

produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid

26

Lymph capillaries are absent in all but which of the following?

digestive organs

27

Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.

Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

28

Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?

nitric oxide

29

The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.

alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

30

The nose serves all the following functions except ________.

as the direct initiator of the cough reflex

31

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is ________.

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

32

Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?

the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid

33

Which of the following counteracts the movement of bicarbonate ions from the RBC?

chloride shifting

34

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.

only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in blood

35

Gas emboli may occur because a ________.

diver holds his breath upon ascent

36

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.

Dalton's law

37

Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?

The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.

38

For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.

0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

39

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.

increase of carbon dioxide

40

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.

concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

41

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.

interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

42

The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.

surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

43

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?

internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

44

The loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.

force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

45

Select the correct statement about the pharynx.

The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.

46

Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________.

voluntary cortical control

47

Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?

number of red blood cells

48

With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________.

decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

49

Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?

the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

50

The major nonelastic source of resistance to air flow in the respiratory passageways is ________.

friction

51

Which of the following determines lung compliance?

alveolar surface tension

52

Which of the statements below does not describe antigens?

Antigens only come from microbes

53

Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?

lymphocytes

54

Select the correct statement about lymph transport.

Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

55

Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.

tonsil

56

Which of the following determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist?

Our genes

57

Antibody functions include all of the following except ________.

cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

58

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.

bone marrow

59

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.

producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

60

Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?

direct cell lysis

61

Which of the following does not contain a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?

thymus

62

Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?

transporting respiratory gases

63

Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.

B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.

64

Which of the following is not a part of the lymphatic system?

erythrocytes

65

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?

After becoming immunocompetent, the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur.

66

Which of the following cells predominate at the sites of chronic infections?

Macrophages

67

Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

68

Interferons ________.

interfere with viral replication within cells

69

The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.

lingual tonsils

70

Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________.

forming crypts that trap bacteria

71

Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.

lower extremities

72

Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?

pancreas

73

The thymus is most active during ________.

childhood

74

Which of the following is not a role of activated complement?

prevention of immediate hypersensitivity reactions

75

Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?

NK cells are a type of neutrophil.

76

Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?

composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

77

Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.

Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.

78

The antibody molecule is held together by ________ bonds.

disulfide

79
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Which structure is highlighted?

cortex

80
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Which structure is highlighted?

capsule

81
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Which structure is highlighted?

lymphoid follicle

82
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Which structure is highlighted?

medulla

83
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The highlighted structure is composed of what type of cartilage?

elastic

84
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Which two structures are connected by the highlighted muscle?

thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone

85
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Which lobe is highlighted?

inferior

86
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Which structure is highlighted?

left main bronchus

87
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Which cartilage is highlighted?

thyroid

88
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Which structure is highlighted?

lingual tonsil

89
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Which nodes are highlighted?

mesenteric

90
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Which nodes are highlighted?

iliac

91
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Which structure is highlighted?

right lymphatic duct

92
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Which structures are highlighted?

lymphatic collecting vessels

93
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Which structure is highlighted?

inferior meatus

94
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Which structure is highlighted?

palatine tonsil

95
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Which lymph nodes are highlighted?

axillary

96
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Which structure is highlighted?

rima glottidis

97
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Medulla.

D

98
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Efferent vessels.

E

99
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Cortex.

C

100
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Afferent vessels.

B

101
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Trabecula.

A

102
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Lymphatic collecting vessels.

E

103
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Axillary node.

B

104
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Cisterna chyli.

D

105
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Entrance of thoracic duct into subclavian vein.

A

106
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Thoracic duct.

C

107
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Inspiratory reserve volume.

A

108
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Tidal volume.

B

109
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Expiratory reserve volume.

C

110
card image

Residual volume

D

111
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Air that does not participate in the exchange of gases.

D

112
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Main (primary) bronchus.

D

113
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Pharynx.

A

114
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Larynx.

B

115
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Carina of trachea.

E

116
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Trachea.

C