Marriage and Family Midterm Flashcards


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1

Compared to married couples, cohabitors are all EXCEPT which of the following?

more sexually conservative

2

Scholars and advocates with a __________ perspective point to what they see as a negative cultural change accentuated by excessive individualism and self-indulgence.

family decline

3

In its original form, the double standard meant that

women should not have sex outside of marriage, but men can

4

John Alan Lee classified six

love styles

5

Consider this statement: “If I can get him/her to do what I want done, then I’ll be sure he/she loves me.” This reflects

manipulation

6

A majority of children live in __________ households.

two parent

7

Compared to 50 years ago, marriage is not as __________ to Americans.

important

8

As the age of puberty has declined, the age at marriage has ___________

risen

9

According to the text, more and more women are entering nontraditional occupations such as

the military

10

The _______ perspective argues that human physiology, genetics, and hormones predispose individuals to certain behaviors

biosocial

11

Confidence, assertiveness, and ambition can be classified as ___________ character traits

instrumental

12

The 1990s saw the emergence of a new brand of marital infidelity: adultery on the net, or _______

digital infidelity

13

___________ refers to male or female anatomy and physiology

sex

14

An emerging alternative to marriage is _______, where a couple is engaged in a long-term relationship, but each partner also maintains a separate dwelling

living apart together

15

The _______ model of sexual satisfaction explores the costs and rewards of a sexual relationship

interpersonal exchange

16

One of the most striking changes over the past several decades has been the emergence of _________ issues as political controversies

sexual and reproductive

17

By 2013 it was estimated that ________ percent of U.S. women aged 19 through 44 had ever cohabited

65%

18

Today, only about ____________ percent of American households fit the 1950s nuclear family ideal of a married couple with children, where only the husband is employed

5%

19

Statistics on women in politics highlight that women - who make up over 50% of the U.S. population - are ___________ in high government position

significantly underrepresented

20

In __________ the researcher spends extensive time with respondents and carefully records their activities, conversations, gestures, and other aspects of everyday life

naturalistic observation

21

______________ theory suggests that people tend to marry others who social currency - social class, education, physical attractiveness - is similar to their own

Exchange

22

The likelihood of divorce declines with ___________

more years of education

23

Scholars and advocates with a _________ perspective argue that we need to view the family from a historical standpoint

family change

24

A feminine expectation that has emerged over the past thirty years is that of the "__________ woman," who is independent, ambitious, and self-confident

professional

25

Regardless of the circumstances, Julie believes that nonmarital intercourse is wrong for both women and men. Julie's point of view reflects which standard of nonmarital sex?

abstinence

26

About _________ percent of Americans say that they favor legal marriage for same-sex couples

60%

27

According to the ____________ perspective, dating couples choose either to stay committed or break up by weighing the rewards of their relationships against its costs

exchange

28

Of the components of consummate love, which is the quickest to develop and the quickest to fade?

passion

29

A _____________ is a situation or place characterized by group living

commune

30

Children are _________ likely than the general population or the elderly to be living in poverty

more

31

Most mainstream pornography can be considered ________ exhibiting hatred, dislike, mistrust or general disregard for women.

misogynistic

32

Men are expected to have _________ character traits like strength, self-confidence, assertiveness, and ambition

agentic

33

Particularly among college educated women, parenthood is __________

postponed

34

Differences will arise in a satisfying long-term relationship because no two individuals

have exactly the same points of view

35

Individuals living along constitute about ___________ percent of American households

27%

36

In 1957, the total fertility rate was about 3.6 chilren per woman. For the last 25 years, it had been _________ child/children per woman

around two

37

The proportion of middle-aged cohabiters has __________ over the past two decades

increased

38

Adults with a(n) ____________ attachment style shun or evade emotional closeness

avoidant

39

What is assisted reproductive Technology (ART)

the manipulation of sperm and/or egg in the absence of sexual intercourse that may involve a third party

40

Today, women compose __________ percent of Congress

20%

41

The text cites four social factors that may encourage young people today to postpone marriage or not to marry at all. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

a rejection of marriage as an institution

42

Adults with a(n) _________ attachment style exhibit possible negative behaviors such as unwarranted jealousy or attempts to control one's partner due to "fear of abandonment"

insecure/anxious

43

Americans tend to marry people of similar race, age, education, religious background, and social class. This behavior reflects

homogamy

44

Dorothy perceives herself as being ultra-feminine, based on society's definitions of appropriate gender roles. Dorothy's perceptions are linked to her

gender identity

45

Images of men as instrumental and women as expressive are based on

white, middle-class heterosexuals

46

Contemporary sexism denies that gender discrimination persists and includes the belief that women

are asking for too much

47

According to the __________ perspective, children develop self-concepts based on feedback from those around them

interaction-constructionist

48

According to the text, over time, cohabitation has become

"mainstream"

49

The climate, soil, plants, and animals are all part of the __________ environment

natural physical-biological

50

Michael is a stay-at-home father and feels pressure from society to watch football on TV, enjoy actin movies, play basketball on the weekends, and bring home a bigger paycheck than his corporate executive wife. What is this societal pressure called?

gender expectations

51

Some adults who live with their parents have never moved out, but others - called ________ - have left home and then returned

boomerangs

52

Which of the following is true about the age at marriage today?

it is the highest recorded since the 1890 census.

53

Over __________ people are living with HIV or full-blown AIDS

1 million

54

A sense of one's sexual identity begins in __________

childhood

55

According to the text, women full-time employees earn _________ percent of what employed men do

79%

56

Arranged marriage has been the tradition in _________ societies, where decisions are made based on strong extended family ties

collectivist

57

Which major advance in the 1960s made sexual activity more widespread?

birth control pill

58

Representative samples (like Gallup polls) are important to family survey research because the results can be _______ to the national population of the sample

generalized

59

warmth, sensitivity, tenderness, and placing concern about others' welfare above self-interest can be classified as ________ character traits

expressive

60

research suggest several qualities to look for when choosing a spouse. Which of the following is NOT one of those qualities?

a physically attractive, healthy person

61

In all couple types - gay, lesbian, heterosexual cohabitants, and married couples - within each group, sexual satisfaction was associated with

general relationship satisfaction

62

In 2014, ____________ percent of young adults aged 18-24 lived with their parents

more than 50%

63

Adults with a(n) __________ attachment style are inclined to trust that their relationships will provide ongoing emotional support

secure

64

Cohabiting couples are ___________ as likely as marrieds to be interracial

twice

65

____________ are the most likely of all ethnic/racial categories to intermarry

American Indians

66

Individuals living alone now make up ___________ percent of U.S. households

27%

67

Psychologist Robert Sternberg proposed a ________ theory of love

triangular

68

According to the wheel of love theory, there are four stages in the development of love. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

erotic

69

Research finds that black couples prefer more role _________ and power sharing than whites

flexibility

70

In Robert Sternberg's typology, ___________ love is composed of all three dimensions of his theory

consummate

71

Women ________ men in the proportion of the population who are college graduates

surpass

72

In much of the world, particularly in parts of Asia and Africa that are less Westernized, parents have traditionally ____________ their children's marriages

arranged

73

A relative absence of assertiveness and ambition characterizes our expectations of women, who are thought to embody ____________ character traits

expressive

74

Family researches will often generate a ___________, or "educated guess" about the way things are, based on their theoretical orientation

hyposthesis

75

Many households containing grandparents are _________ family households, which include other relatives besides parents and children

extended

76

AIDS was first identified in what year?

1981

77

Family togetherness, stability, and loyalty are all examples of

familistic (communal) values

78

In 2011, nearly __________ percent of cohabiting couples lived with children under 18 - either their own or those from a previous relationship or marriage

40%

79

Exchange theory stresses the importance of _________ in family relationships

how family members use their resources to trade with other family members

80

IN 1967, in the case of Loving v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme court ruled that

interracial marriage must be considered legally valid in all states

81

The process by which society influences members to internalize attitudes and expectations is called

socialization

82

The text reports that, after age, ___________ was the second largest predictor of sexual frequency

marital satisfaction

83

the child population of the U.S. is __________ racially and ethnically diverse than the adult population

more

84

About ___________ percent of all American children are expected to live in a single-parent household at some point in their lives

25%

85

Children receive most of their sexual knowledge _________

at home from mothers and female family members

86

Social scientist Ira Reiss has proposed what he calls a "_____________ theory" of love

wheel

87

Almost __________ percent of young adults say they believe in "one true love"

75%

88

More than _________________ of all nonmarital births occur to cohabiting couples

half

89

The Census Bureau uses which of the following terms to describe a person or a group of people residing together?

household

90

In the 1950s, the nonmarital pregnancy rate was ___________ in comparison with today

much lower

91

Propinquity is also known as

geographic availability

92

Jane married a man from her own social group. Her marital behavior illustrates

endogamy

93

Of the components of consummate love, which is the most gradual to develop?

commitment

94

A legally or policy-defined relationship between two individuals who live together and share a domestic life but are not married is called a

domestic partnership

95

in the exchange perspective, what a person expects out of a relationship is referred to as

comparison level

96

A person who believed in the "family-decline" theory might say the following

"There has been a serious breakdown in marriage and family values."