Pathophysiology - E-Book: Ch 27-29, 31, 33 Flashcards


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Pathophysiology - E-Book
Chapters 27-29, 31, 33
updated 2 years ago by Coffeequ33n
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pathophysiology, medical, physiology, pathology
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1

It is true that polycystic kidney disease is

genetically transmitted.

2

What reproductive tract disorder is most likely to be associated with urinary stress incontinence?

Cystocele

3

The condition characterized by oliguria and hematuria is

acute glomerulonephritis

4

The patient reports persistent pelvic pain and urinary frequency and urgency. She says the pain improves when she empties her bladder. She does not have a fever and her repeated urinalyses over the past months have been normal, although she has a history of frequent bladder infections. She also has a history of fibromyalgia and hypothyroidism. Based on her history and complaints, her symptoms are characteristic of

interstitial cystitis.

5

The most common type of renal stone is

calcium

6

The normal post-void residual urine in the bladder is

less than 100 mL.

7

A patient with renal disease is at risk for developing uremia as the nephrons progressively deteriorate, because

GFR declines.

8

The most common cause of ischemic acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in the United States is

sepsis

9

Detrusor muscle overactivity can be improved by administration of

botulinum toxin.

10

Anemia in people who have end-stage chronic renal disease is caused by

decreased secretion of erythropoietin.

11

If acute tubular necrosis (ATN) does not resolve and continued tubular dysfunction ensues, the patient will then experience

polyuria and sodium wasting.

12

What problem is a patient likely to experience in end-stage renal disease?

Uremia

13

Vesicoureteral reflux is associated with

recurrent cystitis.

14

A patient being treated for acute tubular necrosis (ATN) develops mild polyuria. The nurse responds to questions about why this occurring by stating

“His renal tubules are recovering, so he is making more urine, but he is not able to concentrate urine well, because he is not fully recovered.”

15

The most helpful laboratory value in monitoring the progression of declining renal function is

serum creatinine.

16

The majority of penile cancer cases are classified as basal cell carcinoma.

False

17

A 52-year-old female had a surgical procedure in which the breast, lymphatics, and underlying muscle were removed. The procedure performed was a

radical mastectomy

18

One of the most frequent causes of chronic kidney disease is

hypertension.

19

Infection by ________ accounts for nearly half of all reported cases of vulvovaginitis.

Candida albicans

20

The infection frequently associated with development of postinfectious acute glomerulonephritis is

throat infection.

21

The individual at highest risk of pyelonephritis who requires monitoring for signs of its occurrence is the

man who has chronic urinary tract infections.

22

Renal insufficiency occurs when _____ of the nephrons are not functional.

75% to 90%

23

The disorder characterized by a neurologic lesion that affects bladder control is

neurogenic bladder

24

Sudden, severe testicular pain is indicative of

testicular torsion

25

A primary laboratory finding in end-stage chronic renal disease is

increased serum creatinine.

26

Nephrotic syndrome does not usually cause

hematuria

27

Glomerular disorders include

nephrotic syndrome.

28

Which condition is caused by a genetic defect?

Polycystic kidney disease

29

The defining characteristic of severe acute kidney injury is

oliguria.

30

A patient, age 3, has vesicoureteral reflux. “Why does that make him have so many bladder infections?” asks his mother. The nurse’s best response is

“When he urinates, urine runs back toward his kidneys and then into the bladder again, making it easy for bacteria to grow if they reach the bladder.”

31

The oliguric phase of acute tubular necrosis is characterized by

fluid excess and electrolyte imbalance.

32

The urea-splitting bacteria contribute to the formation of ________ kidney stones.

struvite

33

The difference between stress incontinence and urge incontinence is that stress incontinence

is caused by a pelvic floor muscle problem, whereas urge incontinence is caused by a problem with the detrusor muscle

34

Gastrointestinal drainage, perioperative and postoperative hypotension, and hemorrhage may all contribute to renal failure by causing

acute tubular necrosis.

35

The main clinical manifestation of a kidney stone obstructing the ureter is

renal colic.

36

The most frequent initial symptom of bladder cancer is

hematuria.

37

The most common types of uterine tumors are known as

leiomyomas

38

Sexual impotence is rarely because of

primary causes

39

Hypotension is both a cause of chronic kidney disease and a result of chronic kidney disease.

False

40

Scrotal pain in males and labial pain in females may accompany renal pain as a result of

associated dermatomes

41

The patient most at risk for postrenal acute kidney injury is a(n)

elderly patient with hypertrophy of the prostate.

42

A person is unaware that his bladder is full of urine, but complains that he is leaking urine almost constantly. The most accurate term for this type of incontinence is

overflow.

43

The risk for contrast media-induced acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is highest in

a 70-year-old patient with heart failure.

44

It is true that fibrocystic breast disease

may be exacerbated by methylxanthines

45

Nephrotic syndrome involves loss of large amounts of ________ in the urine

protein

46

The direct cause of stress incontinence is

pelvic muscle weakness.

47

The most common cause of urinary obstruction in male newborns and infants is urethral valves.

True

48

Cryptorchidism is

associated with an increased incidence of testicular cancer.

49

Calcium oxylate stone formation is facilitated by

hypercalciuria.

50

Uterine prolapse is caused by a relaxation of the

cardinal ligaments

51

The condition associated with end-stage chronic renal disease that is the most immediately life threatening is

hyperkalemia.

52

The urinalysis finding most indicative of cystitis includes the presence of

nitrites.

53

A change occurring in a pregnant woman that is indicative of a potential disorder is

increased urinary protein.

54

Endometriosis is a condition in which

ectopic endometrial tissue is present

55

Excessive vomiting in pregnant women is known as

hyperemesis gravidarum.

56

The effect on the renal tubules during the postoliguric phase of acute tubular necrosis involves

regeneration of the renal tubular epithelium.

57

Postrenal acute kidney injury may be caused by

bilateral kidney stones.

58

A patient who reported a very painful sore throat 3 weeks ago is now diagnosed with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. When asked, "Why is my urine the color of coffee?", the nurse responds

"Your immune system was activated by your sore throat and has caused some damage in your kidneys that allows red blood cells to leak into the fluid that becomes urine and make it coffee-colored."

59

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is caused by

absent or diminished levels of progesterone

60

The pathophysiologic basis of acute glomerulonephritis is

an immune complex reaction

61

A major modifiable risk factor for nephrolithiasis is

dehydration

62

The greatest risk factor for bladder cancer is

smoking.

63

A patient diagnosed with a micropenis must be evaluated for

endocrine disorders.

64

Appropriate therapy for prerenal kidney injury includes

fluid administration

65

The most common agent resulting in nephrotoxicity and subsequent acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in hospitalized patients is

contrast media.

66

A ureterocele is

a cystic dilation of a ureter.

67

The major cause of glomerulonephritis is

immune system damage to the glomeruli.

68

Pelvic floor muscle training is appropriate for

urge incontinence.

69

Treatment of a uterine prolapse may involve the insertion of a(n) ________ to hold the uterus in place.

pessary.

70

A patient who has difficulty walking without assistance is incontinent of urine when help doesn’t get to her quickly enough. The term for this type of incontinence is

functional.

71

The direct cause of stress incontinence is

pelvic muscle weakness

72

The most common sign/symptom of renal calculi is

pain

73

Cervical cancer can be detected in the early, curable stage by the ________ test.

Papanicolaou

74

Signs consistent with a diagnosis of glomerulonephritis include

proteinuria.

75

Urinary retention with consistent or intermittent dribbling of urine is called

overflow incontinence

76

Osteoporosis commonly occurs in patients with end-stage renal disease because of

hyperparathyroidism

77

The most common cause of urinary obstruction in male newborns and infants is urethral valves.

true

78

A breast lump that is painless, hard, and unmoving is most likely

carcinoma

79

The condition in which the urethra opens on the dorsal aspect of the penis is known as

epispadias

80

The condition characterized by oliguria and hematuria is

acute glomerulonephritis

81

A common component of renal calculi is

calcium.