A&P H A2 Flashcards


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1

Skin responsible for finger prints?

Dermal papillae

2

What type of synovia joint is the elbow?

Hinge

3

Where is blood produced in infants after birth?

Red bone marrow

4

What structure is a ball and socket joint?

Shoulder

5

What are macromolecules genetic code carried on?

Nucleotide

6

What cavity of heart has the thickest wall?

Left ventricle

7

What are like cells grouped together called?

Tissue

8

Which type of skin cancer can be recognized in lesion character based on the ABCD rule?

Melanoma

9

What contributes phagocytes in white blood cells?

Lysosomes

macrophages

neutrophils

10

Which organ is part of male reproductive system and urinary system?

Urethra

11

Which structure regulates the transport substances in and out of the cell?

Cell Membrane

12

What is function of thrombocytes?

Blood clot

13

Which bones are formed by intramembranous ossification?

Flat bones of skull

14

Where does digestive begin in digestive system?

Oral cavity

15

Urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs are found in which cavity?

Pelvic

16

Which anatomic structure houses the malleus, incus, and stapes?

Ear

17

Anaerobic respiratory can lead to a burning sensation caused by which molecules?

Lactic Acid

18

What do ceruminous gland secretes?

Ear wax

19

Which muscle of quadriceps famous group lies on the side surface of lower extremity?

Vastus Lateralis

20

Which structure is located on sternum?

Xiphoid bone

21

Which of the following hormones decreases the concentration of blood glucose?

insulin

22

Which structure controls the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland?

hypothalamus

23

How much of a female’s blood volume is composed of red blood cells?

40%

24

Which type of cholesterol is considered to be the best for health?

HDL

25

Where are the vocal cords located?

larynx

26

Where does gas exchange occur in the human body?

alveoli

27

What mineral is responsible for muscle contractions?

Calcium

28

In which of the following locations would the urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs be found?

Pelvic cavity

29

What separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity?

Diaphragm

30

Which of the following epithelial types is correctly matched with its major function?

Simple columnar epithelium—secretion or absorption

31

A tissue examined under the microscope exhibits the following characteristics: cells found on internal surface of stomach, no extracellular matrix, cells tall and thin, no blood vessels in the tissue. What type of tissue is this?

Epithelial

32

Nerve tissue is composed of neurons and connective tissue cells that are referred to as which of the following?

Neuroglia

33

Which tissue serves as the framework of the body by providing support and structure for the organs?

Connective

34

What is the basic unit of life and the building block of tissues and organs?

Cell

35

What is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli called?

External respiration

36

In order for inhalation to occur, what must happen?

Contraction of the diaphragm, which enlarges the chest cavity and draws air into the lungs

37

Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood does which of the following?

It is converted to bicarbonate ions by carbonic anhydrase within red blood cells

38

How does the trachea remain open like a hollow tube?

Supporting cartilaginous rings keep it open.

39

The stomach muscle churns and mixes food, turning the mass into a soupy substance called which of the following?

Chyme

40

Which type of cell division takes place in the gonads?

Meiosis

41

In what area of the body would you expect to find an especially thick stratum corneum?

Heel of the foot

42

Which of the following proteins is produced by cartilage?

collagen

43

Which component of the nervous system is responsible for lowering the heart rate?

parasympathetic nervous system

44

Which type of substance breaks down to form urea?

protein

45

What is the name for a joint that can only move in two directions?

hinge

46

In which of the following muscle types are the filaments arranged in a disorderly
manner?

smooth

47

What are the glands of skin that produce a thin, watery secretion?

Eccrine glands

48

Skin aids in maintaining the calcium and phosphate levels of the body by participating in the production of which of the following?

Vitamin D

49

Which of the following are functions of the skeletal system? (Select all that apply.)
A. Support the body
B. Hemopoiesis
C. Conduct impulses
D. Provide protection

A. Support the body
B. Hemopoiesis
D. Provide protection

50

The orthopedic surgeon informs you that you have broken the middle region of the humerus. What is he describing?

Diaphysis

51

You have been given a sample of tissue that has open spaces partially filled by an
assemblage of needlelike structures. What is the tissue?

Spongy bone

52

The heart has an intrinsic beat that is initiated by which of the following?

Sinoatrial node

53

Vasodilation and vasoconstriction result from which of the following?

Relaxation and contraction of smooth muscle in the arterial wall

54

Which of the following is the blood vessel where exchanges take place between blood and the cells of the body?

Capillary

55

What is the function of aldosterone?

It conserves sodium in the body.

56

All the nutrients that enter the hepatic portal vein are routed where for decontamination?

Liver

57

Which of the following bones is the only moveable bone of the skull?

Mandible

58

Which mineral is responsible for regulating fluid in the body?

Sodium

59

Why are skeletal muscles also called voluntary muscles?

They are under conscious control.

60

All actions of the nervous system depend on the transmission of nerve impulses over which of the following?

Neurons

61

Motor or neurons transmit nerve impulses away from the CNS

Efferent

62

Jeffery has contracted bulbar poliomyelitis, and it has affected the medulla oblongata. The doctors warned the family that his condition is grave and death may be imminent. What functions of the medulla oblongata have warranted such a dire prognosis?

The medulla oblongata contains vital centers that control heart action, blood vessel diameter, and respiration.

63

What are chemical messengers that control growth, differentiation, and the metabolism of specific target cells called?

Hormones

64

Which of the following are tropic hormones? (Select all that apply.)
A. Somatotropin
B. Follicle-stimulating hormone
C. Antidiuretic hormone
D. Thyroid-stimulating hormone

A. Somatotropin
B. Follicle-stimulating hormone
D. Thyroid-stimulating hormone

65

Which leukocytes are correctly matched with their function or description? (Select all that apply.)
A. Monocytes—become macrophages
B. Basophils—the most common type of WBC
C. Lymphocytes—important in immune response
D. Neutrophils—phagocytize microorganisms

A. Monocytes—become macrophages
C. Lymphocytes—important in immune response
D. Neutrophils—phagocytize microorganisms

66

Which are the functional units of the kidney?

Nephrons

67

What are the two functions of the male and female sex organs?

Production of gametes and production of hormones

68

In men, spermatozoa develop within the _______ of each testis.

Seminiferous tubules

69

Testicular activity is under the control of which hormone(s)?

Both FSH and LH

70

Which hormone initiates the preparation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy?

Estrogen

71

During pregnancy, what organ produces the hormones that maintain the endometrium and prepare the breasts for milk production?

Placenta

72

What is the name of the structure that prevents food from entering the airway?

epiglottis

73

Which substance makes up the pads that provide support between the vertebrae?

cartilage

74

How many different types of tissue are there in the human body?

four

75

What is the name of the outermost layer of skin?

epidermis

76

Which hormone stimulates milk production in the breasts during lactation?

prolactin

77

Which of the following structures has the lowest blood pressure?

vein

78

Which of the heart chambers is the most muscular?

left ventricle

79

Which part of the brain interprets sensory information?

cerebrum

80

How much air does an adult inhale in an average breath?

500 mL

81

Which type of cell secretes antibodies?

plasma cells

82

Which force motivates filtration in the kidneys?

blood pressure

83

Which structure of the nervous system carries action potential in the direction of a
synapse?

axon

84

Where is the parathyroid gland located?

neck

85

What is the name of the process in the lungs by which oxygen is transported from the air to the blood?

diffusion

86

What are the chemical substances that prevent a sharp change in the pH of a fluid
when an acid or a base is added to it

Buffer

87

What do T-lymphocytes do?

Defend the body against microbes

88

Which structure produces T-lymphocytes?

Thymus

89

Which structure produces B-lymphocytes?

Red bone marrow

90

What is the function of Eustachian tube?

Equilibrates pressure between the middle ear and external environment

91

What physiological response occurs when epinephrine and non-ephedrine

Blood is directed toward the heart, skeletal muscles and brain

92

Which of the following is a structure found in the upper respiratory system?

Pharynx(throat). It includes nose (nostrils), nasal cavity, mouth, and larynx
(voice box).

93

The structure in the lower Respiratory System includes:

Trachea, primary bronchi and lungs

94

Calcaneus is located in what part of the body?

Foot

95

Dorsiflexion plantar flexion are types of joint movement that are associated with
which part of the body?

Foot

96

A person who has damage to their ulnar nerve will have decreased sensation in which area?

Arm – inability to abduct hands and fingers

97

The ankle ____ is to the knee

distal

98

Posterior means what part of the body?

The back

99

Which bones are located in the forearm?

Ulna and Radius

100

Which bone dose not articulate with any other bone?

Hyoid – is a U-shape bone in the neck that supports the tongue

101

Which of the following elements is necessary for muscle contraction?

Calcium

102

Diet is important because bone are storage places for?

Calcium and phosphorous

103

What female reproductive organ produces oocytes, estrogen, progesterone?

Ovaries

104

Which layer of the cutaneous membrane are nerve endings located

Where is the nerve ending close to the skin?

Dermis

105

Which bones are formed first by intramembrous ossification?

Flat bones of skull

106

Ligaments provides with connection?

Bone to bone

Tendon -muscle to bone

107

Sprain occurs when there is a tear in which structure?

Ligament muscle/ankle/shoulder

108

Why are tendons and ligament most likely to be slow in healing following an injury?

Lack of blood supply/because these connective tissues are avascular.

109

Compact tissue with Haversian canals is classified as what type of tissue?

Bone

110

What structure conducts urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder?

The tube between kidney and urinary bladder)
Ureter

111

As part of the negative feedback system, which type of cell is stimulated to resorb
bone matrix in response to a decrease in calcium in the blood?

Osteoclasts

112

Sweat on the skin's surface cools the body through which process?

Evaporation

113

A Client has large pituitary tumor. The nurse knows that this tumor exists in which
part of the body?

Head hurt, sickness, low blood pressure

114

Which anatomical structure houses the malleus, incus, and stapes?

Skull ear

115

Ceruminous glands secrete

Ear wax/ Cerumen

116

What is the function of the Sebaceous gland?

To produce sebum or oil

117

The nurse explains to a client that the stomach is lined by which type of membrane?

Mucous {The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that secret
mucus}

118

The mediastinum is located within which cavity?

Thoracic

119

What effects do serotonin has on neurotransmitters?

Involved with mood, sleep, appetite and anxiety

120

What does antidiuretic hormone act on?

Helps to control blood pressure by acting on the kidneys and the blood
vessels. /Regulates and balances the amount of water in the body

121

The occipital region is located in which part of the body?

Head (at the back)/ lower part of the cranium

122

In white blood cells what contributes to phagocytosis?

Macrophages, neutrophils

123

Thrombocytes (platelets)

smallest type of blood cell important for blood clotting.
When bleeding occurs it swell, clump together and form sticky plug that helps stop the bleeding.

124

Which blood element carries oxygen

Erythrocytes (Red blood cells)

125

Which structure carries oxygen to the cells?

Hemoglobin

126

Blood cell formation

Hemopoiesis {Blood cells is also called hematopoietic cell,
hemocyte or hematocyte. The three main types of blood cells are Platelets
(thrombocytes), Red blood cells (erythrocytes) and White blood cells (leukocytes) -
basophil, neutrophil, eosinophil, lymphocytes and monocytes}.

127

Which gland is commonly known as the "Master Gland"?

Pituitary Gland

128

What epidermal derivative is involved in temperature homeostasis?

Eccrine gland- regulates temperature

129

Which statement are true about bone?

Osteoblast, epiphyseal, diaphysis

130

What internal structure of the ear is concerned with hearing?

Cochlea

131

Which structure of the gastrointestinal tract controls the movement of content from small intestine to the large intestine?

Ileocecal valve

132

What are the divisional regions of the large intestine (colon)?

Cecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon.

(cecum-ascending-transverse-descending-sigmoid colons)

133

Where in the human body are nutrients absorbed?

Small intestine (Small intestine is made up of three segment – Duodenum,
Jejunum, and ileum).

134

Ossification begins during what?

Embryonic development

135

Fertilization occurs in the?

Oviduct

136

. Fertilization of an ovum occurs in which anatomical structure?

Fallopian tubes

137

Which term is used to describe the waist bones/area?

Carpal

138

An over-production of cerumen (earwax) can accumulate in which area?

External ear canals

139

The mitral value is located between which two structures?

Left ventricle & Left atrium (Tricuspid – right ventricle and right atrium)

140

The olfactory nerves are associate in which sense?

Smell

141

Which of the special senses respond to chemical?

Taste and olfaction

142

Which vessel brings blood from the lungs to the heart?

Pulmonary vein

143

What vessel carries blood from the body to the heart?

Vena cava

144

Which hormone(s) is/are produced by the ovaries?

Estrogen & progesterone (Men – Estrogen and testosterone)

145

Two principles divisions that makeup nervous system?

Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

146

The orthopedic surgeon informs you that you have broken the distal region of the
humerus. What area is he describing?

Epiphysis

147

Which term is used to describe movement of the arms and legs away from midline of the body?

Abduction- arm away from the body (Adduction- arm towards the body’s
midline)

148

Which part of the body do you check for carotid pulse

Structure provides a pulse reading in the neck?

Carotid Artery

149

What is the primary function of the hemoglobin (blood)?

Carry oxygen

150

What stimulates the chemoreceptors to function?

rise in CO2; Fall in O2 (increase in blood pressure)

151

Which condition causes a client to say "I can't see far away"?

Nearsightedness

152

What organ produces insulin?

Pancreas

153

When drawing blood from antecubital region which blood vessel is used to obtain
blood?

Brachial vein (Median cubital)

154

What hormone induces growth of pubic and axillary hair at puberty?

Testosterone and estrogen

155

Increase in rate of depth of breath results in what blood PH change?

Alkalosis

156

What is the function of the hypothalamus?

(Regulate body temperature)
Regulate function of body, balance and thermoregulatory

157

The passive movement of molecules or particles along a concentrated gradient or
from a region of higher concentration to a lower concentration is called

Diffusion /
Filtration is the process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane or
capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure

158

High levels of which ion would most likely result in a cardiac arrest?

Potassium

159

What blood vessel perfuses the kidney?

Renal vein

160

The skin is the largest organ of the body. What gives the skin its color?

Melanin

161

What is the outer most protective layer of the skin?

Epidermis

(the inner layer of the skin is dermis- composed of fibrous
connective tissue with blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, hair follicles and
glands)

162

The organ of corti is located in?

Ear

163

The rough endoplasmic reticulum functions in the human cell to?

Synthesize proteins

164

Tissue repair is enhanced by a diet high in?

Protein

165

What is the definition of chyme?

Partly digested food! The result of action by the stomach. (the thick, wet mass
of partly digested food that leaves the stomach)

166

What are hormones?

Chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands that controls or
coordinates the activities of other tissues

167

What cellular process helps to move debris and mucous through the lining of tubules?

Cilia

(An epithelial cell that other goes circle of movement is cilia)

168

Which is a hollow organ?

Gall bladder (heart, stomach)

169

Which muscle is included in the quadriceps femoris group?

Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus medialis, Vastus intermedius

170

Which of the following location would the urinary bladder & internal reproductive
organ be found?

Pelvic region/cavity

171

Which part of the brain attaches to spinal cord?

Medulla oblongata

172

Which structure is responsible for normal respiratory function?

Medulla oblongata – it controls breathing

173

T4 is controlled by what?

Thyroid

174

What gland is located on the anterior surface of the trachea?

Thyroid Gland

175

Function of ADH

reabsorption of water

176

Which hormone is produced by the posterior pituitary gland?

ADH and Oxytocin

177

Which hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary gland?

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) {also includes – TSH, LH, ACTH,
Growth Hormone and PRL}

178

What female hormone stimulate the development of Graafian follicles?

FSH

179

What occurs when the sympathetic nervous system is stimulation is increased?

Blood pressure rises, goose bumps

180

What part of the body is the buttock- dorsal. / The buttock is on which surface of the body?

Posterior body surface

181

The esophagus is located in which body cavity?

Thoracic

182

The tympanic membrane is located between which structures?

External auditory canal and middle ear

183

What is the end result of meiosis?

23 chromosomes

184

How many days is the average menstrual cycle?

28 days

185

Urinary system in the human body primary task is to?

Expel waste

186

What is the function of the phrenic nerve?

Innervates the diaphragm

187

What does vitamin D do to the skin?

Vitamin D contributes to skin cell growth,
repair, and metabolism.

188

Which of the following produce progesterone to prepare the uterus for pregnancy?

Corpus luteum

189

Which antibodies are found in the plasma of type A blood?

Anti B

190

Which antibodies are found in the plasma of type AB blood?

Neither A or B

191

What encloses the heart?

Pericardium

192

Where is the tibialis anterior muscle located?

Lower leg

193

How many carb per gram do carbohydrates contain?

4

194

Where is the pulmonary ossification center located?

Diaphysis

195

Which of the following best describes a capillary?

Location for gas and nutrient exchange

196

Which one increases angle at the joint?

Extensor

197

What are the four basic tissue types?

Connective, Epithelium, Nervous, Muscle.

198

Order of organization of living things:

Organelle, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms,
populations, communities, ecosystem, and biosphere

199

What is the function of aldosterone in the kidneys, when it is secreted?

It conserves sodium in the body

200

What does lymphatic system do?

Filter lymph, remove debris.

201

What structure of the eye picks out color?

Retina

202

What is the transparent portion of the fibrous layer of the eye?

Cornea

203

The basic unit of life and the building block of tissue/organism

Cell

204

The study of tissues/cells –

Histology

205

What characteristic best describe dermis?

Structure and strength

206

Osteoblast –

Cells that form compact bone

207

broken humerus adolescent: classified as a

Proximal fracture or a shaft fracture.

208

The enzymes that regulates all chemical reactions within the body –

Proteins

209

chemical messengers that control the growth, differentiation, and
metabolism of specific target cells

Hormones

210

Causes of ear infection in children?

It is the length of the Eustachian tube. (Kids have shorter Eustachian tube).

211

Herpes is a viral infection usually characterized by

Skin eruption

212

Function of trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles?

Warm and moisten air before it enters the lungs

213

Which subdivision of autonomic nervous system operates using the
neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine?

Sympathetic Nervous System

214

transmit nerve impulses toward the CNS

Sensory neurons (afferent)

215

neurons transmit nerve impulses away from d CNS
towards the organs such as muscles, glands, &digestive organs

Motor (efferent)

216

What part of the male reproduction produce most of the semen?

Seminal Vesicle

217

Produce most of the sperm

Seminiferous Tubules

218

It is very cold… shivering? What muscle is involved?

Skeletal muscle