Holt Psychology: Chapter 6 Learning - Vocabulary Quiz Flashcards


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Holt Psychology
Chapter 6
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9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade
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1

stimulus

a feature in the environment that is detected by an organism or that leads to a change in behavior

2

response

an observable reaction to a stimulus

3

conditioning

a type of learning that involves stimulus-response connections, in which the response is conditional on the stimulus

4

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit an unconditioned response when that neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that normally causes an unconditioned response

5

unconditioned response

in classical conditioning, an unlearned response

6

unconditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits an unlearned, naturally occurring response

7

conditioned response

a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

8

conditioned stimulus

a previously neutral stimulus that, because of pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, now causes a conditioned response

9

taste aversion

a type of classical conditioning in which a previously desirable or neutral food comes to be perceived as repugnant because it is associated with negative stimulation

10

extinction

in classical conditioning, the disappearance of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus no longer follows a conditioned stimulus

11

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after some time has passed

12

generalization

the tendency to respond in the same way to stimuli that have similar characteristics

13

discrimination

in classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish the conditioned stimulus from other stimuli that are similar

14

flooding

based on the principles of classical conditioning, a fear-reduction technique that involves exposing the individual to a harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguished

15

systematic desensitization

a type of counterconditioning, used to treat phobias, in which a pleasant, relaxed state is associated with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli

16

counterconditioning

a therapy procedure based on classical conditioning that replaces a negative response to a stimulus with a positive response

17

operant conditioning

learning that is strengthened when behavior is followed by positive reinforcement

18

reinforcement

a stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the frequency of that response

19

primary reinforcers

stimuli, such as food or warmth, that have reinforcement value without learning

20

secondary reinforcers

stimuli that increase the probability of a response because of their association with a primary reinforcer

21

positive reinforcers

encouraging stimuli that increase the frequency of a behavior when they are presented

22

schedule of reinforcement

a timetable for when and how often reinforcement for a particular behavior occurs

23

continuous reinforcement

the reinforcement of a desired response every time it occurs

24

partial reinforcement

a type of conditioned learning in which only some of the responses are reinforced

25

shaping

in operant conditioning, a procedure in which reinforcement guides behavior toward closer approximations of the desired goal

26

latent learning

learning that occurs but remains hidden until there is a need to use it

27

observational learning

learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others