Chap 3 cell A+p

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1

The three major parts of a cell

Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus

2

Cell death that is genetically programmed is known as [a], while cell death which is due to tissue injury is known as [b].

Specified Answer for: a apoptosis
Specified Answer for: b necrosis

3

[a] are special DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes and whose erosion contribues to cellular aging and death.

telomeres

4

The mRNA base sequence that is complementary to the DNA base sequence ATC would be [a].

UAG

5

T/F
A small membrane surface area will increase the rate of diffusion across the cell membrane. Correct

Answer: False
Response Feedback:
A LARGE membrane surface area will increase the rate of diffusion across the cell membrane. A small surface area will DECREASE the rate of diffusion...

6

T/F
The cells created during meiosis are genetically different fromt he original cell.

true

7

T/F
An important and abundant active mechanism that helps maintain cellular tonicity is the sodium/potassium ATPase pump.

true

8

If the concentration of solutes int he ECF and ICF are equal, the cells is in a(n) __________________ solution.

isotonic

9

Which membrane protein is incorrectly matched with its function?

carrier: allows cells to recognize each other and foreign cells.

10

Place the following steps in protein synthesis in the correct order.

__. protein detaches from ribosome when ribosome reaches stop codon on mRNA
__. binding of mRNA to a ribosome's small subunit
__. transcription of a segment of DNA onto mRNA
__. large and small ribosomal subunits join to
__. anticodons of tRNA bind to codons of mRNA
__. amino acids joined by peptide bonds
__. detachment of RNA polymerase after reaching terminator
__. attachment of RNA polymerase at promotor
__. modification of newly synthesized pre-mRNA by snRNPs before leaving the nucleus and entering the cytoplasm
__. initiator tRNA binds to start codon on mRNA
create a functional ribosome
__. specific amino acids attach to tRNA

Correct Order

1. attachment of RNA polymerase at promotor
2. transcription of a segment of DNA onto mRNA
3. detachment of RNA polymerase after reaching terminator
4. modification of newly synthesized pre-mRNA by snRNPs before leaving the nucleus and entering the cytoplasm
5. binding of mRNA to a ribosome's small subunit
6. initiator tRNA binds to start codon on mRNA
7. large and small ribosomal subunits join to create a functional ribosome
8. specific amino acids attach to tRNA
9. anticodons of tRNA bind to codons of mRNA
10. amino acids joined by peptide bonds
11. protein detaches from ribosome when ribosome reaches stop codon on mRNA

11

Which of the following organelles function primarily in decomposition reactions? (1) ribosomes (2) proteasomes (3) lysosomes (4) centrosomes (5) peroxisomes.

2, 3, and 5

12

Which of the following statements regarding the nucleus are TRUE? (1) Nucleoli within the nucleus are the sites of ribosome synthesis. (2) The nucleus contains the cell's hereditary units (3) The nuclear membrane is a solid, impermeable membrane (4) Protein synthesis occurs within the nucleus. (5) In nondividing cells, DNA is found in the nucleus in the form of chromatin.

1, 2, and 5

13

Match the following terms of cell division with their definitions.

prophase, meiosis, cytokinesis, mitosis, metaphase, telophase, , interphase, anaphase

________________ somatic cell division resulting in the formation of two identical cells

________________ reproductive cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes by half

________________ stage when chromatin fibers condense and shorten to form chromosomes

________________ stage when centromeres of chromatid pairs line up at the center of the mitotic spindle

________________ stage when centromeres split and sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell

________________ stage when chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin

________________ cytoplasmic division

________________ stage of cell division when replication of DNA occurs

Correct Matching

mitosis--somatic cell division resulting in the formation of two identical cells

meiosis--reproductive cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes by half

prophase--stage when chromatin fibers condense and shorten to form chromosomes

metaphase--stage when centromeres of chromatid pairs line up at the center of the mitotic spindle

anaphase--stage when centromeres split and sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell

telophase--stage when chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin

cytokinesis--cytoplasmic division

interphase--stage of cell division when replication of DNA occurs

14

Match the following organelles with their descriptions.

ribosomes, centrosome, cytoskeleton, rough ER, Golgi complex, lysosomes, mitochondria, peroxisomes, smooth ER, cilia, proteasomes, vesicles, flagellum

_________________. network of protein filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm, providing cellular shape, organization, and movement.

_________________. an organizing center for growth of the mitotic spindle

_________________. sites of protein synthesis

_________________. site where secretory proteins and membrane molecules are synthesized.

_________________. functions in synthesizing fatty acids and steroids, helping liver cells release glucose into the blood-stream, and detoxification.

_________________. modifies, sorts, packages, and transports molecules synthesized in the rough ER

_________________. membrane-enclosed vesicles formed int he Golgi complex that contain strong hydrolytic and digestive enzymes.

________________. membrane-enclosed vesicles that contain enzymes that oxidize various organic substances.

________________. function in ATP generation

________________. short microtubular structures extending from the plasma membrane and involved in movement of materials along the cell's surface.

________________. long microtubular structure extending from the plasma membrane and involved in movement of a cell.

________________. contain enzymes that break apart unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins into small peptides

________________. membrane-bound sacs that transport, transfer, or secrete proteins

Correct Answer for Matching Organelles

cytoskeleton--network of protein filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm, providing cellular shape, organization, and movement.

centrosome--an organizing center for growth of the mitotic spindle

ribosomes--sites of protein synthesis

rough ER--site where secretory proteins and membrane molecules are synthesized.

smooth ER--functions in synthesizing fatty acids and steroids, helping liver cells release glucose into the blood-stream, and detoxification.

Golgi complex--modifies, sorts, packages, and transports molecules synthesized int he rough ER

lysosomes--membrane-enclosed vesicles formed int he Golgi complex that contain strong hydrolytic and digestive enzymes.

peroxisomes--membrane-enclosed vesicles that contain enzymes that oxidize various organic substances.

mitochondria--function in ATP generation

cilia--short microtubular structures extending from the plasma membrane and involved in movement of materials along the cell's surface.

flagellum--long microtubular structure extending from the plasma membrane and involved in movement of a cell.

proteasomes--contain enzymes that break apart unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins into small peptides

vesicles--membrane-bound sacs that transport, transfer, or secrete proteins

15

Match the following types of movement through a membrane with their descriptions.

facilitated diffusion, osmosis, diffusion, receptor-mediated endocytosis, transcytosis, vesicular transport, exocytosis, phagocytosis, primary active transport, secondary active transport, pinocytosis

_________________. the random mixing of particles in a solution due to the kinetic energy of the particles; substances move from high to low concentrations until equilibrium is reached.

_________________. movement of water fom an area of higher to an area of lower water concnetration through a selectively permeable membrane.

_________________. passive transport in which a solute binds to a specific transporter on one side of the membrane and is released on the other side.

_________________. uses energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP to change the shape of a transporter protein, which "pumps" a substance across a cellular membrane against its concentration gradient.

__________________. indirectly uses energy obtained fromt eh breakdown of ATP; involves symporters and antiporters.

__________________. transport of substances either into or out of the cell by means of small, spherical membranous sac formed by budding off from existing membranes.

__________________. type of endocytosis in which large solid particles are taken in.

__________________. type of endocytosis that involves the nonselective uptake of tiny droplets of extracellular fluid

__________________. movement of materials out of the cell by fusing of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane

_________________. process that allows a cell to take specific ligands fromt he ECF by forming vesicles

__________________. vesicular movement involving endocytosis on one side of a cell and subsequent exocytosis on the opposite side of the cell.

Correct Answer for types of movement through a membrane

diffusion--the random mixing of particles in a solution due to the kinetic energy of the particles; substances move from high to low concentrations until equilibrium is reached.

osmosis--movement of water fom an area of higher to an area of lower water concnetration through a selectively permeable membrane.

facilitated diffusion--passive transport in which a solute binds to a specific transporter on one side of the membrane and is released on the other side.

primary active transport--uses energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP to change the shape of a transporter protein, which "pumps" a substance across a cellular membrane against its concentration gradient.

secondary active transport--indirectly uses energy obtained fromt eh breakdown of ATP; involves symporters and antiporters.

vesicular transport--transport of substances either into or out of the cell by means of small, spherical membranous sac formed by budding off from existing membranes.

phagocytosis--type of endocytosis in which large solid particles are taken in.

pinocytosis--type of endocytosis that involves the nonselective uptake of tiny droplets of extracellular fluid

exocytosis--movement of materials out of the cell by fusing of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane

receptor-mediated endocytosis--process that allows a cell to take specific ligands fromt he ECF by forming vesicles

transcytosis--vesicular movement involving endocytosis on one side of a cell and subsequent exocytosis on the opposite side of the cell.