Chapter 7 MC

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1
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The neural processes that convey incoming messages toward the cell body are indicated by ________.

A) Label H

B) Label G

C) Label A

D) Label F

E) Label B

C

2
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The metabolic center of the neuron is indicated by ________.

A) Label D

B) Label F

C) Label A

D) Label H

E) Label I

A

3
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The axon terminals are indicated by ________.

A) Label I

B) Label G

C) Label B

D) Label A

E) Label C

E

4
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The axon is indicated by ________.

A) Label B

B) Label F

C) Label H

D) Label I

E) Label A

A

5
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The gaps between Schwann cells are indicated by ________.

A) Label D

B) Label H

C) Label B

D) Label F

E) Label A

B

6
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The nucleus of the neuron is indicated by ________.

A) Label E

B) Label I

C) Label A

D) Label B

E) Label F

A

7

The nervous system is structurally subdivided into two systems: ________ nervous system and ________ nervous system.

A) central; peripheral

B) somatic; autonomic

C) parasympathetic; sympathetic

D) autonomic; sympathetic

A

8

____ cells form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers in the PNS.

A) Satellite

B) Ependymal

C) Schwann

D) Nerve

C

9

Support cells in the central nervous system are collectively called ________.

A) myelin sheaths

B) neuroglia

C) oligodendrocytes

D) microglia

B

10

The part of the neuron that typically conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body is the ________.

A) dendrite

B) cell body

C) synaptic cleft

D) axon

D

11

The gaps between Schwann cells found at regular intervals in peripheral system neurons are called ________.

A) synaptic clefts

B) axon terminals

C) nodes of Ranvier

D) myelin sheaths

C

12

Sensory receptors located in muscles and tendons are termed ________.

A) Meissner's corpuscles

B) proprioceptors

C) lamellar corpuscles

D) association neurons

B

13

Bundles of nerve fibers (neuron processes) running through the CNS are called ________, whereas in the PNS they are called ________.

A) tracts; nerves

B) gray matter; white matter

C) axons; dendrites

D) afferent neurons; efferent neurons

A

14

The cell bodies of the ________ neurons are always located within the CNS.

A) proprioceptor

B) afferent

C) motor

D) sensory

C

15

Myelinated fibers (tracts) form ________ matter while unmyelinated fibers form ________ matter.

A) sensory; motor

B) gray; white

C) motor; sensory

D) white; gray

D

16

_______ connect sensory and motor neurons in neural pathways and their cell bodies are typically located in the central nervous system.

A) Interneurons (association neurons)

B) Afferent

C) Efferent

D) Proprioceptors

A

17

During repolarization, ________ ions are pumped out of the cell.

A) sodium

B) potassium

C) both sodium and potassium

D) calcium

A

18

______ reflexes include the secretion of saliva, changes in the size of our pupils, and digestion involve the activities of smooth muscles.

A) Somatic

B) Voluntary

C) Autonomic

D) Sympathetic

C

19

The thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus collectively constitute the ________.

A) cerebellum

B) dicephalon (interbrain)

C) brain stem

D) cerebrum

B

20

The brain dysfunction where blood supply to a region (or regions) of the brain is blocked and vital brain tissue dies, as by a blood clot or a ruptured blood vessel, is called ________.

A) cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or stroke

B) Parkinson's disease

C) Huntington's disease

D) multiple sclerosis

A

21

The brain and spinal cord are protected and cushioned by three connective tissue membranes that are collectively called ________.

A) ventricles

B) arachnoid villi

C) meninges

D) sinuses

C

22

Cerebrospinal fluid is formed from blood by clusters of capillaries in the brain known as ________.

A) choroid plexuses

B) arachnoid villi

C) ventricles

D) sinuses

A

23

The primary somatic sensory cortex is located in the ________ lobe of the cerebrum.

A) parietal

B) frontal

C) temporal

D) occipital

A

24

The blood-brain barrier is formed by ________ junctions that nearly seamlessly bind capillaries in the brain. A) gap

B) intercalated

C) desmosome

D) tight

D

25

One of the major functions of the pons is to control ________.

A) breathing

B) hunger

C) thirst

D) consciousness

A

26

The fissure in the brain that separates the two cerebral hemispheres is called the ________.

A) transverse fissure

B) longitudinal fissure

C) sagittal fissure

D) tentorium cerebelli

B

27

The hypothalamus regulates the ________.

A) pineal gland

B) pituitary gland

C) pons

D) thalamus

B

28

The large fiber tract that allows communication between the two cerebral hemispheres is called the ________.

A) corpus callosum

B) fornix

C) pons

D) thalamus

A

29

The portion of the diencephalon that acts as a relay station for sensory impulses traveling to the sensory cortex is the ________.

A) pons

B) pituitary gland

C) thalamus

D) hypothalamus

C

30

The delicate innermost membrane, or meningeal layer, that clings to the surface of the brain and spinal cord is known as the ________ mater.

A) dura

B) arachnoid

C) periosteal

D) pia

D

31

Hemiplegia and aphasia characterize those patients who have experienced a ________.

A) concussion

B) cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or stroke

C) contusion

D) cerebral edema

B

32

There are ________ pairs of cranial nerves and ________ pairs of spinal nerves in the peripheral nervous system.

A) 5; 7

B) 18; 34

C) 12; 31

D) 15; 25

C

33

_______ disease results from a degeneration of the dopamine-releasing neurons of the substantia nigra.

A) Parkinson's

B) Alzheimer's

C) Huntington's

D) Autoimmune

A

34

The ________ is a connective tissue wrapping around fascicles of neuron fibers.

A) epineurium

B) endoneurium

C) perineurium

D) perimysium

C

35

Sweat glands that produce perspiration when stimulated are innervated only by the ________ fibers.

A) sympathetic

B) parasympathetic

C) somatic

D) afferent

A

36

The only pair of cranial nerves to extend to the thoracic and abdominal cavities is the ________ nerves.

A) glossopharyngeal

B) oculomotor

C) vestibulocochlear

D) vagus

D

37

Cranial nerve III is known as the ________ nerve.

A) optic

B) olfactory

C) oculomotor

D) trochlear

C

38

The number of neurons involved in transmission of impulses in the autonomic nervous system is ________. A) one

B) two

C) four

D) eight

B

39

One of the last areas of the CNS to mature is the ________, which regulates body temperature.

A) hypothalamus

B) thalamus

C) cerebellum

D) cerebrum

A

40

The largest nerve in the body, the sciatic nerve, belongs to the ________ nerve plexus.

A) lumbar

B) sacral

C) brachial

D) cervical

B

41

Each spinal nerve divides into a dorsal and a ventral ________.

A) ramus

B) tract

C) ganglion

D) plexus

A

42

The ________ division of the autonomic nervous system is often called the "rest-and-digest" division.

A) somatic

B) sympathetic

C) parasympathetic

D) afferent

C

43

The term central nervous system refers to the ________.

A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems

B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves

C) brain and cranial nerves

D) spinal cord and spinal nerves

E) brain and spinal cord

E

44

Fibers that carry information from the skin, joints, and skeletal muscles to the central nervous system are ________.

A) motor

B) visceral sensory

C) somatic sensory

D) interneurons (association neurons)

E) parasympathetic

C

45

Which of these neuroglial cells forms the myelin sheath in the central nervous system?

A) astrocytes

B) oligodendrocytes

C) Schwann cells

D) ependymal cells

E) satellite cells

B

46

The Schwann cell forms a myelin sheath around the ________.

A) dendrites

B) cell body

C) nucleus

D) axon

E) nodes of Ranvier

D

47

The neuron processes that normally receive incoming stimuli are called ________.

A) axons

B) dendrites

C) neurolemmas

D) Schwann cells

E) satellite cells

B

48

Unmyelinated nerve fibers are known as ________.

A) white matter

B) sensors

C) myelin sheaths

D) receptors

E) gray matter

E

49

The major role of the interneuron (association neuron) is to ________.

A) carry information from the central nervous system to muscles and/or the viscera

B) form a lipid-protein (lipoprotein) cell membrane on the outside of axons

C) transmit nerve impulses from the skin and organs to the central nervous system

D) connect motor and sensory neurons in their pathways

E) detect the amount of stretch in skeletal muscles or tendons and their joints

D

50

Neurons with several processes branching off the cell body, such as motor neurons and interneurons (association neurons), are structurally classified as ________.

A) efferent

B) multipolar

C) afferent

D) bipolar

E) unipolar

B

51

The two major functional properties of neurons are ________.

A) cover and line body surfaces

B) contraction and movements

C) irritability and conductivity

D) connect and protect

E) lubricate and secrete

C

52

Ganglia are collections of ________.

A) nuclei

B) dendrites

C) cell bodies

D) axons

E) axon terminals

C

53

Impulse conduction is fastest in neurons that are ________.

A) myelinated

B) unmyelinated

C) sensory

D) motor

E) cerebral

A

54

Bipolar neurons are commonly ________. A) motor neurons

B) called neuroglia

C) found in ganglia

D) found in the eye and nose

E) more abundant in adults than in children

D

55

During the resting state, a neuron is ________.

A) polarized with more sodium ions outside the cell and more potassium ions inside the cell

B) propagating the action potential

C) depolarizing and generating an action potential

D) restoring the ionic conditions utilizing the sodium-potassium pump

E) repolarizing as potassium ions diffuse out of the cell

A

56

Immediately after an action potential is propagated, which one of the following ions rapidly diffuses out of the cell into the tissue fluid ________.

A) sodium

B) chloride

C) calcium

D) potassium

E) magnesium

D

57

An action potential is caused by an influx of these ions into the cell ________.

A) potassium

B) sodium

C) calcium

D) magnesium

E) both potassium and sodium

B

58

Nerve impulse transmissions occurring along myelinated neurons are called ________.

A) saltatory conduction

B) threshold

C) graded potential

D) sodium-potassium pump

E) all-or-none response

A

59

Neurons either conduct action potentials along the length of their axons, or they remain at rest. This statement best describes ________.

A) a reflex arc

B) the all-or-none response

C) repolarization

D) saltatory conduction

E) graded potential

B

60

Which one of the following is the correct sequence of events that correlates to the sequence of events of a nerve impulse? 1. the membrane becomes depolarized 2. sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward 3. the membrane becomes repolarized 4. potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward while sodium is actively transported out of the cell

A) 3, 2, 4, 1

B) 2, 1, 4, 3

C) 2, 1, 3, 4

D) 1, 2, 4, 3

E) 4, 1, 3, 2

B

61

Which ion causes neurotransmitter vesicles to fuse with the axon's membrane during the conduction of a nerve impulse from one neuron to the next?

A) chlorine

B) sodium

C) potassium

D) calcium

E) magnesium

D

62

The gap between two communicating neurons is termed ________.

A) synaptic cleft

B) cell body

C) effector

D) Schwann cell

E) node of Ranvier

A

63

The substance that is released at axonal endings to propagate a nervous impulse is called ________.

A) an ion

B) nerve glue

C) a neurotransmitter

D) the sodium-potassium pump

E) an action potential

C

64

Which of the following is the correct sequence in a typical reflex arc?

A) effector, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, receptor

B) receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, effector

C) effector, motor neuron, integration center, sensory neuron, receptor

D) receptor, motor neuron, integration center, sensory neuron, effector

E) receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, integration center, effector

B

65

Rick quickly pulled his hand away from the hot stove. This reflex is best known as a(n) ________.

A) two-neuron reflex

B) patellar reflex

C) knee-jerk reflex

D) withdrawal reflex

E) autonomic reflex

D

66

Which type of reflex involves skeletal muscles?

A) parasympathetic

B) sympathetic

C) autonomic

D) somatic

E) visceral

D

67

The sensory homunculus is located in the primary somatic sensory area in the ________.

A) parietal lobe

B) occipital lobe

C) frontal lobe

D) temporal lobe

E) cerebellum

A

68

A stroke in the primary motor area has caused Don to lose control over his skeletal muscles on the right side of his body. What lobe of his brain was damaged?

A) occipital lobe

B) temporal lobe

C) frontal lobe

D) parietal lobe

E) pyramidal tract

C

69

Sally has a brain injury; she knows what she wants to say but can't vocalize the words. The part of her brain that deals with the ability to speak is the ________. A) longitudinal fissure

B) gyrus

C) central sulcus

D) Broca's area

E) primary motor area

D

70

The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are housed in the ________. A) diencephalon

B) hypothalamus

C) brain stem

D) pineal gland

E) cerebellum

C

71

What part of the brain stem houses reflex centers for vision and hearing? A) pons

B) corpora quadrigemina

C) fourth ventricle

D) medulla oblongata

E) reticular formation

B

72

The hypothalamus is the "emotional-visceral" center of the brain and, thus, is an important part of the ________.

A) posterior association area

B) reticular activating system

C) limbic system

D) Broca's area

E) anterior association area

C

73

Cerebrospinal fluid circulates through all of the following EXCEPT ________.

A) subarachnoid space

B) corpus callosum

C) cerebral aqueduct

D) fourth ventricle

E) lateral ventricles

B

74

A special group of neurons in the brain stem that plays a role in consciousness and the awake/sleep cycles is the ________.

A) thalamus

B) reticular activating system (RAS)

C) pineal gland

D) limbic system

E) cerebellum

B

75

Control of temperature, endocrine activity, metabolism, and thirst are functions associated with the ________. A) medulla oblongata

B) cerebellum

C) hypothalamus

D) thalamus

E) cerebrum

C

76

The vital centers for the control of visceral activities such as heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, and vomiting are located in the ________.

A) pons

B) medulla oblongata

C) midbrain

D) cerebrum

E) hypothalamus

B

77

Loss of muscle coordination results from damage to the ________.

A) cerebrum

B) hypothalamus

C) cerebellum

D) thalamus

E) midbrain

C

78

Which one of the following represents the correct sequence from outermost to innermost layers of the meninges? A) pia mater, dura mater, arachnoid mater

B) pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater

C) arachnoid mater, dura mater, pia mater

D) dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid mater

E) dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

E

79

Cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed into venous blood in the dural sinuses via the ________.

A) cerebral aqueduct

B) hypothalamus

C) arachnoid villus

D) choroid plexus

E) pons

C

80

The cerebrospinal fluid ________.

A) is secreted by the arachnoid villi

B) enters the four ventricles after filling and circulating through the subarachnoid space

C) is secreted mostly by the ependymal cells lining the brain ventricles

D) is continually formed mostly by the choroid plexuses

E) is identical in composition to whole blood

D

81

The blood-brain barrier is effective against the passage of ________.

A) water

B) nutrients such as glucose

C) alcohol

D) anesthetics

E) metabolic waste such as urea

E

82

Which of the following brain dysfunctions is also known as a stroke? A) cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

B) Alzheimer's disease

C) aphasia

D) cerebral edema

E) Parkinson's disease

A

83

The spinal cord terminates around vertebra ________.

A) C7

B) T2

C) T9

D) L3

E) S4

D

84

Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.

A) the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord

B) the ventral root ganglia of the spinal cord

C) the thalamus

D) the hypothalamus

E) sympathetic ganglia

A

85

Which one of the following is the correct sequence of nerves that exit the spinal cord, from superior to inferior?

A) thoracic spinal nerves, cervical spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves

B) cervical spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves, thoracic spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves

C) thoracic spinal nerves, cervical spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves

D) cervical spinal nerves, thoracic spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves

E) cervical spinal nerves, thoracic spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves

E

86

Which one of the following is the correct sequence in connective tissue sheaths, going from outermost to innermost layer?

A) epineurium, endoneurium, perineurium

B) epineurium, perineurium, endoneurium

C) perineurium, epineurium, endoneurium

D) perineurium, endoneurium, epineurium

E) endoneurium, epineurium, perineurium

B

87

Each spinal nerve branches into a ventral and dorsal ________.

A) root

B) ganglion

C) plexus

D) ramus

E) tract

D

88

How many pairs of cranial nerves branch from the surface of the brain? A) three

B) five

C) seven

D) twelve

E) eighteen

D

89

Which cranial nerves control eye movement?

A) cranial nerve II, IV, V

B) cranial nerve III, IV, VI

C) cranial nerve V, VI, VIII

D) cranial nerve VIII, X, XII

E) cranial nerve IX, X, XI

B

90

The ventral rami of the spinal nerves form complex networks of nerves known as a ________.

A) ganglion

B) reflex

C) plexus

D) tract

E) fascicle

C

91

Which cranial nerve descends into the thoracic and abdominal cavities to regulate heart rate and promote digestive activity?

A) oculomotor

B) vagus

C) hypoglossal

D) accessory

E) glossopharyngeal

B

92

Which nervous system subdivision is a chain of two motor neurons consisting of a preganglionic neuron and a postganglionic neuron?

A) somatic

B) central

C) autonomic

D) skeletal

E) sensory

C

93

Which of the following is NOT a major nerve of the brachial nerve plexus?

A) radial

B) axillary

C) musculocutaneous

D) median

E) phrenic

E

94

The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the body resulting from a combination of which two nerves?

A) pudendal and femoral nerves

B) femoral and tibial nerves

C) pudendal and common peroneal nerves

D) common fibular and tibial nerves

E) pudendal and tibial nerves

D

95

The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are subdivisions of the ________.

A) central nervous system

B) voluntary nervous system

C) autonomic nervous system

D) somatic nervous system

E) peripheral nervous system

C

96

In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system ________.

A) has a chain of two motor neurons

B) has a chain of two sensory neurons

C) stimulates its effector cells

D) has both sensory and motor fibers

E) is a subdivision of the central nervous system

A

97

Which of the following is favored by the parasympathetic nervous system?

A) emergency

B) exercise

C) digestion

D) embarrassment

E) excitement

C

98

Preparing the body for the "fight-or-flight" response during threatening situations is the role of the ________.

A) sympathetic nervous system

B) cerebrum

C) parasympathetic nervous system

D) somatic nervous system

E) afferent nervous system

A

99

Which of the following effects is characteristic of the parasympathetic nervous system?

A) decreased activity of the digestive system

B) stimulated sweat glands to produce perspiration

C) decreased urine output

D) increased metabolic rate

E) decreased heart rate

E

100

The effects of the sympathetic nervous system are essentially opposite of the ________.

A) central nervous system

B) parasympathetic nervous system

C) autonomic nervous system

D) motor division

E) sensory division

B

101

Sympathetic division fibers leave the spinal cord in the ________.

A) craniosacral regions, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine

B) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine

C) craniosacral region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine

D) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine

E) craniosacral region, and the preganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine

D

102

What congenital disorder results when the vertebrae fail to form completely around the spinal cord, typically in the lumbosacral region?

A) cystic fibrosis

B) anencephaly

C) hydrocephaly

D) cerebral palsy

E) spina bifida

E

103

Which one of the following statements about aging is most accurate?

A) the brain reaches its maximum weight around the seventh decade of life

B) synaptic connections are too fixed to permit a great deal of learning after the age of 35

C) despite some neuronal loss, an unlimited number of neural pathways are available and ready to be developed; therefore, additional learning can occur throughout life

D) learning throughout the adult and aging years is supported primarily by glial proliferation

E) increased efficiency of the sympathetic nervous system enhances the ability to learn

C