C) begins once body structures reach maximum capacity and efficiency
The physical changes of the adult years are __________.
B) multidimensional and multidirectional
The __________ theory of aging receives some support from kinship
studies indicating that
longevity is a family trait.
A) genetically programmed
Nora’s grandfather lived to be 87, and her father is still alive at
the age of 98. Nora concludes
that longevity is inherited and anticipates a very long life. Nora should know that __________.
C) rather than inheriting longevity directly, people probably inherit
risk and protective factors
that influence their chances of dying earlier or later
The strongest evidence for __________ comes from research showing
that human cells
allowed to divide in the laboratory have a lifespan of 50 divisions, plus or minus 10.
A) the existence of “aging genes”
D) protect the ends of chromosomes from destruction
An enzyme called telomerase __________.
B) can lengthen telomeres
Telomere shortening predicts __________.
A) earlier death
Lorenzo quit smoking and reduced his alcohol intake. At the same
time, he improved his
healthy eating behaviors and increased his physical activity. Lorenzo’s lifestyle changes are
likely to __________.
C) increase telomerase activity
According to the “random events” theory of biological aging, __________.
A) DNA in body cells is gradually damaged through mutations
According to the “random events” theory, as spontaneous or externally
B) abnormal cancerous cells are often produced
One hypothesized cause of age-related DNA and cellular abnormalities is the __________.
C) release of free radicals
In some species, __________ is/are associated with longer life.
B) elevated free-radical activity
Which statement is true about free-radical damage?
C) It increases with age.
According to the cross-linkage theory of aging, bonds between protein
fibers in connective
tissue can lead to __________.
B) loss of flexibility in the skin and clogging of arteries
Almeda’s skin has lost some flexibility and the lens of her left eye
is beginning to cloud. She is concerned that the normally separate
protein fibers that make up her body’s connective tissue
are forming bonds with one another. You can tell Almeda that she can reduce cross-linking by
A) eating a healthy diet
Doyle wants to protect the health of his endocrine system. The safest
approach for Doyle is
D) diet and physical activity
Decreased vigor of the immune response seems to be __________.
C) genetically programmed but intensified by other aging processes
Age-related declines in hearing __________.
A) are more than twice as rapid for men as for women
As the lens of the eye stiffens and thickens with age, __________.
B) ability to focus on close objects declines
Physical changes of aging in the __________ system begin in the late
thirties, accelerate in
the fifties, and slow in the seventies.
Vivica, who is African American, and Jolene, who is European
American, are both active and eat healthy foods. Which statement is
true about their risk of hypertension and heart disease
as they age?
C) Vivica has a higher risk of hypertension and heart disease than Jolene.
Darlene has heavy deposits of plaque containing cholesterol and fats
collected on the walls of
her main arteries. Darlene has __________.
Atherosclerosis typically develops __________.
D) early in life and progresses during middle adulthood
__________ may heighten the effects of a high-fat diet.
A) Sex hormones
Yao is 45 years old. How has the maximum vital capacity of his lungs
changed from when he
B) It has decreased by about 20 percent.
To study the impact of biological aging on motor skills, researchers focus on __________.
B) competitive athletes
What was discovered when the mean ages for best performance of
Olympic and professional
athletes in a variety of sports were charted over time?
B) Absolute performance in most events improved over time.
Which athlete’s skills will probably peak latest in life?
C) Rose, a long-distance runner
The immune response is the combined work of specialized cells that
neutralize or destroy
__________ in the body.
T cells __________.
C) directly attack foreign substances in the body
__________ secrete antibodies into the bloodstream that multiply,
substances, and permit the blood system to destroy them.
B) B cells
Regena, age 50, is likely to have __________ than 25-year-old Owen.
A) a smaller thymus
Which statement about U.S. death rates and causes of death is true?
C) Death rates for all causes exceed those of many other industrialized nations.
Which statement about the relationships among income, education,
occupational status, and
health in the United States is true?
A) Income, education, and occupational status show strong, continuous
relationships with almost
every disease and health indicator over the lifespan.
Most Americans eat __________.
D) because they feel like it or because it is time to do so
Carly, age 24, has a 22 percent increase over average body weight,
based on her age, sex, and
physical build. Carly is __________.
A) an obese adult
Cesar has a body mass index (BMI) of 27. Cesar is __________.
C) overweight, but not obese
Which adult is the most likely to be obese?
D) Veronica, an African American
Which statement about rates of overweight and obesity in the United States is true?
C) A substantial number of people show large weight gains between ages 25 and 50.
The average number of calories and amount of sugar and fat consumed
A) sharply increased after 1970
Nadine, an average-weight adult, gained a small amount of weight
between the ages of 25
and 50. Nadine should know that __________.
B) this is a normal part of aging, resulting from a drop in basal metabolic rate
Andre is an overweight adult. Compared with his normal-weight
agemates, Andre is
A) less likely to receive financial aid for college
Family and friends can help a dieter by __________.
D) offering encouragement, which helps foster the dieter’s self-esteem and self-efficacy
Saturated fat __________.
B) generally comes from meat and dairy products
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that no more than 10
percent of total
caloric intake be made up of __________.
C) saturated fat
Research indicates that __________ play(s) a role in the age-related
rise in cardiovascular
disease, breast cancer, and colon cancer.
B) saturated fat
Star would like to improve her nutrition and reduce her risk of
disease. One suggestion that
you could make to Star is to __________.
A) replace saturated fat with unsaturated fat
Regular physical activity is linked to __________.
C) reduced incidence of breast and colon cancer
January engages in regular exercise. As a result, January is __________.
D) less likely to catch a cold or the flu
Physical activity __________.
A) reduces anxiety and depression
In the United States, alcohol and drug use is most common among __________.
B) 19- to 25-year-olds
Which statement about smoking is true?
C) Of young people who smoke cigarettes, the overwhelming majority started before age 21.
The earlier young people start smoking, the __________.
A) greater their daily cigarette use
__________ is the single most important preventable cause of death in industrialized nations.
B) Cigarette smoking
Alcohol dependency is more likely in cultures where alcohol is __________.
D) carefully controlled and a sign of adulthood
The best-known complication of chronic alcohol use is __________.
B) liver disease
Virgil, Pearl, Sherise, and Alonso recently joined a support group
for alcoholics. Which
statement is probably true?
B) Two of them will relapse within a few months.
At the end of the teenage years, nearly 70 percent of U.S. young people __________.
C) have had sexual intercourse
Sexual partners, whether dating, cohabiting, or married, tend to be similar in __________.
A) age, education, and ethnicity
Young people between 25 and 34 are __________.
B) the most avid users of dating sites and apps
When adults of any age are asked how many sexual partners they have
had in the past year,
the usual reply is __________.
Which statement about sexual attitudes over the past four decades is true?
D) Acceptance of premarital sex rose sharply after the mid-2000s.
Which statement about the sex lives of American adults is true?
D) As number of sex partners increases, sexual satisfaction declines sharply.
The sexual problems most often reported by men are anxiety about
C) climaxing too early
__________ of Millennials approve of legalized same-sex marriage.
D) Nearly three-fourths
In the United States, __________.
C) acceptance of sexual minorities is greatest among highly educated
people who are low in
The majority of victims of rape or other forms of sexual coercion
were first victimized
__________, and the perpetrators are usually __________.
B) before age 25; men they know well
Which statement about sexual coercion is true?
C) People of all SES and ethnic groups are offenders and victims.
Male victims of sexual coercion __________.
A) often face unsympathetic and blaming social attitudes
Which statement about sexual coercion is true?
B) When men are taught to be dominant, competitive, and aggressive,
the themes of rape are
Victims of rape and other sexual crimes report __________.
C) more symptoms of illness across almost all body systems
Which statement about rape prevention and treatment is true?
A) Practically no services are available for victimized men, who are
often too embarrassed to
Southern University is revising its sexual coercion prevention and
treatment program. Which
action step is the most likely to be effective?
B) Combat rape myths that victims “wanted it” and are to blame.
Which statement is true about stress in early adulthood?
D) Young adults more often report depressive symptoms than middle-aged people.
__________ adults are better than __________ adults at coping with stress.
B) Middle-aged and older; young
Which statement about cognitive development in early adulthood is true?
D) The cognitive changes of early adulthood are supported by further
development of the
Dr. Castillo focuses her research on postformal thought. She studies
how __________ in
C) thinking becomes increasingly rational and flexible
Bryson and his co-workers are developing a new sales strategy. When
differ radically from the rest of the team, he considers the justifiability of his conclusions and
revises them slightly. Bryson is engaged in __________.
A) epistemic cognition
Xavier believes everything his college professor says because she is
in a respected position.
He thinks that knowledge is certain and that the professor has that knowledge. Xavier is engaged
B) dualistic thinking
In his third year of college, Omar comes to the realization that
there are multiple possible truths, rather than one absolute truth,
which are each relative to its context. Omar is engaged in
A) relativistic thinking
When Imelda considers which of five movies most deserves an Oscar,
she moves beyond the
stance that everything is a matter of opinion and generates rational criteria against which the
movies can be evaluated. Imelda is engaged in __________.
D) commitment within relativistic thinking
Which adult is the most likely to engage in commitment within relativism?
D) Nadia, a 26-year-old graduate student
With the birth of Olga’s first child, she felt more fulfilled than
ever before. However, she
also acknowledged feelings of concern and fear over being able to meet all of her parental
responsibilities while maintaining personal happiness and satisfaction. Olga’s feelings reflect
B) cognitive-affective complexity
For young adults, __________ is supported by the specialization that
begins with selecting a
college major or an occupation.
Compared with novices, experts __________.
B) remember and reason more quickly and effectively
Yuri is a musician, Inez is an artist, and Danielle is a scientist.
Which statement is probably
A) Danielle’s creativity will peak later than that of the other two.
Clifton has developed master-level creativity. This means that Clifton probably __________.
B) has the capacity to think intuitively with a reduced filter
From the freshman to the senior year of college, most students __________.
A) become better at reflecting on the quality of their thinking
College students who __________ show large cognitive gains.
C) connect their community service experiences with their classroom learning
Which young adult is least likely to have a college degree?
C) Liane from the United States
Colleges that __________ have a higher percentage of dropouts.
A) have less selective admissions requirements
In a study examining the importance of academic engagement in college
transition to the labor market, researchers found that __________.
D) most participants gained little in collegiate learning during their four years of college
Since the 1970s, __________.
B) institutions have redefined college students as consumers
Eight-year-old Marci is involved in community theater. She fantasizes
about starring in a
Broadway musical. Marci’s desire to be an actress __________.
A) will probably bear little relation to the vocational decisions that she will eventually make
When asked about her future vocational choice, 14-year-old Solange
says, “I’m good at math
and I like solving problems. But I like helping people. So maybe teaching math or working as an
engineer would be good.” Solange is in the __________ period of vocational development.
During the realistic period of vocational development, the first step
is often __________, and
the final phase is __________.
D) further exploration; crystallization
Shanika enjoys working with ideas. Madison is emotional and has a
high need for individual
expression. According to Holland’s six personality types, Shanika is __________ and Madison is
A) investigative; artistic
According to Holland, people who choose construction, plumbing, or
B) real-world problems
Deon likes well-structured tasks and values material possessions.
Alecia prefers working
with people. According to Holland’s six personality types, Deon is __________ and Alecia is __________.
C) conventional; social
According to Holland, the enterprising person is drawn to __________.
A) sales and supervisory positions or politics
In longitudinal research, teacher expectations for educational
attainment mattered most for
Which statement about gender stereotypes and vocational choice is true?
C) Women remain concentrated in less-well-paid, traditionally feminine professions.
An investigation of science-oriented young people in 50 nations
revealed that in every
B) males express greater confidence than females in their science ability
Which statement about non-college-bound young adults is true?
C) Nearly 20 percent of U.S. recent high school graduates who do not
continue their education
American employers regard recent high school graduates as __________.
C) unprepared for skilled business and industrial occupations and manual trades
About 60 percent of __________ youths participate in successful
apprenticeships instead of attending college-preparatory high schools.