AAD CH 11 Flashcards

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G. Stanley Hall described adolescence as a __________.

B) period so turbulent that it resembled the era in which humans evolved from savages into civilized


Contemporary research shows that the storm-and-stress notion of adolescence __________.

D) is exaggerated


Dr. Parsons sees the social environment as being entirely responsible for the range of teenage
experiences, from erratic and agitated to calm and stress-free. His view of adolescence best aligns with
that of which researcher?

C) Margaret Mead


Today we know that __________.

B) biological, psychological, and social forces combine to influence adolescent development


In most tribal and village societies, __________.

C) adolescence is only a brief intervening phase between childhood and full assumption of adult roles


Fourteen-year-old Phil experiences muscle growth and notices the growth of body and facial hair.
Which hormone is responsible for this change?

B) testosterone


The first outward sign of puberty is __________.

D) the rapid gain in height and weight known as the growth spurt


During puberty, __________.

A) the cephalocaudal growth trend of infancy and childhood reverses


Which statement about sex differences in adolescence is true?

C) The number of red blood cells increases in boys but not in girls.


Brian is a star high school athlete who has recently exhibited severe mood swings and aggressiveness.
An initial health screening indicates that Brian has acne, excess body hair, and high blood pressure.
Brian’s symptoms are consistent with __________.

D) anabolic steroid use


When researchers followed a large, representative sample of U.S. youths from ages 9 to 17, they found
that __________.

B) daily free-time physical activity declined with age, more so for girls than boys


Which of the following is a secondary sexual characteristic?

B) pubic hair


Female puberty usually concludes with __________.

D) the completion of breast growth


Male puberty usually begins with __________.

B) the enlargement of the testes


Which girl is the most likely to experience puberty first?

B) Jaeda, who is an overweight, middle-SES African American


Girls and (less consistently) boys with a history of family conflict tend to reach puberty __________,
whereas those with warm, stable family ties tend to reach puberty __________.

D) early; relatively late


In industrialized nations, age of menarche __________ per decade from 1900 to 1970.

C) declined by about 3 to 4 months


In the United States and a few European countries, __________ are responsible for a modest,
continuing trend toward earlier menarche.

B) soaring rates of overweight and obesity


fMRI evidence reveals that adolescents __________ than adults do.

A) recruit the prefrontal cortex’s network of connections with other brain areas less effectively


Sixteen-year-old Manuel is going to bed later and later, perhaps because of increased neural sensitivity
to evening light. Manuel’s parents should know that he needs about __________ hours of sleep per night.

C) nine


Sleep-deprived adolescents __________.

B) are more likely to suffer from anxiety and irritability


Which statement about the onset of puberty is true?

D) Overall, boys get much less social support than girls for the changes of puberty.


Virtually all __________ know about __________ ahead of time, but many say that no one spoke to
them before or during puberty about physical changes.

A) boys; ejaculation


Ceremonies such as the Jewish bar or bat mitzvah and the quinceañera in Hispanic communities
resemble the initiation ceremonies of many tribal and village societies, but they __________.

A) do not mark a significant change in social status in the larger society


Western adolescents __________.

B) are granted partial adult status at many different ages


Which statement about adolescent moodiness is true?

B) Younger adolescents’ mood swings are strongly related to situational changes.


Which teenage boy is the most likely to feel profoundly lonely?

A) 15-year-old Maurice, who spends Saturday night at home


Which statement about parent‒child relationships in adolescence is true?

B) Psychological distancing is a modern substitute for leaving the family around the time of puberty.


Ann-Marie is having frequent disagreements with her teenage daughter. You can let her know that by
late adolescence, __________.

A) only a small minority of families experience continuing friction


Jason, a late-maturing boy, is likely to __________.

C) experience transient emotional difficulties


Both adults and peers view Randy as relaxed, independent, and physically attractive. Both groups view Maria as physically attractive, lively, and sociable. Which statement is likely to be true?

C) Randy is an early-maturing boy, and Maria is a late-maturing girl.


Early-maturing European-American girls tend to report a __________.

B) less positive body image than their on-time agemates


Early-maturing adolescents of both sexes __________.

C) often seek out older companions


Follow-up research reveals that __________, especially, are at risk for lasting difficulties.

D) early-maturing girls


__________ is strongly associated with healthy eating in teenagers.

D) Frequency of family meals


Disturbed eating is highest in __________.

C) Western nations


Which statement about anorexia nervosa is true?

B) During the past half-century, cases of anorexia have increased sharply, fueled by cultural admiration of
female thinness.


Clarence’s 14-year-old daughter, Annie, has been diagnosed with anorexia. Clarence can expect that
Annie __________.

D) has an extremely distorted body image


Which parent–child relationship is the most common among anorexic teenagers?

A) overprotective and controlling mothers and either controlling or uninvolved fathers


Which statement about individuals with anorexia nervosa is true?

B) They usually deny or minimize the seriousness of their disorder.


Rose suffers from anorexia nervosa. You can tell her parents that the most successful treatment for
Rose is probably __________.

C) family therapy and medication to reduce anxiety and neurotransmitter imbalances


Carlie engages in binge eating, followed by deliberate vomiting, purging with laxatives, excessive
exercise, and strict dieting or even fasting. Carlie suffers from __________.

C) bulimia nervosa


Individuals with bulimia nervosa usually __________.

A) feel depressed and guilty about their abnormal eating habits


Binge-eating disorder __________.

B) typically leads to overweight and obesity


Sexual attitudes in North America are __________.

B) relatively restrictive


Typically, North American parents __________.

A) rarely talk about sex in their children’s presence


__________ is linked to early and frequent teenage sexual activity.

D) Childhood impulsivity


Which statement about the sexual behavior of U.S. adolescents is true?

B) In general, U.S. boys’ and girls’ rates of sexual intercourse are similar.


Early sexual activity is more common among young people from __________.

B) economically disadvantaged homes


Which statement about contraceptive use in adolescence is true?

C) Self-regulation is difficult for teenagers, who often overlook the potential consequences of risky


Which set of siblings is most likely to share a homosexual orientation?

B) Reagan and Kennedy, who are identical twins


Girls __________ are more likely to develop lesbian or bisexual orientations.

B) exposed prenatally to very high levels of androgens or estrogens


Which statement about sexual orientation is true?

A) Attraction to members of the same sex is not limited to lesbian, gay, and bisexual teenagers.


Many gay men and lesbians say that they first sensed their biologically determined sexual orientation
between ages __________, when they discovered __________.

C) 6 and 12; their play interests were more like those of the other gender


Which statement about self-acceptance among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths is true?

D) Coming out can foster self-esteem, psychological well-being, and relationships with family and


Young people from ages 15 to 24 __________.

D) have the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections of all age groups


Which teen is the most likely to contract a sexually transmitted infection?

B) Ross from the United States


Studies show that most adolescents __________.

C) are poorly informed about how to protect themselves against STIs


Which statement about the spread of STIs, including HIV, is true?

D) It is at least twice as easy for a male to infect a female as for a female to infect a male.


The number of teenage births is considerably lower in the United States than it was 50 years ago
because __________.

B) about one-fourth of adolescent pregnancies end in abortion


Which statement about adolescent mothers is true?

D) Very few give up their infants for adoption.


Compared with adult mothers, adolescent mothers __________.

B) perceive their babies as more difficult


Sex education __________.

D) must help teenagers build a bridge between what they know and what they do


In Canada and Western Europe, where community- and school-based clinics offer adolescents
contraceptives and where universal health insurance helps pay for them, __________ than in the United

D) pregnancy, childbirth, and abortion rates are much lower


According to the most recent nationally representative survey of U.S. high school students, 47 percent
of tenth graders have tried __________.

A) drinking


If Krystal is like 21 percent of U.S. students, by twelfth grade she will __________.

C) have tried at least one highly addictive and toxic substance


Occasional drug experimenters are __________.

C) usually psychologically healthy, sociable, curious young people


Adolescent drug experimentation __________.

B) should not be taken lightly, because a single heavy dose can lead to permanent injury or death


School and community programs that reduce drug experimentation __________.

B) teach skills for resisting peer pressure


Adolescents who reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development __________.

C) no longer require concrete things or events as objects of thought


According to Piaget, 12-year-old Bula __________.

A) can “operate on operations”


Kia, age 14, uses hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Therefore, when faced with a problem, Kia
probably __________.

D) starts with a hypothesis from which she deduces logical, testable inferences


Adolescents presented with Piaget’s famous pendulum problem __________.

B) isolate and test each variable, as well as testing the variables in combination


Which child is the most likely to evaluate the logic of statements only by considering them against
concrete evidence in the real world?

D) Wiley, age 9


Which statement is supported by follow-up research on formal operational thought?

A) School-age children show the glimmerings of hypothetico-deductive reasoning, although they are less
competent at it than adolescents.


With respect to propositional thought in an entirely verbal mode, young children have great difficulty
reasoning from premises that contradict reality or their own beliefs because they

C) fail to grasp the logical necessity of propositional reasoning


When faced with a propositional reasoning problem, 17-year-old Iris is likely to __________.

D) justify her reasoning by explaining the logical rules on which it is based


In an Israeli study of seventh to ninth graders, after controlling for participants’ age, researchers found
that __________ fully accounted for early adolescent gains in propositional thought.

D) years of schooling


In adolescence, __________.

C) inhibition improves


The ability to distinguish theory from evidence and use logical rules to examine their relationship

A) improves steadily from childhood into adolescence


Sophisticated metacognitive understanding is vital for __________.

B) scientific reasoning


Scientific reasoning __________.

C) develops gradually out of many specific experiences


Donette is extremely self-conscious. She believes that she is the focus of everyone else’s attention and
concern. Donette is experiencing a cognitive distortion known as __________.

B) the imaginary audience


The imaginary audience is most likely responsible for adolescents’ __________.

C) self-consciousness and sensitivity to public criticism


Fourteen-year-old Myles is certain he will be a professional baseball player. When his mother makes
him stay home from practice because he has strep throat, Myles says, “You are ruining my life! You have
no idea how hard it is to miss out on something you love to do!” Myles is experiencing a cognitive
distortion known as __________.

B) the personal fable


Mr. Vogt is frustrated with his daughter’s exaggerated sense of her personal uniqueness. One way he
could deal with this is to __________.

A) encourage a more balanced perspective by pointing out that he had similar feelings as a teenager


Ms. Diehl notices that her son has difficulty making everyday decisions and is sensitive to public
criticism. She can help her son by __________.

D) offering information about the likelihood of various outcomes


In a study of sixth through tenth graders, __________ predicted self-esteem and overall positive

D) sense of omnipotence


Fifteen-year-old Mary, who has become critical of her parents and siblings, envisions a world with no
injustice or discrimination. This is typical of the __________ that manifests from adolescents’ capacity to
think about possibilities.

C) idealism


Compared with adults, in decision making, adolescents __________.

D) are more enticed by the possibility of immediate reward


In making decisions, teenagers __________.

B) take far greater risks than adults in their twenties


Students report that their __________ school teachers care less about them and are less friendly than
their __________ school teachers.

A) middle and high; elementary


Which statement about school transitions is true?

C) Adolescents facing added strains at school transitions are at greatest risk for academic difficulties.


Leigh is a depressed teenager who shows a persisting pattern of poor self-esteem, motivation, and
academic achievement. For students like Leigh, the transition to high school __________.

D) often marks a rise in out-of-school problem behaviors


Which high school is the most likely to help its students adjust to the school transition?

B) East High, which provides homerooms that offer counseling


__________ parenting is linked to higher grades in school among adolescents varying widely in SES.

D) Authoritative


High-achieving students typically have parents who __________.

B) remain invested in their teenagers’ education and keep tabs on academic progress


Nearly three-fourths of U.S. teenagers __________.

A) have smartphones


In a study involving weather predictions, media multitaskers __________.

B) activated subcortical areas involved in implicit memory


Compared to students grouped by ability into higher tracks, those in low tracks __________.

D) experience reduced teacher expectations


The decline in the overall U.S. high school dropout rate since the mid-2000s is largely due to

B) substantial gains in Hispanic teenagers’ graduation rates


The dropout rate in the United States is higher among __________ and is particularly high among
low-SES __________.

C) boys than girls; ethnic minority youths


Lane is considering dropping out of high school and finding a job. Lane should know that dropouts
__________ than high school graduates.

D) are more likely to remain in menial, low-paid jobs


Compared to students placed in a college preparatory track, students placed in general education and
vocational tracks __________.

C) are three times as likely to drop out of high school


Most potential high school dropouts need __________.

A) intensive remedial instruction in small classes


To work well, vocational education must __________.

B) integrate academic and job-related instruction


Programs that __________ can make staying in school easier for at-risk adolescents.

C) offer flexible work‒study arrangements


Which at-risk high school student is most likely to be involved in extracurricular activities?

A) Hank, who attends a school with 500 students


More than two-thirds of U.S. high school dropouts __________.

D) finish their secondary education by their mid-twenties