G. Stanley Hall described adolescence as a __________.
B) period so turbulent that it resembled the era in which humans
evolved from savages into civilized
Contemporary research shows that the storm-and-stress notion of adolescence __________.
D) is exaggerated
Dr. Parsons sees the social environment as being entirely responsible
for the range of teenage
experiences, from erratic and agitated to calm and stress-free. His view of adolescence best aligns with
that of which researcher?
C) Margaret Mead
Today we know that __________.
B) biological, psychological, and social forces combine to influence adolescent development
In most tribal and village societies, __________.
C) adolescence is only a brief intervening phase between childhood and full assumption of adult roles
Fourteen-year-old Phil experiences muscle growth and notices the
growth of body and facial hair.
Which hormone is responsible for this change?
The first outward sign of puberty is __________.
D) the rapid gain in height and weight known as the growth spurt
During puberty, __________.
A) the cephalocaudal growth trend of infancy and childhood reverses
Which statement about sex differences in adolescence is true?
C) The number of red blood cells increases in boys but not in girls.
Brian is a star high school athlete who has recently exhibited severe
mood swings and aggressiveness.
An initial health screening indicates that Brian has acne, excess body hair, and high blood pressure.
Brian’s symptoms are consistent with __________.
D) anabolic steroid use
When researchers followed a large, representative sample of U.S.
youths from ages 9 to 17, they found
B) daily free-time physical activity declined with age, more so for girls than boys
Which of the following is a secondary sexual characteristic?
B) pubic hair
Female puberty usually concludes with __________.
D) the completion of breast growth
Male puberty usually begins with __________.
B) the enlargement of the testes
Which girl is the most likely to experience puberty first?
B) Jaeda, who is an overweight, middle-SES African American
Girls and (less consistently) boys with a history of family conflict
tend to reach puberty __________,
whereas those with warm, stable family ties tend to reach puberty __________.
D) early; relatively late
In industrialized nations, age of menarche __________ per decade from 1900 to 1970.
C) declined by about 3 to 4 months
In the United States and a few European countries, __________ are
responsible for a modest,
continuing trend toward earlier menarche.
B) soaring rates of overweight and obesity
fMRI evidence reveals that adolescents __________ than adults do.
A) recruit the prefrontal cortex’s network of connections with other brain areas less effectively
Sixteen-year-old Manuel is going to bed later and later, perhaps
because of increased neural sensitivity
to evening light. Manuel’s parents should know that he needs about __________ hours of sleep per night.
Sleep-deprived adolescents __________.
B) are more likely to suffer from anxiety and irritability
Which statement about the onset of puberty is true?
D) Overall, boys get much less social support than girls for the changes of puberty.
Virtually all __________ know about __________ ahead of time, but
many say that no one spoke to
them before or during puberty about physical changes.
A) boys; ejaculation
Ceremonies such as the Jewish bar or bat mitzvah and the quinceañera
in Hispanic communities
resemble the initiation ceremonies of many tribal and village societies, but they __________.
A) do not mark a significant change in social status in the larger society
Western adolescents __________.
B) are granted partial adult status at many different ages
Which statement about adolescent moodiness is true?
B) Younger adolescents’ mood swings are strongly related to situational changes.
Which teenage boy is the most likely to feel profoundly lonely?
A) 15-year-old Maurice, who spends Saturday night at home
Which statement about parent‒child relationships in adolescence is true?
B) Psychological distancing is a modern substitute for leaving the family around the time of puberty.
Ann-Marie is having frequent disagreements with her teenage daughter.
You can let her know that by
late adolescence, __________.
A) only a small minority of families experience continuing friction
Jason, a late-maturing boy, is likely to __________.
C) experience transient emotional difficulties
Both adults and peers view Randy as relaxed, independent, and physically attractive. Both groups view Maria as physically attractive, lively, and sociable. Which statement is likely to be true?
C) Randy is an early-maturing boy, and Maria is a late-maturing girl.
Early-maturing European-American girls tend to report a __________.
B) less positive body image than their on-time agemates
Early-maturing adolescents of both sexes __________.
C) often seek out older companions
Follow-up research reveals that __________, especially, are at risk for lasting difficulties.
D) early-maturing girls
__________ is strongly associated with healthy eating in teenagers.
D) Frequency of family meals
Disturbed eating is highest in __________.
C) Western nations
Which statement about anorexia nervosa is true?
B) During the past half-century, cases of anorexia have increased
sharply, fueled by cultural admiration of
Clarence’s 14-year-old daughter, Annie, has been diagnosed with
anorexia. Clarence can expect that
D) has an extremely distorted body image
Which parent–child relationship is the most common among anorexic teenagers?
A) overprotective and controlling mothers and either controlling or uninvolved fathers
Which statement about individuals with anorexia nervosa is true?
B) They usually deny or minimize the seriousness of their disorder.
Rose suffers from anorexia nervosa. You can tell her parents that the
most successful treatment for
Rose is probably __________.
C) family therapy and medication to reduce anxiety and neurotransmitter imbalances
Carlie engages in binge eating, followed by deliberate vomiting,
purging with laxatives, excessive
exercise, and strict dieting or even fasting. Carlie suffers from __________.
C) bulimia nervosa
Individuals with bulimia nervosa usually __________.
A) feel depressed and guilty about their abnormal eating habits
Binge-eating disorder __________.
B) typically leads to overweight and obesity
Sexual attitudes in North America are __________.
B) relatively restrictive
Typically, North American parents __________.
A) rarely talk about sex in their children’s presence
__________ is linked to early and frequent teenage sexual activity.
D) Childhood impulsivity
Which statement about the sexual behavior of U.S. adolescents is true?
B) In general, U.S. boys’ and girls’ rates of sexual intercourse are similar.
Early sexual activity is more common among young people from __________.
B) economically disadvantaged homes
Which statement about contraceptive use in adolescence is true?
C) Self-regulation is difficult for teenagers, who often overlook the
potential consequences of risky
Which set of siblings is most likely to share a homosexual orientation?
B) Reagan and Kennedy, who are identical twins
Girls __________ are more likely to develop lesbian or bisexual orientations.
B) exposed prenatally to very high levels of androgens or estrogens
Which statement about sexual orientation is true?
A) Attraction to members of the same sex is not limited to lesbian, gay, and bisexual teenagers.
Many gay men and lesbians say that they first sensed their
biologically determined sexual orientation
between ages __________, when they discovered __________.
C) 6 and 12; their play interests were more like those of the other gender
Which statement about self-acceptance among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths is true?
D) Coming out can foster self-esteem, psychological well-being, and
relationships with family and
Young people from ages 15 to 24 __________.
D) have the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections of all age groups
Which teen is the most likely to contract a sexually transmitted infection?
B) Ross from the United States
Studies show that most adolescents __________.
C) are poorly informed about how to protect themselves against STIs
Which statement about the spread of STIs, including HIV, is true?
D) It is at least twice as easy for a male to infect a female as for a female to infect a male.
The number of teenage births is considerably lower in the United
States than it was 50 years ago
B) about one-fourth of adolescent pregnancies end in abortion
Which statement about adolescent mothers is true?
D) Very few give up their infants for adoption.
Compared with adult mothers, adolescent mothers __________.
B) perceive their babies as more difficult
Sex education __________.
D) must help teenagers build a bridge between what they know and what they do
In Canada and Western Europe, where community- and school-based
clinics offer adolescents
contraceptives and where universal health insurance helps pay for them, __________ than in the United
D) pregnancy, childbirth, and abortion rates are much lower
According to the most recent nationally representative survey of U.S.
high school students, 47 percent
of tenth graders have tried __________.
If Krystal is like 21 percent of U.S. students, by twelfth grade she will __________.
C) have tried at least one highly addictive and toxic substance
Occasional drug experimenters are __________.
C) usually psychologically healthy, sociable, curious young people
Adolescent drug experimentation __________.
B) should not be taken lightly, because a single heavy dose can lead to permanent injury or death
School and community programs that reduce drug experimentation __________.
B) teach skills for resisting peer pressure
Adolescents who reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development __________.
C) no longer require concrete things or events as objects of thought
According to Piaget, 12-year-old Bula __________.
A) can “operate on operations”
Kia, age 14, uses hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Therefore, when
faced with a problem, Kia
D) starts with a hypothesis from which she deduces logical, testable inferences
Adolescents presented with Piaget’s famous pendulum problem __________.
B) isolate and test each variable, as well as testing the variables in combination
Which child is the most likely to evaluate the logic of statements
only by considering them against
concrete evidence in the real world?
D) Wiley, age 9
Which statement is supported by follow-up research on formal operational thought?
A) School-age children show the glimmerings of hypothetico-deductive
reasoning, although they are less
competent at it than adolescents.
With respect to propositional thought in an entirely verbal mode,
young children have great difficulty
reasoning from premises that contradict reality or their own beliefs because they
C) fail to grasp the logical necessity of propositional reasoning
When faced with a propositional reasoning problem, 17-year-old Iris is likely to __________.
D) justify her reasoning by explaining the logical rules on which it is based
In an Israeli study of seventh to ninth graders, after controlling
for participants’ age, researchers found
that __________ fully accounted for early adolescent gains in propositional thought.
D) years of schooling
In adolescence, __________.
C) inhibition improves
The ability to distinguish theory from evidence and use logical rules
to examine their relationship
A) improves steadily from childhood into adolescence
Sophisticated metacognitive understanding is vital for __________.
B) scientific reasoning
Scientific reasoning __________.
C) develops gradually out of many specific experiences
Donette is extremely self-conscious. She believes that she is the
focus of everyone else’s attention and
concern. Donette is experiencing a cognitive distortion known as __________.
B) the imaginary audience
The imaginary audience is most likely responsible for adolescents’ __________.
C) self-consciousness and sensitivity to public criticism
Fourteen-year-old Myles is certain he will be a professional baseball
player. When his mother makes
him stay home from practice because he has strep throat, Myles says, “You are ruining my life! You have
no idea how hard it is to miss out on something you love to do!” Myles is experiencing a cognitive
distortion known as __________.
B) the personal fable
Mr. Vogt is frustrated with his daughter’s exaggerated sense of her
personal uniqueness. One way he
could deal with this is to __________.
A) encourage a more balanced perspective by pointing out that he had similar feelings as a teenager
Ms. Diehl notices that her son has difficulty making everyday
decisions and is sensitive to public
criticism. She can help her son by __________.
D) offering information about the likelihood of various outcomes
In a study of sixth through tenth graders, __________ predicted
self-esteem and overall positive
D) sense of omnipotence
Fifteen-year-old Mary, who has become critical of her parents and
siblings, envisions a world with no
injustice or discrimination. This is typical of the __________ that manifests from adolescents’ capacity to
think about possibilities.
Compared with adults, in decision making, adolescents __________.
D) are more enticed by the possibility of immediate reward
In making decisions, teenagers __________.
B) take far greater risks than adults in their twenties
Students report that their __________ school teachers care less about
them and are less friendly than
their __________ school teachers.
A) middle and high; elementary
Which statement about school transitions is true?
C) Adolescents facing added strains at school transitions are at greatest risk for academic difficulties.
Leigh is a depressed teenager who shows a persisting pattern of poor
self-esteem, motivation, and
academic achievement. For students like Leigh, the transition to high school __________.
D) often marks a rise in out-of-school problem behaviors
Which high school is the most likely to help its students adjust to the school transition?
B) East High, which provides homerooms that offer counseling
__________ parenting is linked to higher grades in school among adolescents varying widely in SES.
High-achieving students typically have parents who __________.
B) remain invested in their teenagers’ education and keep tabs on academic progress
Nearly three-fourths of U.S. teenagers __________.
A) have smartphones
In a study involving weather predictions, media multitaskers __________.
B) activated subcortical areas involved in implicit memory
Compared to students grouped by ability into higher tracks, those in low tracks __________.
D) experience reduced teacher expectations
The decline in the overall U.S. high school dropout rate since the mid-2000s is largely due to
B) substantial gains in Hispanic teenagers’ graduation rates
The dropout rate in the United States is higher among __________ and
is particularly high among
C) boys than girls; ethnic minority youths
Lane is considering dropping out of high school and finding a job.
Lane should know that dropouts
__________ than high school graduates.
D) are more likely to remain in menial, low-paid jobs
Compared to students placed in a college preparatory track, students
placed in general education and
vocational tracks __________.
C) are three times as likely to drop out of high school
Most potential high school dropouts need __________.
A) intensive remedial instruction in small classes
To work well, vocational education must __________.
B) integrate academic and job-related instruction
Programs that __________ can make staying in school easier for at-risk adolescents.
C) offer flexible work‒study arrangements
Which at-risk high school student is most likely to be involved in extracurricular activities?
A) Hank, who attends a school with 500 students
More than two-thirds of U.S. high school dropouts __________.
D) finish their secondary education by their mid-twenties