Blood Flashcards


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1

What are functions of the blood?

-Transport gases, hormones, nutrients and wastes
-Maintenance of body temperature
-Acid/base balance
-Defense against microorganisms (virii and bacteria)

2

What are the major components of blood?

-Plasma (46-63%)
-Formed elements (37-54%)

3

What is anti-D serum used for

RH typing

4

Most Common plasma protein

albumin

5

Most numerous leukocyte in a normal blood smear

Neutrophils

6

Function of Platelets

blood clotting

7

Whats the difference between blood serum and blood plasma?

Blood serum has no clotting factor, whereas blood plasma does

8

What percentage of blood does blood plasma make up?

55%

9

What percent of blood plasma is water?

92%

10

The least abundant protein in the blood that is also involved in the clotting process

Fibrinogen

11

Most abundant cells within circulatory system

Erythrocytes, or RBC's

12

3 Genes for Rh

C,D,and E. D is the most reactive, and the D-antigen is what determines Rh+ or Rh-

13

Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn

The mother's anti-D antibodies pass through placenta and agglunitate the rbc's and the cells hemolyze, or rupture, and the parts are found in circulation of the baby

14

RhoGAM

Rh immune globulin, which binds fetal RBC antigens so that they cannont stimulate the mother's immune system to produce anti-D antibodies

15

most abundant type of granulocyte and second most abundant leukocyte

lymphocytes

16

named after protein antigen; present in rbc membrane

ABO

17

+ substance that the body recognizes as foreign,
+ stimulates the immune system to release antibodies

antigen

18

Blood type determined by

what antigen (agglutinogen) your blood contains

19

- found in plasma
- bind to rbc & cause clumping
- if wrong type if transfused...it ruptures
- formed 2-8 months old
- maximum @ 8-10 years old

antibodies (agglutinins)

20

+ self antigen (antigen D)
+ named after rhesus monkey

Rh factor

21

Rh+ if present

NO antibodies

22

Rh-

antibodies PRESENT

23

if Rh- gets Rh+ transfusion

it will produce Rh antibody

24

Landsteiner's Law

if an individual is missing A or B antigen from RBC the individual will have corresponding Ab in plasma

25

ABO system genotypes and phenotypes

genotypes & phenotypes -
A - AA/AO
B - BB/BO
AB - AB
O - OO

- O is amorphic
- AB genes are co-dominant

26

Blood typing is based on the presence of what and on where?

Presence of specific glycoproteins on the outer surface of the RBC plasma membrane

27

The glycoproteins used for blood typing are called what specifically?

Antigens/agglutinogens

28

How are antigens/agglutinogens determined?

Genetically

29

For ABO blood groups, their antigens are accompanied by what other specific plasma proteins?

Antibodies/agglutinins

30

What is the function of antibodies/agglutinins?

Act against RBCs carrying antigens that are not present on the person's own RBCs

31

What if the donor blood type doesn't match?

The recipient's antibodies react with the donor's blood antigens, causing the RBCs to clump, agglutinate, and hemolyze.

32

Describe individuals who do not carry the Rh antigen.

Rh negative

33

Describe individuals who carry the Rh antigen.

Rh positive

34

Blood groups are made up of any surface antigen on formed elements, not just ABO and Rh, and include over 500 known antigens.

true

35

What is the largest leukocyte that contains small cytoplasmic granules and typically a kidney- or horseshoe-shaped nucleus?

Monocyte

36

A patient is diagnosed with leukocytosis if they have more than __________ WBCs/μL.

10,000

37

A woman's first pregnancy is normal but her second pregnancy results in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). The second child needed a transfusion to completely replace the agglutinating blood. The mother is most likely type __________ and both children are most likely __________.

A, Rh-negative; B, Rh-positive

38

The main reason why an individual with type AB, Rh-negative blood cannot donate blood to an individual with type A, Rh-positive blood is because __________.

anti-B antibodies in the recipient will agglutinate RBCs of the donor

39

An individual has type B, Rh-positive blood. The individual has __________ antigen(s) and can produce anti-__________ antibodies.

B and D; A

40

The universal donor of RBCs, but not necessarily plasma, is blood type __________.

O, Rh-negative

41

Why are pregnant Rh- women given an injection of Rh immune globulin?

Antibodies in the injection bind fetal RBC antigens so they cannot stimulate her immune system to produce anti-D antibodies

42

A person with type AB blood has __________ RBC antigen(s).

A and B

43

A person with type A blood can safely donate RBCs to someone of type __________ and can receive RBCs from someone of type __________.

AB; O

44

Which of the following is not contained in the buffy coat?

Erythrocytes

45

Rh incompatibility between a sensitized Rh+ woman and an Rh- fetus can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn.

false

46

Incompatibility of one person's blood with another results from the action of plasma antibodies against the RBCs' antigens.

true

47

A person develops anti-A antibodies only after he is exposed to antigen A, and anti-B antibodies only after he is exposed to antigen B.

false

48

Oxygen and carbon dioxide bind to different parts of hemoglobin.

true

49

Red blood cells are also known as ____.

erythrocytes

50

____ are biconcave disks that are easy to change shape

RBC

51

Red blood cells have ____ only that binds reversibly with oxygen.

hemoglobin

52

There are no ____ in red blood cells, therefore there is no oxygen use, protein production, or reproduction.

nuclei or organelles

53

____ from bone produces red blood cells.

red bone marrow

54

Defend the body against disease.

white blood cells

55

Type ____ blood has no agglutination.

O

56

Type ____ blood is the universal plasma donor.

AB

57

Type ____ blood is the universal cell donor.

O

58

Type ____ blood is the universal plasma recipient.

O

59

Type ____ blood is the universal cell recipient.

AB

60

Rh+ indicates the presence of the ____.

D antigen

61

Anti-Rh antibodies are not spontaneously formed in ____ individuals.

Rh-

62

NAME THREE IONS NORMALLY FOUND IN PLASMA.

SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM

63

NAME TWO GASES NORMALLY FOUND IN PLASMA.

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OXYGEN

64

Which of the following is a function of the blood?

A) transport of nutrients and wastes

B) transport of body heat

C) transport of gases

D) defense against toxins and pathogens

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

65

Which of the following statements about blood is false?

A) Blood contains buffers that control pH.

B) The normal pH of blood is 6.8 to 7.0.

C) Blood is more viscous than water.

D) Blood is about 55 percent plasma.

E) Cells in blood comprise the formed elements.

B) The normal pH of blood is 6.8 to 7.0.

66

Formed elements make up about what percentage of blood?

A) 55 percent

B) 30 percent

C) 60 percent

D) 45 percent

E) 20 percent

D) 45 percent

67

The combination of plasma and formed elements is called

A) serum.

B) lymph.

C) whole blood.

D) extracellular fluid.

E) packed blood.

C) whole blood.

68

Which of the following is/are NOT (a) formed element(s)?

  1. Erythrocytes
  2. Leukocytes
  3. Plasma
  4. Platelets

Plasma

69

Which category of plasma proteins includes the antibodies?

  1. fibrinogen
  2. globulins
  3. albumin
  4. hormones
  1. globulins
70

The formed elements of the blood consist of __________.

  1. antibodies, metalloproteins, and lipoproteins
  2. electrolytes, nutrients, and organic wastes
  3. albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
  4. red and white blood cells and platelets

red and white blood cells and platelets

71

Proportionately, what is the largest component of the plasma, other than water?

  1. Electrolytes
  2. Wastes
  3. Nutrients
  4. Proteins

protein

72

How much blood does an adult male normally have?

  1. 4-5 liters
  2. 2-3 liters
  3. 5-6 liters
  4. 3-4 liters
  1. 5-6 liters
73

Which of the following is NOT a function of the blood?

  1. All of the listed responses are correct.
  2. Transportation of gases, nutrients, hormones, and wastes
  3. Regulation of pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids
  4. Defend against pathogens

All of the listed responses are correct.

74

In addition to water and proteins, what else make up plasma?

  1. None of the listed responses are correct.
  2. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
  3. Albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
  4. Electrolytes, nutrients, and organic wastes

Electrolytes, nutrients, and organic wastes

75

What is serum?

  1. Plasma with the proteins removed
  2. Plasma without electrolytes
  3. Plasma with the clotting factors removed
  4. Plasma with only immunoglobulins present

Plasma with the clotting factors removed

76

The most abundant component of plasma is

A) ions.

B) proteins.

C) water.

D) gases.

E) nutrients.

water

77

Which of the following is not one of the formed elements of blood?

A) RBCs

B) platelets

C) antibodies

D) lymphocytes

E) basophils

antibodies

78

Plasma composes about ________ percent of whole blood and water composes ________ percent of the plasma volume.

A) 55; 92

B) 92; 7

C) 92; 55

D) 45; 55

E) 50; 50

55; 92

79

Which of the following statements concerning red blood cells is false?

A) Red cells are biconcave discs.

B) Red cells lack mitochondria.

C) Red cells are about 18 µm in diameter.

D) Red cells are specialized for carrying oxygen.

E) Red cells can form stacks called rouleaux.

Red cells are about 18 µm in diameter.

80

The function of red blood cells is to

A) carry oxygen from the cells to the lungs.

B) carry carbon dioxide from the lungs to the body's cells.

C) carry nutrients from the digestive system to the body's cells.

D) defend the body against infectious organisms.

E) carry oxygen to the cells and then carry away carbon dioxide.

E) carry oxygen to the cells and then carry away carbon dioxide.

81

The function of hemoglobin is to

A) carry dissolved blood gases.

B) carry bicarbonate ion.

C) aid in the process of blood clotting.

D) produce antibodies.

E) stimulate erythropoiesis.

A) carry dissolved blood gases.

82

Fifty to seventy percent of circulating white blood cells are _______.

A) monocytes.

B) lymphocytes.

C) eosinophils.

D) basophils.

E) neutrophils.

neutrophils

83

The ________ is a procedure that is used to determine the number of each of the various types of white blood cells.

A) differential count

B) hematocrit

C) sedimentation rate

D) WBC count

E) complete cell count (CBC)

differential count

84

The clumping of red blood cells, when the specific antibody against the antigen on the cells is added, is called _______.

A) coagulation.

B) agglutination.

C) hemostasis.

D) vascularization.

E) areolation.

agglutination

85

________ is responsible for the RBC's ability to transport oxygen and CO2.

A) Hemoglobin

B) Fibrinogen

C) Albumin

D) Transferrin

E) Ferritin

Hemoglobin

86

The antibodies that attack antigens on foreign RBCs are called __________.

aggluntinins

87

People with type O blood are considered "universal donors" for transfusions because __________.

  1. their blood lacks A and B agglutinins (antibodies)
  2. their blood is plentiful in A and B agglutinins
  3. their red blood cells lack A and B surface antigens
  4. they usually have very strong red blood cells

C. their red blood cells lack A and B surface antigens

88

A person with a type A positive blood can safely receive blood from all of these donors EXCEPT __________.

  1. O positive
  2. A negative
  3. B positive
  4. A positive

B positive

89

Plasma makes up approximately what percentage of whole blood?

  1. 65 percent
  2. 55 percent
  3. 45 percent
  4. 38 percent

55 percent

90

If agglutinogen B meets with agglutinin anti-A, what is the result?

  1. No agglutination occurs.
  2. A cross-reaction occurs.
  3. The patient dies.
  4. The patient becomes comatose.

No agglutination occurs

91

What type of blood is considered to be the “universal donor”?

  1. Type O negative
  2. Type AB positive
  3. Type B negative
  4. Type A negative

Type O negative

92

Where are red blood cells produced in an adult?

  1. Lungs
  2. Liver
  3. Red bone marrow
  4. Yellow bone marrow

Red bone marrow

93

Agglutinogens are contained on the __________, whereas the agglutinins are found in the __________.

  1. plasma; cell membrane of the RBC
  2. cell membrane of the RBC; plasma
  3. mitochondria; nucleus of the RBC
  4. nucleus of the RBC; mitochondria

B. cell membrane of the RBC; plasma

94

Which of the following combinations may result in the hemolytic disease of the newborn?

A) mother Rh positive, baby Rh negative

B) mother Rh negative, baby Rh negative

C) mother Rh negative, baby Rh positive

D) mother type A+, baby type O+

E) None of the answers is correct.

C) mother Rh negative, baby Rh positive (mother is always rH negative in this disease)

95

Antigens of the surface of red blood cells are also called ________ and antibodies in the blood plasma are also called ________.

A) agglutinins; agglutinogens

B) agglutinogens; agglutinins

C) T-cells; B-cells

D) erythrogens; antibiotics

E) serum; plasma

B) agglutinogens; agglutinins

96

Anti-D antibodies are present in the blood of

A) all individuals with type AB blood.

B) Rh negative individuals who have been exposed to the D surface antigen.

C) all Rh positive individuals.

D) Rh positive individuals who have been exposed to the D surface antigen.

E) all Rh negative individuals.

B) Rh negative individuals who have been exposed to the D surface antigen.

97

Type AB blood has which of the following characteristics?

A) RBCs have the Rh positive antigens and the anti-D plasma antibodies.

B) RBCs have no surface antigens and both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma.

C) RBCs have both the A & B surface antigens and no ABO plasma antibodies.

D) RBCs have the A and the B surface antigens and the plasma has anti-A and anti-B antibodies.

E) RBCs have the A antigen and the plasma has the anti-B antibody.

C) RBCs have both the A & B surface antigens and no ABO plasma antibodies.

98

People with type AB blood are considered the "universal recipient" for transfusions because

A) their blood cells lack A and B antigens.

B) their blood lacks A or B agglutinins.

C) their blood is plentiful in A and B agglutinins.

D) they usually have very strong immune systems.

E) they are usually Rh negative.

B) their blood lacks A or B agglutinins.