Chapter 24 Physiology Flashcards


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1

1) Which is NOT a pathogen?
A) cancer
B) hookworm
C) athlete's foot fungus
D) chicken pox virus
E) meningococcus bacterium

A

2

2) Autoimmune diseases are an example of a(n) ________ response by the immune system.
A) lack of
B) overactive
C) incorrect
D) None of the answers are correct.

C

3

3) When the immune system creates a response that is overblown in relation to the threat it has been exposed to, the response is called an
A) autoimmune response.
B) immunodeficiency.
C) allergic reaction.

C

4

4) Antibiotics are drugs that destroy or inhibit the growth of
A) viruses.
B) bacteria.
C) multicellular pathogens such as hookworms.
D) viruses and bacteria.
E) viruses, bacteria, and multicellular pathogens such as hookworms.

B

5

5) Viruses
A) must reproduce inside cells of the host.
B) are considered to be parasitic.
C) easily survive in the environment outside the body.
D) must reproduce inside cells of the host and are considered to be parasitic.
E) must reproduce inside cells of the host, are considered to be parasitic, and easily survive in the environment outside the body.

D

6

6) Which of these is matched incorrectly?
A) innate immunity - nonspecific responses
B) acquired immunity - responses directed toward specific invaders
C) active immunity - an immune response started and developed by the cells
D) actively acquired immunity - immunity passed via the placenta or milk to offspring
E) Each of these is correctly described.

D

7

7) Lymphoid tissues include
A) thymus.
B) bone marrow.
C) lymph nodes.
D) spleen.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

8

8) The largest lymphoid tissue(s) is/are the
A) spleen.
B) thymus.
C) GALT.
D) lymph nodes.
E) tonsils.

A

9

9) Diffuse lymphoid tissue includes
A) tonsils.
B) GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue).
C) the spleen.
D) tonsils and GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue).
E) tonsils, GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue), and the spleen

D

10

10) Swelling and soreness of the lymph nodes indicate that
A) immune cells are fighting infection.
B) the immune system is incapable of working.
C) dangerous cancerous changes are occurring in the immune system.
D) too much or improper exercise has been undertaken.
E) None of the answers are correct.

A

11

11) ________ are clusters of lymphatic nodules located beneath the epithelial lining of the small intestine.
A) Tonsils
B) Adenoids
C) Peyer's patches
D) Immune complexes
E) Lymph nodes

C

12

12) Cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system include
A) macrophages and monocytes.
B) neutrophils and eosinophils.
C) lymphocytes and plasma cells.
D) macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils.
E) macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells.

A

13

13) Which cell is incorrectly matched with the characteristic?
A) eosinophils - numbers increase with allergies and parasites
B) eosinophils - cytotoxic cells may live only 6-12 hours
C) basophils - have granules containing histamine and heparin
D) neutrophils - most abundant white cell
E) neutrophils - most difficult to identify

E

14

14) ________ have been found to be the precursor cells of macrophages.
A) Eosinophils
B) Basophils
C) Neutrophils
D) Monocytes
E) Lymphocytes

D

15

15) Which of the following are NOT antigen-presenting cells (APCs)?
A) lymphocytes
B) dendritic cells
C) macrophages
D) neutrophils
E) monocytes

D

16

16) Leukocytes recognize molecules that are unique to pathogens; thus, the molecules are
A) pathogen-associated molecular patterns.
B) pattern recognition receptors.
C) toll-like receptors.
D) phagosomes.
E) antigens.

A

17

17) Molecules that attract immune cells are known as
A) interferons.
B) lysozymes.
C) antigens.
D) opsonins.
E) chemotaxins.

E

18

18) Which of the following immune cells are also known as Langerhans cells?
A) basophils
B) eosinophils
C) mast cells
D) lymphocytes
E) dendritic cells

E

19

19) Lymphocytes and plasma cells
A) mediate the acquired immune response.
B) are found primarily in lymphoid tissue.
C) all function and behave the same way.
D) mediate the acquired immune response and are found primarily in lymphoid tissue.
E) mediate the acquired immune response, are found primarily in lymphoid tissue, and all function and behave the same way.

D

20

20) C-reactive protein is a type of
A) cytokine.
B) chemotaxin.
C) acute-phase protein.
D) pyrogen.
E) granzyme.

C

21

21) All of the following are characteristics of acquired immunity EXCEPT
A) cell-mediated immunity.
B) nonspecific immunity.
C) humoral immunity.
D) adaptive immunity.

B

22

22) Cytokines function by
A) acting as messengers for growth and activity of other cells.
B) poisoning and killing invading cells.
C) digesting invading cells.
D) acting as messengers for growth and activity of other cells and poisoning and killing invading cells.
E) acting as messengers for growth and activity of other cells, poisoning and killing invading cells, and digesting invading cells.

A

23

23) Chemotaxins function in
A) digesting invading cells.
B) attracting additional immune cells.
C) poisoning and killing invading cells.
D) digesting invading cells and attracting additional immune cells.
E) digesting invading cells, attracting additional immune cells, and poisoning and killing invading cells.

B

24

24) A substance that induces fever is known as a(n)
A) opsonin.
B) chemotaxin.
C) acute phase protein.
D) pyrogen.
E) cytokine.

D

25

25) Opsonins function by
A) poisoning and killing invading cells.
B) marking or tagging pathogens so phagocytes can find and ingest them.
C) digesting invading cells directly.
D) poisoning and killing invading cells and marking or tagging pathogens so phagocytes can find and ingest them.
E) poisoning and killing invading cells, marking or tagging pathogens so phagocytes can find and ingest them, and digesting invading cells directly.

B

26

26) Acute phase proteins are produced by the
A) macrophages.
B) lymph nodes.
C) liver.
D) thymus.
E) lymphocytes.

C

27

27) The cells responsible for the production of circulating antibodies are
A) NK cells.
B) plasma cells.
C) helper T cells.
D) cytotoxic T cells.
E) suppressor T cells.

B

28

28) Passive immunity is a type of ________ immunity.
A) acquired
B) innate

A

29

29) The cells responsible for cell-mediated immunity are the
A) B lymphocytes.
B) plasma cells.
C) T lymphocytes.
D) suppressor T lymphocytes.

C

30

30) Stem cells that will form B lymphocytes are found in the
A) bone marrow.
B) liver.
C) spleen.
D) thymus.
E) kidneys.

A

31

31) The first line of cellular defense against pathogens are the
A) T lymphocytes.
B) B lymphocytes.
C) NK cells.
D) phagocytes.
E) plasma cells.

D

32

32) Which of the following acts as the earliest form of defense against exogenous pathogens in the list?
A) inflammation
B) lymphocytes
C) macrophages
D) skin

D

33

33) An inflammatory response is triggered when
A) red blood cells release pyrogens.
B) T lymphocytes release interferon.
C) mast cells release granules containing histamine and heparin.
D) neutrophils phagocytize bacteria.
E) blood flow to an area increases.

C

34

34) Lymphocytes that attack foreign cells or body cells infected with viruses are
A) B lymphocytes.
B) plasma cells.
C) helper T cells.
D) cytotoxic T cells.
E) suppressor T cells.

D

35

35) Cells that help to regulate the immune response are
A) B lymphocytes.
B) plasma cells.
C) helper T cells.
D) cytotoxic T cells.
E) NK cells.

C

36

36) The cells that are actively involved in immunological surveillance are the
A) NK cells.
B) plasma cells.
C) B lymphocytes.
D) helper T cells.
E) suppressor T cells.

A

37

37) Stem cells that will form T lymphocytes are modified in the
A) bone marrow.
B) liver.
C) spleen.
D) thymus.
E) kidneys.

D

38

38) ________ is the immunoglobulin class that comprises 75% of antibodies in adult blood.
A) IgA
B) IgD
C) IgE
D) IgG
E) IgM

D

39

39) Immunoglobulins that are mainly responsible for resistance against viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are
A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

D

40

40) Immunoglobulins that attach to mast cells and are involved in allergic reactions are
A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

C

41

41) Immunoglobulins that are found on the surface of B lymphocytes and may play a role in regulation of the humoral immune response are
A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

B

42

42) Immunoglobulins that are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection are
A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

E

43

43) Immunoglobulins that are primarily found in glandular secretions are
A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

A

44

44) The specificity of an antibody is determined by
A) the fixed segment.
B) the antigenic determinants.
C) the variable region.
D) the size of the antibody.
E) the antibody class.

C

45

45) In order for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen, the antigen must
A) be phagocytized by the lymphocyte.
B) enter the cytoplasm of the lymphocyte.
C) bind to the DNA of the lymphocyte.
D) bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte membrane.
E) depolarize the lymphocyte.

D

46

46) When an antigen complex is bound to a Class I MHC molecule, it can stimulate a
A) B cell.
B) plasma cell.
C) helper T cell.
D) cytotoxic T cell.
E) NK cell.

D

47

47) Class II MHC molecules are found
A) on all cells with a nucleus.
B) only on red blood cells.
C) only on granulocytes and macrophages.
D) only on lymphocytes and macrophages.
E) only on liver cells and macrophages in the spleen.

D

48

48) A person's blood type is determined by
A) the size of the red blood cells.
B) the shape of the red blood cells.
C) the chemical character of the hemoglobin.
D) the presence or absence of specific glycoprotein molecules on their cell membrane.
E) the number of specific molecules on the cell membrane.

D

49

49) A person with type A blood has
A) A antibodies on his red blood cells.
B) A antibodies in his plasma.
C) B antibodies on his red blood cells.
D) B antibodies in his plasma.
E) the ability to receive AB blood cells.

D

50

50) Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are
A) immunodeficiency diseases.
B) autoimmune diseases.
C) allergies.
D) the result of stress.
E) common in the elderly.

C

51

51) These are the most abundant leukocyte; they are formed in the bone marrow.

A. lymphocytes
B. neutrophils
C. monocytes
D. eosinophils
E. basophils

B

52

52) Cytotoxic, these cells are associated with allergic reactions and parasitic infestations. Usually these cells are less than 3% of the leukocyte population, and only live up to 12 hours.

A. lymphocytes
B. neutrophils
C. monocytes
D. eosinophils
E. basophils

D

53

53) Precursors of macrophages, these cells are relatively rare in blood because they are actually in transit to some other site.

A. lymphocytes
B. neutrophils
C. monocytes
D. eosinophils
E. basophils

C

54

54) These cells are related to mast cells, and both release chemical mediators such as histamine and heparin, which aid in the immune response.

A. lymphocytes
B. neutrophils
C. monocytes
D. eosinophils
E. basophils

E

55

55) Estimated to reach populations of one trillion in normal adults, most of these cells reside in the lymphoid tissues of the body. These cells look quite similar to one another under the microscope, yet function very differently.

A. lymphocytes
B. neutrophils
C. monocytes
D. eosinophils
E. basophils

A

56

56) A patient has elevated eosinophils and monocytes but normal levels of neutrophils, basophils, and lymphocytes. Which of the following could be causing those levels?
A) an acute bacterial infection
B) a chronic bacterial infection
C) a viral infection
D) a chronic parasitic infection
E) a severe allergic reaction

D

57

57) A patient has elevated neutrophils and monocytes with normal levels of basophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. Which of the following is the most likely cause of these test results?
A) a chronic bacterial infection
B) an acute viral infection
C) an allergic reaction
D) a fungal infection
E) an autoimmune reaction

A

58

58) A patient with hay fever symptoms that have been going on for a couple weeks comes to your office to be treated for his hay fever. If a white blood cell differential count was performed, which leukocytes would likely be elevated?
A) neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes
B) monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils
C) monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
D) lymphocytes, basophils, and neutrophils

C

59

59) present at birth

A. specific
B. nonspecific

B

60

60) Secreted lysozyme kills bacteria.

A. specific
B. nonspecific

B

61

61) NK cells cause apoptosis of viral-infected cells.

A. specific
B. nonspecific

B

62

62) Antibodies in breast milk protect a newborn baby from pathogens.

A. specific
B. nonspecific

A

63

63) Infected cells are killed by perforin and granzymes.

A. specific
B. nonspecific

A

64

64) ________ are phagocytic cells that are permanent residents of specific tissues and organs.

Fixed Macrophages

65

65) ________ are fixed macrophages that are found in the central nervous system.

Microglia

66

66) ________ are fixed macrophages found in the liver.

Kupffer Cells

67

67) ________ are fixed macrophages located in the epithelia of the skin.

Langerhans Cells

68

68) ________ are free phagocytes found in the lungs.

Alveolar Macrophages

69

69) The ability of certain cells to mobilize in response to changes in their chemical environment is called ________.

Chemotaxis

70

70) Substances that can trigger an immune response are known as ________.

Antigens

71

71) ________ are antibodies found in body fluids.

Immunoglobulins

72

72) The process by which the surface of a microorganism is covered with antibodies and complement, rendering it more likely to be phagocytized, is called ________.

Opsonization

73

73) ________ cells enable the immune system to respond more quickly if the same antigen is encountered a second time.

Memory

74

74) ________ exists when the immune system does NOT respond to a particular antigen.

Tolerance

75

75) ________ are mediators released from white blood cells that regulate the activity of B cells and T cells and enhance nonspecific defense.

Interleukins

76

76) ________ are cytokines that make cells resistant to viruses.

Interferons

77

77) ________ are groups of lymphocytes with a specific ligand in common.

Clones

78

78) A sample of tissue from an injury shows a large number of basophils. This would indicate that the tissue was
A) abscessed.
B) inflamed.
C) being rejected.
D) infected by viruses.
E) infected by multicellular parasites.

B

79

79) Meghan thinks she has an abscessed tooth. If she does, what type of white blood cell would you expect to see in elevated numbers in a differential count?
A) neutrophils
B) eosinophils
C) basophils
D) lymphocytes
E) monocytes

A

80

80) Bill wants to determine his blood type, so he takes a few drops of blood from a puncture wound in his finger and mixes it with various antisera. His blood cells agglutinate when mixed with the anti-A serum but not with the anti-B. Therefore this is true:
A) Bill could receive type B blood in a transfusion.
B) Bill could donate blood to an individual with type B blood.
C) Bill is Rh positive.
D) Bill's plasma contains B antibodies.
E) Bill's plasma would cross-react with type O red blood cells.

D

81

81) In an experimental situation focused on the development of a new vaccine, mice were injected with a viral antigen. Their plasma was removed in order to detect the presence of antibodies. This is an example of
A) innate immunity.
B) active immunization.
C) passive immunization.
D) natural immunity.
E) autoimmunity.

B

82

82) In an experimental situation, a virus is injected into a rabbit and the rabbit is allowed to make antibodies for the viral antigen. These antibodies are then removed from the rabbit plasma and injected into a human to help combat the same viral disease. This is an example of
A) innate immunity.
B) active immunization.
C) passive immunization.
D) natural immunity.
E) autoimmunity.

C

83

83) A decrease in which population of lymphocytes would impair all aspects of an immune response?
A) cytotoxic T cells
B) helper T cells
C) suppressor T cells
D) B lymphocytes
E) plasma cells

B

84

84) The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively infects
A) B cells.
B) plasma cells.
C) cytotoxic T cells.
D) helper T cells.
E) suppressor T cells.

D

85

85) Milly has just received a kidney transplant and is taking cyclosporin A, a drug that suppresses cytotoxic T cells. What does this medication do?
A) prevents inflammation from destroying the transplanted kidney
B) depresses hematopoiesis
C) prevents rejection
D) increases the number of antibodies in the blood
E) None of the answers are correct.

C

86

86) Leslie has a bad sore throat and the lymph nodes in her neck are swollen. This indicates
A) the focus of the infection is the lymph nodes.
B) lymph is not flowing through these lymph nodes.
C) the affected lymph nodes contain an increased number of lymphocytes.
D) the lymph gland has increased its secretion of thymosin.

C

87

87) Neil accidentally ingests a substance that activates the complement cascade in the absence of bound antibodies. This substance would
A) produce a fever.
B) cause extensive cellular damage.
C) increase circulation of lymph.
D) activate blood clotting.
E) prevent inflammation.

B

88

88) In a routine examination, some blood is taken and analyzed. The results show a high IgM level for the mumps antigen. This would indicate
A) the person has just recovered from mumps.
B) the person is just coming down with mumps.
C) the person is allergic to mumps.
D) the person is immune to mumps.
E) None of the answers are correct.

B

89

89) A fluid sample contains a large amount of IgA type antibody. This fluid is probably
A) blood.
B) lymph.
C) serum.
D) tears.
E) intracellular.

D

90

90) crosses the placenta

A. IgA
B. IgM
C. IgG
D. IgD
E. IgE

C

91

91) present in breast milk

A. IgA
B. IgM
C. IgG
D. IgD
E. IgE

A

92

92) physiological role is unclear

A. IgA
B. IgM
C. IgG
D. IgD
E. IgE

D

93

93) binds to mast cells, triggering degranulation

A. IgA
B. IgM
C. IgG
D. IgD
E. IgE

E

94

94) reacts to blood group antigens

A. IgA
B. IgM
C. IgG
D. IgD
E. IgE

B

95

Draw and label a typical antibody molecule. Be sure to include the light chain, heavy chain, Fab, Fc, and the hinge region. Identify the antigen-binding site and disulfide bonds.

...