A&P 2 CH. 26 Flashcards


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1

Dissociate in water.

Electrolytes

2

Do not dissociate.

Nonelectrolytes

3

Spaces between cells.

interstitial

4

Magnesium excess.

Hypermagnesemia

5

Calcium depletion.

Hypocalcemia

6

Sodium excess.

Hypernatremia

7

Potassium excess.

Hyperkalemia

8

Sodium depletion.

Hyponatremia

9

An atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space.

Edema

10

12) A condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins resulting in tissue edema.

Hypoproteinemia

11

13) A disorder entailing deficient mineralocorticoid hormone production by the adrenal cortex.

Addison's disease

12

14) Regulates sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid.

Aldosterone

13

15) A condition due to excessive water intake that results in net osmosis into tissue cells. This leads to severe metabolic disturbances.

Hyponatremia

14

Sodium ions are highest in ________.

blood plasma

15

Potassium ions are highest in

intracellular fluid

16

Phosphate ions are highest in

intracellular fluid

17

Bicarbonate ions are highest in

interstitial fluid

18

Proteins are highest in ________.

intracellular fluid

19

21) Possibly caused by severe diarrhea or untreated diabetes mellitus

Metabolic acidosis

20

22) Possibly occurring with emphysema, extreme obesity, or narcotic overdose

Respiratory acidosis

21

23) Possibly caused by asthma, pneumonia, or a severe panic attack

Respiratory alkalosis

22

24) Possibly caused by vomiting, use of diuretics, or use of antacids

Metabolic alkalosis

23

25) Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human body.

false

24

26) The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium.

false

25

27) Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of body fluids.

true

26

28) Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients.

false

27

29) The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalamus.

true

28

30) Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus.

true

29

It is impossible to overhydrate because people need as much water as they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions.

false

30

32) Water imbalance, in which output exceeds intake, causing an imbalance in body fluids, is termed dehydration

true

31

33) Salts are lost from the body in perspiration, and urine only.

false

32

34) Hypoproteinemia reflects a condition of unusually high levels of plasma proteins and causes tissue edema

false

33

35) Although the sodium content of the body may be altered, its concentration in the ECF remains relatively stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume.

true

34

36) Sodium is pivotal to fluid and electrolyte balance and to the homeostasis of all body systems.

true

35

37) When aldosterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorption cannot occur beyond the distal convoluted tubule.

true

36

38) Aldosterone stimulates the reabsorption of sodium while enhancing potassium secretion.

true

37

39) Some potassium ions are reabsorbed from the kidney filtrate via type A intercalated cells.

true

38

40) Aldosterone is secreted in response to low extracellular potassium.

false

39

41) To remain properly hydrated, water intake must equal water output.

true

40

42) The main way the kidney regulates potassium ions is to excrete them.

true

41

43) Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasodilation and potassium and water retention.

true

42

44) Premenstrual edema may be due to enhanced reabsorption of sodium chloride.

true

43

45) Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal.

true

44

Hypercalcemia causes muscle tetany.

false

45

The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium are pituitary hormone and calcitonin.

false

46

Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium from storage when serum levels are low

false

47

The normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45.

true

48

Most acidic substances (hydrogen ions) originate as by-products of cellular metabolism.

true

49

Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body because they partially dissociate.

true

50

The phosphate buffer system is relatively unimportant for buffering blood plasma.

true

51

The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system.

true

52

One of the most powerful and plentiful sources of buffers is the protein buffer system.

true

53

As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases

true

54

Carotid artery and aortic baroreceptors are involved in long term adjustment to total body sodium ion content.

true

55

Respiratory acidosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient.

true

56

Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis.

true

57

Thirst is always a reliable indicator of body water need.

false

58

Blood acidity results in depression of the CNS, whereas blood alkalosis results in over-excitement of the CNS

true

59

61) The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?

sodium ions

60

62) The term hypotonic hydration refers to ________.

a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water

61

Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins. This problem is often characterized by ________.

tissue edema

62

64) Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?

aldosterone

63

65) Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________.

reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

64

66) Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________.

a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

65

67) Total body water is not a function of which of the following?

amount of water ingested

66

68) Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?

anabolism of lipids

67

69) Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?

aldosterone

68

70) The fluid link between the external and internal environment is ________.

plasma

69

71) Newborn infants have a relatively higher ________ content in their ECF than do adults.

bicarbonate

70

72) Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ________ is found in the intracellular fluid.

potassium

71

73) Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?

K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

72

74) Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their ________.

inefficient kidneys

73

75) The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________.

potassium ion concentration in blood plasma

74

76) The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system.

bicarbonate

75

77) A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates ________.

respiratory acidosis

76

78) The movement of fluids between cellular compartments ________.

is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

77

79) What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?

atrial natriuretic peptide

78

80) Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?

diet

79

81) Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?

nucleic acid

80

82) Which of the following is not a trigger for juxtaglomerular granular cells to release renin?

increased extracellular fluid water levels

81

83) Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?

Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.

82

84) Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?

antidiuretic hormone

83

85) The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of ________.

the control of respiratory ventilation

84

86) Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?

excessive hydration due to excess ANP secretion

85

87) The regulation of sodium ________.

is linked to blood pressure

86

88) Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?

metabolic acidosis

87

89) A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?

metabolic alkalosis

88

90) One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is ________.

a rise in plasma osmolality

89

91) Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted French fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?

There will be a temporary increase in blood volume.

90

92) The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is ________.

hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

91

93) Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?

amount of body fat

92

94) The regulation of potassium balance ________.

involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium

93

95) Respiratory alkalosis occurs when carbon dioxide is eliminated ________ than it isproduced.

faster

94

96) The female hormone ________ seems to decrease sodium reabsorption, thus promoting sodium and water loss by the kidney.

progesterone

95

The most important physiological buffer systems are the lungs and ________.

kidneys

96

98) The electrolyte deficiency condition where the individual may crave substances like clay, chalk, starch or burnt match tips is called ________.

pica

97

Parathyroid hormone regulates ________ ions in the body.

calcium

98

Molecules that can act reversibly as acids or bases depending upon the pH of their environment are called ________.

amphoteric

99

The breakdown of phosphorus-containing proteins releases ________ acid.

phospheric

100

Acidosis occurs when arterial blood pH is below ________.

7.35