100 notecards = 25 pages (4 cards per page)
Dissociate in water.
Do not dissociate.
Spaces between cells.
An atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space.
12) A condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins resulting in tissue edema.
13) A disorder entailing deficient mineralocorticoid hormone production by the adrenal cortex.
14) Regulates sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid.
15) A condition due to excessive water intake that results in net osmosis into tissue cells. This leads to severe metabolic disturbances.
Sodium ions are highest in ________.
Potassium ions are highest in
Phosphate ions are highest in
Bicarbonate ions are highest in
Proteins are highest in ________.
21) Possibly caused by severe diarrhea or untreated diabetes mellitus
22) Possibly occurring with emphysema, extreme obesity, or narcotic overdose
23) Possibly caused by asthma, pneumonia, or a severe panic attack
24) Possibly caused by vomiting, use of diuretics, or use of antacids
25) Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human body.
26) The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium.
27) Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of body fluids.
28) Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients.
29) The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalamus.
30) Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus.
It is impossible to overhydrate because people need as much water as they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions.
32) Water imbalance, in which output exceeds intake, causing an imbalance in body fluids, is termed dehydration
33) Salts are lost from the body in perspiration, and urine only.
34) Hypoproteinemia reflects a condition of unusually high levels of plasma proteins and causes tissue edema
35) Although the sodium content of the body may be altered, its concentration in the ECF remains relatively stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume.
36) Sodium is pivotal to fluid and electrolyte balance and to the homeostasis of all body systems.
37) When aldosterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorption cannot occur beyond the distal convoluted tubule.
38) Aldosterone stimulates the reabsorption of sodium while enhancing potassium secretion.
39) Some potassium ions are reabsorbed from the kidney filtrate via type A intercalated cells.
40) Aldosterone is secreted in response to low extracellular potassium.
41) To remain properly hydrated, water intake must equal water output.
42) The main way the kidney regulates potassium ions is to excrete them.
43) Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasodilation and potassium and water retention.
44) Premenstrual edema may be due to enhanced reabsorption of sodium chloride.
45) Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal.
Hypercalcemia causes muscle tetany.
The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium are pituitary hormone and calcitonin.
Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium from storage when serum levels are low
The normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45.
Most acidic substances (hydrogen ions) originate as by-products of cellular metabolism.
Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body because they partially dissociate.
The phosphate buffer system is relatively unimportant for buffering blood plasma.
The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system.
One of the most powerful and plentiful sources of buffers is the protein buffer system.
As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases
Carotid artery and aortic baroreceptors are involved in long term adjustment to total body sodium ion content.
Respiratory acidosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient.
Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis.
Thirst is always a reliable indicator of body water need.
Blood acidity results in depression of the CNS, whereas blood alkalosis results in over-excitement of the CNS
61) The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
62) The term hypotonic hydration refers to ________.
a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water
Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins. This problem is often characterized by ________.
64) Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?
65) Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________.
reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention
66) Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________.
a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction
67) Total body water is not a function of which of the following?
amount of water ingested
68) Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?
anabolism of lipids
69) Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?
70) The fluid link between the external and internal environment is ________.
71) Newborn infants have a relatively higher ________ content in their ECF than do adults.
72) Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
73) Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?
K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
74) Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their ________.
75) The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________.
potassium ion concentration in blood plasma
76) The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system.
77) A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates ________.
78) The movement of fluids between cellular compartments ________.
is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces
79) What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?
atrial natriuretic peptide
80) Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?
81) Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?
82) Which of the following is not a trigger for juxtaglomerular granular cells to release renin?
increased extracellular fluid water levels
83) Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.
84) Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?
85) The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of ________.
the control of respiratory ventilation
86) Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?
excessive hydration due to excess ANP secretion
87) The regulation of sodium ________.
is linked to blood pressure
88) Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?
89) A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?
90) One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is ________.
a rise in plasma osmolality
91) Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted French fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?
There will be a temporary increase in blood volume.
92) The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is ________.
hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood
93) Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?
amount of body fat
94) The regulation of potassium balance ________.
involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium
95) Respiratory alkalosis occurs when carbon dioxide is eliminated ________ than it isproduced.
96) The female hormone ________ seems to decrease sodium reabsorption, thus promoting sodium and water loss by the kidney.
The most important physiological buffer systems are the lungs and ________.
98) The electrolyte deficiency condition where the individual may crave substances like clay, chalk, starch or burnt match tips is called ________.
Parathyroid hormone regulates ________ ions in the body.
Molecules that can act reversibly as acids or bases depending upon the pH of their environment are called ________.
The breakdown of phosphorus-containing proteins releases ________ acid.
Acidosis occurs when arterial blood pH is below ________.