Pathophysiology: Patho Quiz 1 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by Goodboy
1,724 views
book cover
Pathophysiology
Chapters 1, 2, 4, 7
updated 3 years ago by Goodboy
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

C.Q. was recently exposed to group A hemolytic Streptococcus and subsequently developed a pharyngeal infection. His clinic examination reveals an oral temperature of 102.3°F, skin rash, dysphagia, and reddened throat mucosa with multiple pustules. He complains of sore throat, malaise, and joint stiffness. A throat culture is positive for Streptococcus, and antibiotics have been prescribed. The etiology of C.Q.’s disease is

streptococcal infection

2

A 17-year-old college-bound student receives a vaccine against an organism that causes meningitis. This is an example of

Primary prevention

3

An obese but otherwise healthy teen is given a prescription for a low-calorie diet and exercise program. This is an example of

Secondary prevention

4

A patient with high blood pressure who is otherwise healthy is counseled to restrict sodium intake. This is an example of

secondary prevention

5

After suffering a heart attack, a middle-aged man is counseled to take a cholesterol-lowering medication. This is an example ofN

tertiary prevention

6

A patient has been exposed to meningococcal meningitis, but is not yet demonstrating signs of this disease. This stage of illness is called the _____ stage.

latent

7

A disease that is native to a particular region is called

endemic

8

In general, with aging, organ size and function

decrease

9

The stage during which the patient functions normally, although the disease processes are well established, is referred to as

subclinical

10

Your patient’s red blood cell is slightly elevated today. This might be explained by (Select all that apply.)

a. gender difference.
b. situational factors.
c. normal variation.
e. illness.

11

Socioeconomic factors influence disease development because of (Select all that apply.)

b. environmental toxins.
c. overcrowding.
d. nutrition.
e. hygiene.

12

TRUE/FALSE
When the cause is unknown, a condition is said to be idiopathic

True

13

The nurse is swabbing a patient’s throat to test for streptococcal pharyngitis. The nurse must understand that tests such as this differ in the probability that they will be positive for a condition when applied to a person with the condition; this probability is termed sensitivity.

True

14

All the following stress-induced hormones increase blood glucose except

Aldosterone

15

The most common tumor-suppressor gene defect identified in cancer cells is

P53

16

Necrotic death of brain tissue usually produces _____ necrosis.

Liquefactive

17

Your patient eats “lots of fat,” leads a “stressful” life, and has smoked “about two packs a day for the last 40 years.” Her chronic morning cough recently worsened, and she was diagnosed with a lung mass. The most likely contributing factor for development of lung cancer in this patient is

Cigarette smoking

18

In general, with aging, organ size and function

Decrease

19

The hypermetabolic state leading to cachexia in terminal cancer is thought to be because of

tumor necrosis factor

20

An increase in organ size and function caused by increased workload is termed

hypertrophy

21

The stage during which the patient functions normally, although the disease processes are well established, is referred to as

subclinical

22

Selye’s three phases of the stress response include all the following except

allostasis

23

After surgery to remove a lung tumor, your patient is scheduled for chemotherapy, which will

kill rapidly dividing cells

24

A 17-year-old college-bound student receives a vaccine against an organism that causes meningitis. This is an example of

primary prevention

25

The nurse is swabbing a patient’s throat to test for streptococcal pharyngitis. The nurse must understand that tests such as this differ in the probability that they will be positive for a condition when applied to a person with the condition; this probability is termed sensitivity.

True

26

Cancer grading is based on

cell differentiation.

27

Indicators that an individual is experiencing high stress include all the following except

pupil constriction

28

Retroviruses are associated with human cancers, including

Burkitt lymphoma.

29

An obese but otherwise healthy teen is given a prescription for a low-calorie diet and exercise program. This is an example of

secondary prevention.

30

After bronchoscopy and histologic examination of a suspected tumor, your patient is diagnosed with primary bronchial carcinoma. Thus, the tumor

is malignant.

31

Apoptosis is a process that results in cellular

Cellular death

32

Extreme cold injures cells by all the following except

decreased blood viscosity

33

When the cause is unknown, a condition is said to be idiopathic

True

34

A patient with metastatic lung cancer wants to know her chances for survival. Which response is correct?

Lung cancer has about a 15% survival rate.

35

Allostasis is best defined as

the overall process of adaptive change necessary to maintain survival and well-being.

36

A patient has been exposed to meningococcal meningitis, but is not yet demonstrating signs of this disease. This stage of illness is called the _____ stage.

latent

37

Malignant neoplasms of epiphelial origin are known as

carcinomas

38

A disease that is native to a particular region is called

endemic

39

Carbon monoxide injures cells by

reducing oxygen level on hemoglobin.

40

Breast cancer in women who have the breast cancer gene

occurs at an earlier age.

41

Paraneoplastic syndromes in cancer involve excessive production of substances by multiple means. A common substance found in excessive amounts resulting from cancer paraneoplastic syndromes is

calcium

42

Persistence of the alarm stage will ultimately result in

permanent damage and death.

43

The primary effect of aging on all body systems is

decreased functional reserve.

44

The primary adaptive purpose of the substances produced in the alarm stage is

energy and repair

45

In general, a cancer cell that is more tissue-specific differentiated is more likely to be aggressive.

True

46

The cellular component that is most susceptible to radiation injury is the

DNA

47

All these cellular responses are potentially reversible except

Necrosis

48

The effects of excessive cortisol production include

immune suppression

49

The cellular change that is considered preneoplastic is

dysplasia

50

Many of the responses to stress are attributed to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and are mediated by

norepinephrine

51

Reperfusion injury to cells

involves formation of free radicals.

52

Of the statements below, the accurate statement regarding nutrition and cellular health is

deficient cellular uptake by one cell type may contribute to excess nutrient delivery to other cell types.

53

Proto-oncogenes

are normal cellular genes that promote growth.

54

Indicators that an individual is experiencing high stress include all the following except

pupil constriction

55

The hypermetabolic state leading to cachexia in terminal cancer is thought to be because of

tumor necrosis factor.

56

Malignant neoplasms of epithelial origin are known as

carcinomas

57

Which is not normally secreted in response to stress?

Insulin

58

Familial retinoblastoma involves the transmission of what from parent to offspring?

Mutant tumor-suppressor gene

59

In general, a cancer cell that is more tissue-specific differentiated is more likely to be aggressive.

False

60

Persistence of the alarm stage will ultimately result in

permanent damage and death.

61

Somatic death refers to death

of the entire organism

62

An obese but otherwise healthy teen is given a prescription for a low-calorie diet and exercise program. This is an example of

secondary prevention.

63

The effects of excessive cortisol production include

immune suppression.

64

Your patient is scheduled for a staging procedure. She wants to know what that means. The correct response is which of the following?

It is a procedure for determining the extent of tumor spread

65

The primary effect of aging on all body systems is

decreased functional reserve

66

When the cause is unknown, a condition is said to be idiopathic

True

67

Of the statements below, the accurate statement regarding nutrition and cellular health is

deficient cellular uptake by one cell type may contribute to excess nutrient delivery to other cell types.

68

The cellular response indicative of injury because of faulty metabolism is

intracellular accumulations.

69

A patient with metastatic lung cancer wants to know her chances for survival. Which response is correct?

Lung cancer has about a 15% survival rate.

70

After bronchoscopy and histologic examination of a suspected tumor, your patient is diagnosed with primary bronchial carcinoma. Thus, the tumor

is Malignant

71

Your patient is scheduled for a staging procedure. She wants to know what that means. The correct response is which of the following?

It is a procedure for determining the extent of tumor spread.

72

A patient with metastatic lung cancer wants to know her chances for survival. Which response is correct?

Lung cancer has about a 15% survival rate.

73

After surgery to remove a lung tumor, your patient is scheduled for chemotherapy, which will

kill rapidly dividing cells.

74

Malignant neoplasms of epithelial origin are known as

carcinomas

75

Retroviruses are associated with human cancers, including

Burkitt lymphoma.

76

Cancer grading is based on

cell differentiation.

77

Deficits in immune system function occur in cancer due to (Select all that apply.)

chemotherapy.

cancer cells.

cancer metastasis to bone marrow.

malnutrition.

78

Tumor markers (Select all that apply.)

are produced by normal cells.

help determine cancer origin.

help identify progression of cancer.

include prostatic-specific antigen.

79

Characteristics of telomerase include (Select all that apply.)

repairs the end caps of chromosomes.

is deficient in cancer cells.

activity allows a cell to replicate indefinitely.

80

Side effects of chemotherapy include (Select all that apply.)

anemia.

leukocytosis.

bleeding.

infections.

81

In general, a cancer cell that is more tissue-specific differentiated is ____ (more/less) likely to be aggressive.

Less

82

Necrotic death of brain tissue usually produces _____ necrosis.

liquefactive

83

Metaplasia is

the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another.

84

The cellular change that is considered preneoplastic is

Dysplasia

85

Coagulative necrosis is caused by

interrupted blood supply.

86

Reperfusion injury to cells

involves formation of free radicals.

87

Extreme cold injures cells by all the following except

decreased blood viscosity.

88

The primary effect of aging on all body systems is

decreased functional reserve.

89

Of the statements below, the accurate statement regarding nutrition and cellular health is

deficient cellular uptake by one cell type may contribute to excess nutrient delivery to other cell types.