Biology 2 Chapter 35 Flashcards


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1

1) Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?
A) root cap
B) root hairs
C) the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem
D) storage roots

B

2

2) What is the primary function of stems?
A) Facilitation of gas exchange
B) Water absorption and movement
C) Maximization of photosynthesis by leaves
D) Reproduction

C

3

3) When you eat Brussels sprouts, you are eating _____.
A) immature flowers
B) large axillary buds
C) petioles
D) storage leaves

B

4

4) Some of the largest leaves in the world can be found on plants near the forest floor of dense tropical rain forests. Which of the following precursors for photosynthesis is most likely limited in these large leaves?

A) oxygen
B) carbon dioxide
C) glucose
D) light

D

5

5) Leaf thickness represents a trade-off between _____.
A) light collection and carbon dioxide absorption
B) water retention and carbon dioxide absorption
C) water retention and oxygen absorption
D) light collection and oxygen absorption

B

6

6) One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that _____.
A) only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem
B) root cells have cell walls and leaf cells do not
C) a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots
D) vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves
E) leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not

C

7

7) Which of the following was a challenge to the survival of the first land plants?
A) too much sunlight
B) a shortage of carbon dioxide
C) desiccation
D) animal predation

C

8

8) Trichomes _____.
A) absorb sunlight, increasing the temperature of leaves
B) open and close for gas exchange
C) repel or trap insects
D) increase water loss from leaves

C

9

9) Which structure is correctly paired with its tissue system?
A) root hair — vascular tissue
B) guard cell — vascular tissue
C) companion cell — ground tissue
D) tracheid — vascular tissue

D

10

10) The main source of water necessary for photosynthesis to occur in the leaf mesophyll is _____.
A) soil via the xylem
B) soil via the phloem
C) the atmosphere through the cuticle and stomata
D) all of the listed responses

A

11

11) The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the _____.
A) cortex
B) stele
C) periderm
D) pith

B

12

12) Which of the following cell types retains the ability to undergo cell division?
A) a parenchyma cell near the root tip
B) a functional sieve tube element
C) a tracheid
D) a stem fiber

A

13

13) Which of these is NOT an example of a parenchyma cell?
A) cells that can form clones in tissue culture of plants
B) support cells near the outside of nonwoody stems
C) edible cells in fruits and vegetables
D) tissue in leaves that photosynthesizes

B

14

14) Which of the following have unevenly thickened primary walls that support young, growing parts of the plant?
A) parenchyma cells
B) collenchyma cells
C) sclerenchyma cells
D) tracheids and vessel elements

B

15

15) Which of the following is correctly paired with its structure and function?
A) sclerenchyma — supporting cells with thick secondary walls
B) ground meristem — protective coat of woody stems and roots
C) guard cells — waterproof ring of cells surrounding the central stele in roots
D) periderm — parenchyma cells functioning in photosynthesis in leavesA

A

16

16) Which of the following occurs in vascular land plants but not charophytes (stoneworts)?
A) sporopollenin
B) lignin
C) chlorophyll a
D) cellulose

B

17

17) Which of the following are water-conducting cells that are dead at functional maturity?
A) parenchyma cells
B) collenchyma cells
C) tracheids and vessel elements
D) sieve-tube elements

C

18

18) Which of the following cells transport sugars over long distances?
A) parenchyma cells
B) sclerenchyma cells
C) tracheids and vessel elements
D) sieve-tube elements

D

19

19) Plant meristematic cells _____.
A) are distributed evenly in all tissues throughout the plant
B) are undifferentiated cells that produce new cells
C) increase the surface area of dermal tissue by developing root hairs
D) subdivide into three distinct cell types named parenchyma, ground meristem, and procambium

B

20

20) Which of the following arise, directly or indirectly, from meristematic activity?
A) secondary xylem
B) leaves
C) dermal tissue
D) secondary xylem, leaves, dermal tissue, and tubers

D

21

21) Compared to most animals, the growth of most plant structure is best described as _____.
A) perennial
B) weedy
C) indeterminate
D) primary

C

22

22) What is present in a shoot apical meristem region?
I) the region of cell division
II) immature buds and leaves
III) cells that will give rise to the protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium
A) only I
B) only II
C) only III
D) I, II, and III

D

23

23) Shoot elongation in a growing bud is due primarily to _____.
A) cell division at the shoot apical meristem
B) cell elongation directly below the shoot apical meristem
C) cell elongation localized in each internode
D) cell division at the shoot apical meristem and cell elongation directly below the shoot apical meristem

C

24

24) Apical meristems of dicots are at the tips of stems. Apical meristems of grasses are at ground level or slightly below, concealed by the leaves. The leaves also have an intercalary meristem at their bases. What does this mean when considering care of a lawn or soccer field?
A) If you mow right at ground level, the leaves can keep growing with no problem.
B) Grass mowed two inches above ground level grows at a slower rate compared to grass mowed three inches above the ground level.
C) If you mow two inches above ground level, most apical meristems will be cut down.
D) If you mow two inches above ground level, both the apical and intercalary meristems can keep producing new cells.

D

25

25) In a meristematic region, the cell plate during mitosis is perpendicular to the side of the stem. In what direction will the stem grow?
A) laterally in width
B) vertically in height
C) at a 45-degree angle from the ground
D) away from the sun

B

26

26) Which of the following cells or tissues arise from lateral meristem activity?
A) secondary xylem
B) leaves
C) trichomes
D) tubers

A

27

27) Cells produced by lateral meristems are known as _____.
A) dermal and ground tissue
B) lateral tissues
C) pith
D) secondary tissues

D

28

28) Which of the following can be used to determine a twig's age?
A) Number of apical bud scar rings
B) Number of leaf scars
C) Number and arrangement of axillary buds
D) Length of internodes

A

29

29) A plant that grows one year, dies back, and then grows again the following year, produces flowers and then dies would be considered _____.
A) annual
B) biennial
C) perennial
D) not very fit

A

30

30) Which of the following is the correct sequence of the zones in the primary growth of a root, moving from the root cap inward?
A) zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of differentiation
B) zone of differentiation, zone of elongation, zone of cell division
C) zone of elongation, zone of cell division, zone of differentiation
D) zone of cell division, zone of differentiation, zone of elongation

A

31

31) The driving force that pushes the root tip through the soil is primarily _____.
A) continuous cell division in the root cap at the tip of the root
B) continuous cell division just behind the root cap in the center of the apical meristem
C) elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem
D) continuous cell division of root cap cells

C

32

32) Mitotic activity by the apical meristem of a root makes which of the following more possible?
A) increased delivery of water to the aboveground stem
B) decreased absorption of mineral nutrients
C) increased absorption of carbon dioxide.
D) effective lateral growth of the stem

A

33

33) Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots?
A) endodermis
B) phloem
C) epidermis
D) pericycle

D

34

34) As a youngster, you drive a nail in the trunk of a young tree that is 3 meters tall. The nail is about 1.5 meters from the ground. Fifteen years later, you return and discover that the tree has grown to a height of 30 meters. About how many meters above the ground is the nail?
A) 0.5
B) 1.5
C) 3.0
D) 15.0

B

35

35) You find a plant unfamiliar to you and observe that it has vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem cross section. What do you conclude about the plant?
A) It is probably an herbaceous eudicot.
B) It will probably get annual rings of wood.
C) It is probably a monocot.
D) It could be either a young eudicot or a monocot.

C

36

36) Monocot vascular bundles do not have a vascular cambium between the xylem and phloem. This means that monocots _____.
A) are much less efficient at conducting water and sugars
B) have very thin stems
C) do not produce wood in annual rings
D) cannot produce lateral shoots

C

37

40) Canada thistle is a dicot that spreads via growth from lateral roots. You want to use a root miner insect for weed control. What would you need to observe in the underground growth to verify that this weed spreads via lateral roots and not by underground stems?
A) an epidermis at the periphery
B) vascular bundles in a ring around the outside of a cross section
C) a vascular bundle in the center surrounded by parenchyma tissue
D) meristematic tissue at the tips of the branches

C

38

41) A student examining leaf cross sections under a microscope finds many loosely packed cells with relatively thin cell walls. The cells have numerous chloroplasts. What type of cells are they?
A) parenchyma
B) endodermis
C) collenchyma
D) sclerenchyma

A

39

42) The veins of leaves are _____.
I) composed of xylem and phloem
II) continuous with vascular bundles in the stem and roots
III) finely branched to be in close contact with photosynthesizing cells
A) only I
B) only II
C) only III
D) I, II, and III

D

40

45) Increasing the number of stomata per unit surface area of a leaf when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels decline is most analogous to a human _____.
A) breathing faster as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase
B) putting more red blood cells into circulation when atmospheric oxygen levels decline
C) removing red blood cells from circulation when atmospheric oxygen levels increase
D) increasing the volume of its lungs when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase

B

41

46) Where is primary growth occurring in an old tree?
A) Nowhere; trees more than a year old have only secondary growth.
B) closest to ground level at the base of the tree
C) in young branches where leaves are forming
D) where the vascular cambium and cork cambium are located

C

42

47) What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree?
A) primary xylem
B) secondary xylem
C) secondary phloem
D) vascular cambium

B

43

48) A plant has the following characteristics: a taproot system, several growth rings evident in a cross section of the stem, and a layer of bark around the outside. Which of the following best describes the plant?
A) herbaceous eudicot
B) woody eudicot
C) woody monocot
D) herbaceous monocot

B

44

49) If you were able to walk into an opening cut into the center of a large redwood tree, when you exited from the middle of the trunk (stem) outward, you would cross, in order, _____.
A) the annual rings, new xylem, vascular cambium, phloem, and bark
B) the secondary xylem, cork cambium, phloem, and periderm
C) the vascular cambium, oldest xylem, and newest xylem
D) the secondary xylem, secondary phloem, and vascular cambium

A

45

50) Heartwood and sapwood consist of _____.
A) periderm
B) secondary xylem
C) secondary phloem
D) cork

B

46

51) Two examples of lateral meristems in plants are _____.
A) vascular cambium, producing cork; cork cambium, producing secondary phloem
B) vascular cambium, producing secondary xylem; cork cambium, producing secondary phloem
C) vascular cambium, producing secondary xylem; cork cambium, producing cork
D) vascular cambium, producing secondary phloem; cork cambium, producing secondary xylem

C

47

52) Additional vascular tissue produced as secondary growth in a root originates from which cells?
A) vascular cambium
B) apical meristem
C) endodermis
D) xylem

A

48

53) Girdling is a procedure to kill unwanted tress by cutting a groove into the bark of the tree. The groove must completely encircle the trunk and should penetrate into the wood to a depth of at least -inch on small trees, and 1- inches on larger trees. Why does this procedure cause tree death?
A) No water can be transported from the roots to the leaves.
B) No water can be transported from the leaves to the roots.
C) No sugars can be transported from the leaves to the roots.
D) Both water and sugars are prevented from being transported

C

49

54) Where are the youngest wood and the youngest bark in a tree trunk?
A) Youngest wood is in the center of a tree; youngest bark is the outside of the bark.
B) Youngest wood is in the center of a tree; youngest bark is the inner part, next to the vascular cambium.
C) Youngest wood is toward the outside, near the vascular cambium; youngest bark is the outside of the bark.
D) Youngest wood is toward the outside, near the vascular cambium; youngest bark is the inner part, next to the vascular cambium

D

50

55) The polarity of a plant is established when _____.
A) cotyledons form at the shoot end of the embryo
B) the shoot-root axis is established in the embryo
C) the primary root breaks through the seed coat
D) the shoot first breaks through the soil into the light as the seed germinates

B

51

56) Growth and development of plant parts involves _____.
I) cell division to produce new cells
II) enlargement and elongation of cells
III) specialization of cells into tissues
A) only I
B) only II
C) only III
D) I, II, and III

D

52

57) Totipotency is a term used to describe a cell's ability to give rise to a complete new organism. In plants, this means that _____.
A) plant development is not under genetic control
B) the cells of shoots and the cells of roots have different genes
C) cell differentiation depends largely on the control of gene expression
D) a cell's environment has no effect on its differentiation

C

53

58) Which of the following statements is true?
A) A band of ribosomes determines where a cell plate will form in a dividing plant cell.
B) The way in which a plant cell differentiates is determined by the position of the nucleus in the developing plant cell.
C) Homeotic genes often control morphogenesis.
D) Plant cells differentiate because the cytoskeleton determines which genes will be turned "on" and "off."

C

54

59) The phase change of an apical meristem from the juvenile to the mature vegetative phase is often revealed by _____.
A) a change in the morphology of the leaves produced
B) the initiation of secondary growth
C) a change in the orientation of preprophase bands and cytoplasmic microtubules in lateral meristems
D) the activation of floral meristem identity genes

A