Human Anatomy & Physiology

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Human Anatomy & Physiology
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1.Art-based Question
During which event of hemostasis do clotting factors (procoagulants) assist with the transformation of blood from a liquid to a gel?
A
B
C
D

D

2

2.Hemostasis is important for __________.
stoppage of bleeding
white blood cell production
red blood cell production
red blood cell recycling

stoppage of bleeding

3

3.Which step in hemostasis involves activation of formed elements in the blood?
vascular spasm
coagulation
platelet plug formation
fibrin production

platelet plug formation

4

4.Which of the following represents a difference between extrinsic and intrinsic blood clotting pathways?
One is triggered by tissue damage, while the other cannot be triggered by tissue damage.
One involves calcium ions, while the other does not.
One is faster than the other.
One leads to the production of prothrombin activator and the other does not.

One is faster than the other.

5

5.Which of the following would NOT lead to a bleeding disorder?
thrombocytopenia
vitamin K deficiency
impaired liver function
excess calcium in the diet

excess calcium in the diet

6

6.A person who lacks agglutinogen A but has agglutinogen B would have blood type __________.
AB
B
O
A

B

7

7.Choose the incompatible transfusion.
Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.
Donate type A blood to a recipient with type AB blood.
Donate type B blood to a recipient with type AB blood.
Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.

Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.

8

8.
Which ABO blood type is considered to be the universal recipient?
O
A
AB
B

AB

9
card image

9.Art-based Question
Identify the leukocytes in the figure in order.
eosinophil, neutrophil, monocyte, basophil, lymphocyte
monocyte, eosinophil, lymphocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil
neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil, monocyte, lymphocyte
neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte, monocyte

neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte, monocyte

10

10.From which cell do the granulocytes descend?
myeloblast
monoblast
promonocyte
lymphoid stem cell

myeloblast

11

11.On a blood smear slide prepared using Wright's stain, you observe a large cell with a U-shaped nucleus and pale blue cytoplasm. This cell is most likely a(n) __________.
basophil
monocyte
eosinophil
lymphocyte

monocyte

12

12.Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production?
basophils
monocytes
eosinophils
lymphocytes

lymphocytes

13

13.Which of the following does NOT stimulate erythrocyte production?
testosterone
hyperventilating
a drop in normal blood oxygen levels
erythropoietin

hyperventilating

14

14.Which of the following are primary lymphoid organs?
lymph nodes and tonsils
bone marrow and thymus
appendix and spleen
spleen and thymus

bone marrow and thymus

15

15.Which of the following areas in a secondary lymphoid organ allows intimate contact between blood and the lymphocytes?
germinal centers of the lymph nodes
white pulp of the spleen
red pulp of the spleen
Hassall’s corpuscles of the thymus

white pulp of the spleen

16

16-Where in the lymph node do the T cells first encounter antigens presented by dendritic cells?
medullary cords in the medulla
lymphoid follicles of the outer cortex
germinal centers of the cortex
deep in the cortex

deep in the cortex

17

17.Collections of lymphoid tissues, called MALT, are strategically placed throughout the respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary systems. Which one of these is located at the end of the small intestine?
Peyer’s patches
appendix
tonsils

Peyer’s patches

18

18.There is a decrease in our ability to fight infection as we age. Which lymphoid organ may have a role in this decline?

spleen
thymus
lymph nodes

thymus

19

19.Besides lymph nodes, where would you expect to find proliferating (dividing) B cells?
in the brain
in the thyroid
in the skin
in the spleen

in the spleen

20

20. Which of the following mechanisms is NOT used to propel lymph through lymphatic vessels?
small heart-like pumps
gravity
the milking action of muscles
pulmonary motion

small heart-like pumps

21

21. Adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely. What is the unique structural modification that increases their permeability?
lacteals
minivalves
fibroblasts
trabeculae

minivalves

22

22.Which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?
increasing pressure in the interstitial space
anchoring of endothelial cells to adjacent structures by collagen fibers
increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary
inflammation of tissues surrounding lymphatic capillaries

increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

23

23. Lymph from what regions of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?
the left upper limb, the left side of the head and thorax, and both lower limbs
the right upper limb, the right side of the head, and the thorax
the right upper limb, the right side of the head and thorax, and the right lower limb
the digestive organs and lower limbs
the right upper limb, the right side of the head, and the

thorax

24

24.What is the name of the enlarged sac to which the lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk return lymph?
cisterna chyli
thoracic duct
lacteals
right lymphatic duct

cisterna chyli

25

25.What region of the lymph node contains follicles filled with dividing B cells?
hilus
cortex
subcapsular sinus
medulla

cortex

26

27.Which lymph cells produce antibodies?
dendritic cells
macrophages
plasma cells
reticular cells

plasma cells

27

27. Which statement describes the origin of lymph fluid?
Lymph is collected from atrial to venous anastomoses.
Lymph is secreted into the lymph vessels.
Lymph is collected from fluid that accumulates in veins as blood slowly circulates back toward the heart.
Lymph is excess fluid formed from plasma that accumulates in the tissues as interstitial fluid.

Lymph is excess fluid formed from plasma that accumulates in the tissues as interstitial fluid.

28

28. Where are the three large clusters of superficial lymph nodes?
the cervical, acromial, and mammary regions
the axillary, brachial, and subclavian regions
the lumbar, inguinal, and femoral regions
the cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

the cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

29

29.Once collected, lymph ultimately drains into __________.
lymph nodes
arterial circulation
venous circulation
the liver for detoxification

venous circulation

30

30. Art-based Question
Which lymphoid organ extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets from the blood in addition to storing some of the breakdown products for later reuse?
A
B
C
D

C

31

31.Which of the following is a role of lymph nodes?
They produce red blood cells.
They return lymph to circulation.
They filter lymph.
They produce lymph.

They filter lymph.

32

32.Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?
splenic sinusoids
red pulp
white pulp
splenic cords

white pulp

33

33. After surgical removal of the spleen (i.e., a splenectomy), some other organs take over most of its functions. Which of the following spleen functions in the adult can not be performed by bone marrow?
immune surveillance
erythropoiesis
removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood
storage of platelets

removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood

34

34. Which of the following lymph organs is NOT matched with its function?
thymus: mature T cells
Peyer's patches: mature B cells
bone marrow: form lymphocytes
spleen: remove red blood cells

Peyer's patches: mature B cells

35

35. Peyer's patches are mucosa-associated lymph tissue located in the __________.
wall of the small intestine
spleen
wall of the colon
liver

wall of the small intestine

36

36-The muscular layer in the wall of a blood vessel is the
tunica intima.
tunica externa.
tunica media.

tunica interna.

tunica media.

37

37-Compared to arteries, veins
are more elastic.
have more smooth muscle in their tunica media.
have a pleated endothelium.
have thinner walls.

have thinner walls.

38

38-Capillaries that have a complete lining are called
continuous capillaries.
fenestrated capillaries.
sinusoidal capillaries.
sinusoids.

continuous capillaries.

39

39-The smallest arterial branches are called the
precapillary arterioles.
arterioles.
capillaries.
venules.

precapillary arterioles.

40

40-The layer between the tunica media and the tunica externa in a large artery is the
tunica intima.
external elastic membrane.
tunica media.
internal elastic membrane.
tunica externa.

external elastic membrane.

41

41-The thoroughfare channel ends at the
artery.
arteriole.
capillary.
venule.
vein.

venule.

42

42-Which of the following layers of a vessel contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers?
tunica intima
external elastic membrane
tunica media
internal elastic membrane
tunica externa

tunica externa

43

43-After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the
arteries.
arterioles.
capillaries.
venules.
veins.

venules.

44

44-Which layer of a blood vessel contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle tissue?
tunica intima

external elastic membrane
tunica media
internal elastic membrane
tunica externa

tunica media

45

45-The large vessels that return blood to the heart are called
arteries.

arterioles.
capillaries.
venules.
veins.

veins.

46

46-11.
In large arteries, the thick layer of elastic fibers is called the
tunica intima.
external elastic membrane.
tunica media.
internal elastic membrane.
tunica externa.

internal elastic membrane.

47

47-Which of the following is the innermost layer of a blood vessel?
tunica intima
external elastic membrane
tunica media
internal elastic membrane
tunica externa

tunica intima

48

48-Venoconstriction ________ the amount of blood within the venous system, which ________ the volume in the arterial and capillary systems.
doubles; decreases
reduces; increases
decreases; doubles
increases; reduces
reduces; reduces

reduces; increases

49

49-Venous valves are responsible for
preventing anterograde flow.
channeling blood away from the heart.
channeling blood toward the heart.
preventing blood from re-entering a ventricle.
regulating blood pressure in veins.

channeling blood toward the heart.

50

50-Venae cavae are the largest of what type of vessel?
artery
arteriole
capillary
venule
vein

vein

51

51-The layer of the arteriole wall that can produce vasoconstriction is the
tunica adventitia.
tunica media.
tunica intima.
tunica externa.
tunica mater.

tunica media.

52

52-Of the following arteries, the one that is an elastic artery is the subclavian artery.
the external carotid artery.
the brachial artery.
the femoral artery.
the ulnar artery.

the subclavian artery.

53

53-Which of the following lumen diameters would be typical of a muscular artery?
0.2 mm
1.0 cm
0.4 mm
0.4 cm
0.5 cm

0.4 cm

54

55-Which vessel is known as a resistance vessel?
arteriole
elastic
connective
muscular
venule

arteriole

55

55-The main control of peripheral resistance occurs in the
arterioles.
venules.
veins.
arteries.
capillaries.

arterioles.

56

56-Resistance is a force that
increases blood flow.

decreases blood flow.
never changes in a blood vessel.
acts with pressure to move blood along a vessel.
is always higher than blood pressure.

decreases blood flow.

57

57-Total peripheral resistance is related to all of the following, except the
length of a blood vessel.
osmolarity of interstitial fluids.
turbulence.
blood viscosity.
blood vessel diameter.

osmolarity of interstitial fluids.