module 1-6 psychology Flashcards


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1

In the definition of psychology, the term mental processes refers to ________.

internal, covert activities

outward behavior

overt actions and reactions

only animal behavior

internal, covert activities

2

The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one's behavior is part of what early field of psychology?

structuralism

functionalism

psychoanalysis

behaviorism

psychoanalysis

3

Who claimed that behavior is affected by reinforcement?

William James

Sigmund Freud

B. F. Skinner

Wilhelm Wundt

B. F. Skinner

4

Which of the following terms do NOT belong together?

structuralism; observable behavior

Gestalt; whole

psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict

natural selection; functionalism

structuralism; observable behavior

5

Which of the following statements is correct?

A psychologist has no medical training.

A psychiatrist generally goes to graduate school, not medical school.

Psychiatric social workers can prescribe medication.

An M.D. and a Ph.D. are pretty much the same thing.

A psychologist has no medical training.

6

The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Specialties in Psychology for $300." The revealed answer is, "These psychological professionals work with situations in which environmental conditions may have an impact on mental health." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?

"What is a neuropsychologist?"

"What is a forensic psychologist?"

"What is a psychiatric social worker?"

"What is a developmental psychologist?"

"What is a psychiatric social worker?"

7

Pavlov's research demonstrated that ________.

involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell)

an unrelated stimulus (salivation) could occur in response to an involuntary reaction (sound of a bell)

involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (food)

an unrelated stimulus (food) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (barking)

involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell)

8

Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a ________.

psychiatrist

psychoanalyst

humanistic psychologist

school psychologist

psychiatrist

9

Which type of psychologist would be most likely to argue that a criminal engages in unlawful behavior because he grew up around older boys who engaged in criminal activities?

Gestaltist

behavioralist

psychodynamic

functionalist

behavioralist

10

Who was an early proponent of functionalism?

Ivan Pavlov

William James

Wilhelm Wundt

Max Wertheimer

William James

11

Freud stressed the importance of ________.

early childhood experiences

adolescence

early adulthood

middle adulthood

early childhood experiences

12

In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was overseen by ________.

William James

William Tell

Wilhelm Wundt

Sigmund Freud

Wilhelm Wundt

13

The structuralists were important in the history of psychology because they:

examined consciousness and the structure of mental processes.

were the first to use brain-scanning techniques to learn about the structure of the brain.

realized the limits of introspection and focused on the function of behaviors.

were strongly influenced by Charles Darwin.

examined consciousness and the structure of mental processes.

14

Freud said phobias were ________ whereas Watson said phobias were ________.

learned; inherited

repressed conflicts; learned

sexual; unconscious

conditioned; unconditioned

repressed conflicts; learned

15

On a television talk show, an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist back in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor's therapist is probably a ________.

podiatrist

psychiatrist

clinical psychologist

counseling psychologist

psychiatrist

16

You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented?

behaviorism

humanism

functionalism

psychodynamics

humanism

17

Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization?

psychoanalysis

humanism

cognitive perspective

behaviorism

humanism

18

How our minds help us adapt to the world around us was a primary question addressed by which early movement of psychology?

Behaviorism

Cognitivism

Functionalism

Structuralism

Functionalism

19

What did Sigmund Freud consider as the key to understanding the nervous disorders he observed?

free will

brain physiology

the unconscious mind

external consequences

the unconscious mind

20

Which type of early psychologist believed that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts"?

Gestaltist

behaviorist

structuralist

functionalist

Gestaltist

21

The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called ________, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person's experiences.

intervention

objective introspection

insight inventory

induction

objective introspection

22

The school of behaviorism attempted to explain behavior by studying:

the reasons people give for their behaviors.

the specific personality traits that lead to behavior.

how a specific stimulus evokes a specific response.

the purposes of people's behavior.

how a specific stimulus evokes a specific response.

23

The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50." The revealed answer is "Focused on unconscious factors." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?

"Who is B.F. Skinner?"

"Who are the humanists?"

"Who is Sigmund Freud?"

"Who are the behaviorists?"

"Who is Sigmund Freud?"

24

The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered that ________.

dogs would salivate to the sound of a ticking metronome due to habituation

dogs would salivate to the sounds of a ticking metronome due to reflexology

dogs would salivate to the sound of a ticking metronome due to a learned reflexive response called conditioning

dogs would salivate to the sounds of a ticking metronome due to their fear response

dogs would salivate to the sound of a ticking metronome due to a learned reflexive response called conditioning

25

Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?

the scientific study of behavior

the scientific study of mental processes

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

26

________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied.

The double-blind study

Field research

The single-blind study

Correlational research

The double-blind study

27

Perceiving the question is the first step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology?

describing

explaining

predicting

changing

describing

28

A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used?

survey

experiment

case study

naturalistic observation

survey

29

A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a(n) ________.

coefficient of correlation

dependent variable

control condition

independent variable

independent variable

30

Ideally, everything in the experimental situation except the _________ is held constant.

inferential statistics

placebos

independent variables

hypotheses

independent variables

31

A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?

The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.

The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet.

The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed.

The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed.

The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.

32

Forming a hypothesis is the second step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from two goals of psychology—description and ________.

control

explanation

predicting

changing

explanation

33

Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association?

Participants may not withdraw once they start.

Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision.

Participants cannot be subjected to shock of any kind.

Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research.

Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision.

34

Which of the following statements concerning using animals in research is correct?

There are no ethical guidelines when it comes to animals.

There are rules that prevent the killing of animals.

Pain and suffering of animals are allowed, but only when necessary, and must be minimized as much as possible.

New ethical guidelines prevent the use of primates in psychological research.

Pain and suffering of animals are allowed, but only when necessary, and must be minimized as much as possible.

35

In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the independent variable is ________.

the use of nicotine

the use of a driving simulator

the number of collisions

the driving skills of each driver

the use of nicotine

36

Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT ________.

participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation.

participants cannot be deceived or have information concealed from them at any time during an experiment

rights and well-being of participants must be weighed against the study's value to science.

participants may withdraw from the study at any time.

participants cannot be deceived or have information concealed from them at any time during an experiment

37

A good control group ________.

contains at least one confound

has a limited number of dependent variables

has a limited number of research participants

holds constant all variables in the experiment

holds constant all variables in the experiment

38

Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment?

In random assignment, each participant has an equal chance for each condition.

In random assignment, each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition.

Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over.

The best formula for random assignment is birth dates.

In random assignment, each participant has an equal chance for each condition.

39

Observing behavior as it happens in real-life natural settings without imposing laboratory controls is known as the ________.

naturalistic observation method

experimental method

survey method

psychometric approach

naturalistic observation method

40

Sally proposes the idea that one's sexual history prior to marriage may be linked to whether one ends up getting divorced. This best represents which step of the scientific method?

testing the hypothesis

observing events

forming a hypothesis

formulating a theory

forming a hypothesis

41

What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly?

to comply with legal requirements

to identify all the extraneous variables

to allow researchers to replicate experiments

to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them

to allow researchers to replicate experiments

42

Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect?

You sleep because you are tired.

You throw up after eating bad meat.

You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve.

You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol.

You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol.

43

In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ________.

the use of nicotine

the use of a driving simulator

the number of collisions

the driving skills of each driver

the number of collisions

44

In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the participants who smoke a cigarette without nicotine comprise the ________.

control group

driving simulator

experimental group

no-control group

control group

45

Dr. Wiseman wants to know about the alcohol consumption patterns among college juniors in the United States. He should ________.

give the survey to every college junior in the country

remember that sample size is the most critical factor in survey research

require students' names on each survey to avoid the tendency to lie

draw a representative sample among college juniors

draw a representative sample among college juniors

46

The tendency to look for information that supports one's own belief is called ________.

the principle of falsifiability

confirmation bias

criterion validity

volunteer bias

confirmation bias

47

Which of the following statements is true about naturalistic observation?

It recreates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid.

It involves observing behavior in its natural context.

It is basically the same process as objective introspection.

It involves observing behavior in the lab without taking formal notes or using technological equipment to measure the experimental findings.

It involves observing behavior in its natural context.

48

"Children who watch violent cartoons will become more aggressive." According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a(n) ________.

conclusion

result

hypothesis

fact

hypothesis

49

The first step in any scientific investigation is ________.

forming the hypothesis

perceiving the question

coming to a conclusion

developing an argument

perceiving the question

50

Dr. Keller has individuals run on a treadmill for 0, 15, or 30 minutes and then measures their self-reported mood. In this hypothetical study, the independent variable is:

the self-reported mood.

the individuals who run for 15 or 30 minutes.

the individuals who run for 0 minutes.

the number of minutes individuals run on the treadmill.

the number of minutes individuals run on the treadmill.

51

Double-blind studies control for ________.

only the placebo effect

only the experimenter effect

both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect

extrinsic motivation

both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect

52

________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group, but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group.

The double-blind study

Field research

The single-blind study

Correlational research

The single-blind study

53

Which of the following questions could be answered best by using the survey method?

What is the effect of ingesting alcohol on problem-solving ability?

Does wall color affect the frequency of violence in prison populations?

Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses?

What is the relationship between number of hours of study per week and grade point average?

Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses?

54

Warren is having trouble deciding what he wants to eat for breakfast. Which lobe of his brain is especially active as he makes his selection?

temporal

parietal

frontal

occipital

frontal

55

Which of the following is the section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere and contains the visual centers of the brain?

occipital lobe

parietal lobe

temporal lobe

frontal lobe

occipital lobe

56

The part of the brain located just behind the temples, containing neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech, is called the ________.

temporal lobes

parietal lobes

frontal lobes

occipital lobes

temporal lobes

57

If you have a problem remembering things that happened a year ago, doctors might check for damage to the area of the brain called the ________.

hippocampus

hypothalamus

fornix

amygdala

hippocampus

58

Neuroplasticity is most evident in which of the following circumstances?

during the elderly years

when we learn something new or store new information

when we are trying to undo previous pruning

when reuptake of excess neurotransmitters is taking place

when we learn something new or store new information

59

The two main divisions of the nervous system are the ________ and ________.

brain; spinal cord

autonomic; somatic nervous systems

peripheral nervous system; central nervous system

glands; muscles

peripheral nervous system; central nervous system

60

Which of the following is a function of the right hemisphere?

perception, recognition of emotion, and recognition of patterns

sense of time and rhythm

speech, handwriting, and calculation

language processing in most individuals

perception, recognition of emotion, and recognition of patterns

61

Which of the following is the upper part of the brain consisting of two cerebral hemispheres and the structures that connect them?

occipital lobe

cerebrum

corpus callosum

cerebellum

cerebrum

62

Which of the following lobes are involved in planning, memory, and personality?

temporal lobes

parietal lobes

frontal lobes

occipital lobes

frontal lobes

63

Darla was in an automobile accident that resulted in an injury to her brain. Her sense of touch has been affected. Which part of the brain is the most likely site of the damage?

frontal lobe

temporal lobe

occipital lobe

parietal lobes

parietal lobes

64

The function of the neuron's axon is to ________.

carry messages to other cells

regulate the neuron's life processes

receive messages from neighboring neurons

insulate against leakage of electrical impulses

carry messages to other cells

65

The ________ is a structure in the brain stem responsible for life-sustaining functions, such as breathing and heart rate.

reticular activating system

pons

medulla

cerebellum

medulla

66

Ever since he suffered a brain injury by falling from a ladder, Zack's wife has continued to tell the doctor that his personality has changed. He used to be fun loving and carefree, but he is now more critical and yells at his children for seemingly little reason. Zack is likely to have suffered damage to the ________ of his cortex.

occipital lobe

parietal lobe

temporal lobe

frontal lobe

frontal lobe

67

The peripheral nervous system consists of ________.

all of the nerve cells that are not in the brain and spinal cord

all of the nerves in the brain and the spinal cord

the spinal cord and autonomic system

the brain and the autonomic system

all of the nerve cells that are not in the brain and spinal cord

68

A chemical found in the synaptic vesicles which, when released, has an effect on the next cell is called a ________.

glial cell

neurotransmitter

precursor cell

synapse

neurotransmitter

69

The ________ lobes are located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere, containing the centers for touch, body position, and temperature.

frontal

temporal

occipital

parietal

parietal

70

Bill was admitted to the hospital last week after he fell. When Bill's son visited, he found that his father was unable to get words out in a smooth, connected fashion. If Bill's difficulty speaking is due to brain damage, what is the likely location of the damage?

Broca's

Gall's

Wernicke's

Korsakoff's

Broca's

71

________ receive messages from other neurons and ________ send messages to other neurons.

Axons; dendrites

Axon; soma

Soma; glial cells

Dendrites; axons

Dendrites; axons

72

The term neurotransmitter refers to ________.

a chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that is released into the synapse

any one of a number of chemical compounds that increase the activity of the endocrine system

the chemical substance found in the cell membrane

the DNA contained in the nucleus of every neuron

a chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that is released into the synapse

73

Jack suffered a brain injury as a result of hitting his head while waterskiing. One of the problems that developed was that Jack could not pronounce certain words correctly for a long period of time until he had extensive speech therapy; he can now speak as he did before his accident. This is an example of the brain's ________, which allowed the structure and function of his brain cells to change to adjust to the trauma.

adaptology

stagnation

neuroplasticity

reflex arc

neuroplasticity

74

The cortex is divided into two sections referred to as ________.

cerebral hemispheres

cerebellums

corpus callosums

neurotransmitters

cerebral hemispheres

75

The function of the ________ is to carry information to and from all parts of the body.

soma

synapse

nervous system

endorphins

nervous system

76

The brain and spinal cord are two components of the ________.

central nervous system

somatic nervous system

peripheral nervous system

autonomic nervous system

central nervous system

77

After a head injury, a person reports that she is unable to see, although her eyes are uninjured. A doctor would suspect an injury in the ________ lobe.

occipital

parietal

temporal

frontal

occipital

78

Tracey has been unable to participate in her gymnastics class and has become very uncoordinated since she was involved in an accident where she suffered a head injury. As a result of the accident, she was likely to have suffered damage to her ________.

cerebellum

medulla

cerebral cortex

hypothalamus

cerebellum

79

________, a hormone involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, is secreted by the pineal gland.

Serotonin

Testosterone

Estrogen

Melatonin

Melatonin

80

The deepest stage of sleep is ________ sleep.

Stage 1 (N1)

Stage 2 (N2)

Stage 3 (N3)

REM

Stage 3 (N3)

81

REM sleep refers to ________.

dreamless sleep

sleep induced by sleeping pills

sleep periods in which sleepwalking is likely

sleep periods in which a person's eyes move rapidly

sleep periods in which a person's eyes move rapidly

82

Jim is 56 years old and slightly overweight. His wife reports that he snores loudly. What sleep disorder seems to fit Jim's symptoms?

narcolepsy

sleep apnea

sleep terror

REM sleep behavior

sleep apnea

83

Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and suddenly falls to the ground. Your friend is probably suffering from ________.

narcolepsy

parasomnia

REM rebound

sleep apnea

narcolepsy

84

What aspect of circadian rhythms might explain why we tend to feel so tired at night?

Body temperature bottoms out on Monday mornings.

The three biorhythm patterns converge at low points on Mondays.

Heart rates typically increase at night.

Part of the brain is sensitive to light changes, which then affects our sleepiness.

Part of the brain is sensitive to light changes, which then affects our sleepiness.

85

The sleep-wake cycle is ultimately controlled by the part of the brain called the ________.

optic nerve

frontal lobe

hypothalamus

median forebrain bundle

hypothalamus

86

Which of these individuals has the highest risk of sleep apnea?

John, 62 years old, who is overweight

Angela, 21 years old, who is depressed

Alicia, 42 years old, who is suffering from anorexia

Jack, 8 years old, who is experiencing episodes of enuresis

John, 62 years old, who is overweight

87

Jaden is 11 years old, and still urinates in the bed while he sleeps. While this does not happen every night, it is highly embarrassing for him and is becoming a problem for the family. From which disorder is Jaden suffering?

enuresis

narcolepsy

sleep terror

daytime insomnia

enuresis

88

Narcolepsy occurs when ________.

REM sleep intrudes into wakefulness

NREM sleep intrudes into wakefulness

inadequate sleep occurs over a period of weeks

inadequate levels of Stage 4 sleep cause neurological damage

REM sleep intrudes into wakefulness

89

CPAP stands for ________.

continuous positive airway pressure

cancer prevention application procedure

controlled pulmonary air pump

correctable pointed airflow problem

continuous positive airway pressure

90

A sleep disorder that may require the use of a machine to force air gently into the nasal passages is called ________.

sleep apnea

insomnia

narcolepsy

cataplexy

sleep apnea

91

Which of the following can be an emotional symptom of sleep deprivation?

hyperactivity

cheerfulness

depression

nausea

depression

92

Consciousness is the ________.

state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes

awareness of ourselves and the environment

memory of personally experienced events

intentional recollection of an item of information

awareness of ourselves and the environment

93

A biological cycle, or rhythm, that is approximately 24 hours long is called a(n) ________ cycle.

infradian

circadian

diurnal

ultradian

circadian

94

Mary is having insomnia. Which piece of advice would you give to help her deal with it? T

ake sleeping pills.

Go to bed every night at different times to "shock your sleep system."

Study in bed and then go immediately to sleep.

Don't do anything but sleep in your bed.

Don't do anything but sleep in your bed.

95

What do we call a state of consciousness that can result from the use of alcohol, drugs, or hypnosis?

daydreaming

meditative absorption

stream of consciousness

altered state of consciousness

altered state of consciousness

96

The state in which our thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear, and we feel alert is called ________.

altered state of consciousness

waking consciousness

self-awareness

intelligence

waking consciousness

97

Short, rhythmic bursts of brainwave activity that appear during Stage 2 sleep are called ________.

delta waves

sleep spindles

paradoxical sleep waves

beta waves

sleep spindles

98

The difference between insomnia and apnea is that ________.

apnea affects primarily the elderly, whereas insomnia is characteristic of children

insomnia is treatable but apnea is not

insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness, whereas apnea is characterized by breathing difficulties

apnea is a precursor to narcolepsy, whereas insomnia is not

insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness, whereas apnea is characterized by breathing difficulties

99

A sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or remaining asleep throughout the night is ________.

zombulism

cataplexy

narcolepsy

insomnia

insomnia

100

Which device would a sleep researcher use to monitor a sleeping person's brain waves?

electromyograph (EMG)

electrocardiograph (EKG)

electro-oculograph (EOG)

electroencephalograph (EEG)

electroencephalograph (EEG)

101

A newspaper advertisement describes a book that offers interpretations of dreams. In attempting to tell readers the meaning of the symbols of their dreams, the author intends to describe the ________.

deep content

latent content

manifest content

subliminal content

latent content

102

Morphine, heroin, and methadone ________.

are stimulants

are derived from opium

are often used to treat ADHD

increase the action of the central nervous system

are derived from opium

103

Caffeine is a ________.

stimulant

depressant

narcotic

psychogenic drug

stimulant

104

After taking a drug for several years, Bruce decides to quit taking it. He begins to experience a variety of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms such as irritability, and a strong craving for the substance. What term is used to describe what Bruce is experiencing?

tolerance

physical dependence

withdrawal

drug intoxication

withdrawal

105

Nicotine is a ________.

stimulant

depressant

narcotic

psychogenic drug

stimulant

106

Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing ________.

drug tolerance

drug detoxification

withdrawal

overdrawal

drug tolerance

107

The key to hypnotic induction seems to be related to ________.

the gender of the person doing the hypnotizing

education

state of suggestibility

time of day

state of suggestibility

108

Which of the following is classified as a depressant?

cocaine

alcohol

heroin

marijuana

alcohol

109

What is the primary difference between a hypnogogic and hypnopompic hallucination?

Hypnogogic hallucinations occur just after we've fallen asleep, while hypnopompic hallucinations occur between REM sleep and waking up.

Hypnogogic hallucinations occur in REM sleep, while hypnopompic hallucinations occur in NREM sleep.

Hypnogogic hallucinations occur in NREM sleep, while hypnopompic hallucinations occur in REM sleep.

Hypnopompic hallucinations occur just after we've fallen asleep, while hypnogogic hallucinations occur between REM sleep and waking up.

Hypnogogic hallucinations occur just after we've fallen asleep, while hypnopompic hallucinations occur between REM sleep and waking up.

110

Chemicals that can alter thinking, perception, and memory are called ________.

legal drugs

illegal drugs

hallucinogens

psychoactive drugs

psychoactive drugs

111

Benzedrine, methedrine, and dexedrine are all ________.

narcotics

depressants

illegal

amphetamines

amphetamines

112

Selma notices that as her supply of marijuana decreases, she starts thinking more and more about where she can get another supply as well as feeling nervous and anxious. This is an example of ________.

withdrawal

tolerance

physiological dependence

psychological dependence

psychological dependence

113

According to Sigmund Freud, the important underlying meaning of our dreams is found in the ________.

deep content

latent content

manifest content

subliminal content

latent content

114

Drugs that speed up the functioning of the nervous system are called ________.

stimulants

depressants

narcotics

psychogenics

stimulants

115

When amphetamines are abused, the resulting effects may include ________.

loss of appetite, nausea, high blood pressure, and vomiting

increased appetite, sleepiness, and euphoria

heart disease, high blood pressure, impaired circulation, and erectile problems in men

restlessness, insomnia, muscle tension, heartbeat irregularities, and high blood pressure

loss of appetite, nausea, high blood pressure, and vomiting

116

The activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming states that ________.

the purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts

dreams are merely another kind of thinking; dreams occur because of random brain stem signals

the purpose of dreaming is to resolve current concerns and problems

dreaming is a byproduct of a process of eliminating or strengthening neural connections

dreams are merely another kind of thinking; dreams occur because of random brain stem signals

117

Which statement is CORRECT concerning marijuana?

There is evidence that marijuana is physically addictive.

There is evidence that marijuana is psychologically addictive.

There is evidence that marijuana causes cancer.

Marijuana usage can lead to psychological dependence.

Marijuana usage can lead to psychological dependence.

118

You are listening to a person who keeps telling you to relax, attempting to create a situation in which you are likely to follow suggestions. What treatment are you undergoing?

psychotherapy

reprogramming

autosuggestion

hypnosis

hypnosis

119

In comparing the dreams of men and women, researchers have found that generally ________.

there is no difference between them

men dream more about home and family than women do

women dream more often about strangers than men do

Men's dreams more often involve cars, weapons, tools, and sex

Men's dreams more often involve cars, weapons, tools, and sex

120

Psychoactive drugs are ________.

drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system

drugs capable of altering thinking, perception, and memory

drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system

drugs derived from the opium poppy that relieve pain and produce euphoria

drugs capable of altering thinking, perception, and memory

121

Freud believed that dreams ________.

stem from unconscious conflicts, events, and desires

are sexual perversions

are reflections of consciousness

are ways to solve problems

stem from unconscious conflicts, events, and desires

122

The need to take a drug in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms is called ________.

a craving

tolerance

obsessive compulsion

physical dependence

physical dependence

123

Under what circumstances will a reinforcer make the target response more likely to occur again?

if it is a primary reinforcer

if it is a positive reinforcer

if it is a negative reinforcer

regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer, a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur

regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer, a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur

124

Veronica has a very generous boss who occasionally brings in gift cards for his workers. He does this for no particular reason; it is just a nice way to keep people motivated. Veronica never knows when she is going to get a special bonus from her boss. Veronica's boss is reinforcing his workers according to a ________ schedule.

fixed interval

fixed ratio

variable ratio

variable interval

variable interval

125

A farmer is being troubled by coyotes eating his sheep. In an attempt to solve the problem, he kills a sheep and laces its body with a nausea-inducing drug. He leaves the sheep out where he knows the coyotes roam. He hopes they will learn to not eat the sheep after they become sick from the bait he leaves. The farmer is attempting to apply the principle of _________ to accomplish this.

observational learning

latent learning

instrumental conditioning

conditioned taste aversions

conditioned taste aversions

126

Normally, when food is placed in the mouth of any animal, the salivary glands start releasing saliva to help with chewing and digestion. In terms of Pavlov's analysis of learning, salivation would be referred to as a(n) ________.

unconditioned response

voluntary response

conditioned response

digestive reflux

unconditioned response

127

A reinforcer is a consequence that ________ a behavior, while a punisher is a consequence that ________ a behavior.

motivates; stimulates

weakens; strengthens

inhibits; motivates

strengthens; weakens

strengthens; weakens

128

After Little Albert acquired a conditioned fear of rats, Watson wanted to see how he would react to a white rabbit, cotton wool, and a Santa Claus mask. He was studying whether or not ________ had occurred.

behavior modification

stimulus discrimination

extinction

stimulus generalization

stimulus generalization

129

What has occurred when there is a decrease in the likelihood or rate of a target response?

punishment

positive reinforcement

negative reinforcement

positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement

punishment

130

A ________ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic, biological need, such a hunger, thirst, or touch.

primary

negative

positive

secondary

primary

131

For every five times that you go to the gym each week, you reward yourself with a treat. This BEST illustrates which of the following schedules of reinforcement?

fixed ratio

variable ratio

variable interval

fixed interval

fixed ratio

132

When Pavlov placed food in the mouths of canine subjects, they began to salivate. The salivation was a(n) ________.

unconditioned response

unconditioned stimulus

conditioned response

conditioned stimulus

unconditioned response

133

Secondary reinforcers differ from primary reinforcers in that secondary reinforcers ________.

can potentially reinforce or punish behavior

do not satisfy physical needs whatsoever

do not inherently satisfy physical needs

only pertain to intangible objects or events, such as praise

do not inherently satisfy physical needs

134

Getting paid for each basket of apples you gather represents which schedule of reinforcement?

fixed interval

fixed ratio

variable ratio

variable interval

fixed ratio

135

Last month, Walter became sick after eating two chili dogs, so he no longer likes chili dogs. Walter has experienced ________.

blocking

conditioned taste-aversion

operant taste conditioning

noncontingent conditioning

conditioned taste-aversion

136

The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was ________.

Skinner

Tolman

Kohler

Pavlov

Pavlov

137

What could John Watson have done to eliminate Little Albert's conditioned fear?

Show Albert a toy dog instead of a live rat.

Let Albert touch a Santa Claus beard repeatedly.

Show Albert a rat many times without a loud noise following so that extinction would occur.

Have Albert hear a loud noise many times without a rat present.

Show Albert a rat many times without a loud noise following so that extinction would occur.

138

A child learns that whenever he eats all of his dinner he gets a cookie for dessert. This type of learning is BEST explained by ________.

classical conditioning

operant conditioning

biofeedback theory

social learning theory

operant conditioning

139

A Skinner box is most likely to be used in research on ________.

classical conditioning

operant conditioning

vicarious learning

cognitive learning

operant conditioning

140

As an infant, Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor. When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor's coat, she started to cry. This is an example of ________.

instrumental learning

observational learning

classical conditioning

habituation

classical conditioning

141

________ is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.

Learning

Adaptation

Memory enhancement

Muscle memory

Learning

142

Pavlov placed food in the mouths of dogs, and they began to salivate. The food acted as a(n) ________.

unconditioned response

unconditioned stimulus

conditioned response

conditioned stimulus

unconditioned stimulus

143

Sue noticed that whenever she opened the door to the pantry, her dog would come into the kitchen and act hungry, by drooling and whining. She thought that because the dog food was stored in the pantry, the sound of the door had become a(n) ________.

unconditioned stimulus

conditioned stimulus

unconditioned response

conditioned response

conditioned stimulus

144

Ira has been smoking cigarettes for years, and particularly enjoys smoking when he goes to a casino to play blackjack. He recently quit smoking and has been cigarette-free for eight months. In that time, he has also had no opportunity to go back to a casino to play cards. Tonight, he and some friends went to play blackjack, and once he sat down at the table he got a sudden and irresistible urge to smoke a cigarette, and ended up smoking a pack in one night. Ira's unexpected desire to smoke was a result of ________.

classical conditioning

operant conditioning

latent learning

observational learning

classical conditioning

145

Little Albert's acquired fear of a white rat was a classic example of a(n) ________ response.

classical counterconditioned

conditioned emotional

positively reinforced

negatively reinforced

conditioned emotional

146

A monthly paycheck BEST represents a ________ schedule of reinforcement.

fixed interval

variable interval

fixed ratio

variable ratio

fixed interval

147

Reinforcement that is given for a response emitted after each hour and half (e.g., 10 a.m., 11:30 a.m., 1 p.m.) in time is most likely to be a ________ schedule.

variable ratio

variable interval

fixed interval

fixed ratio

fixed interval

148

Little Albert was conditioned to fear a ________.

colorful clown

brown mouse

white rat

white puppy

white rat

149

The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is called ________.

operant conditioning

classical conditioning

effective based learning

spontaneous recovery

operant conditioning