anatomy exam 2 Flashcards


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1
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Figure 18.2

Using Figure 18.2, match the following:

Point that represents the "dup" sound made by the heart.

E

2

Which of the following receive(s) blood during ventricular systole?
Select one:
A. pulmonary veins only
B. aorta only
C. pulmonary arteries only
D. both the aorta and pulmonary trunk

D

3

The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the ________.
Select one:
A. coronary arteries
B. fossa ovalis
C. coronary veins
D. coronary sinus

A

4

Select the correct statement about the function of myocardial cells.
Select one:
A. The entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all.
B. The influx of potassium ions from extracellular sources is the initiating event in cardiac muscle contraction.
C. Cardiac muscle cells are innervated by sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic nerve fibers so that the nervous system can increase heart rate.
D. The refractory period in skeletal muscle is much longer than that in cardiac muscle.

A

5

Transport proteins like transferrin (that carries iron ions) or others that bind to lipids or fat-soluble vitamins.

Adverse reaction of donor blood cells with recipient plasma.

Main contributor to osmotic pressure.

Necessary for coagulation.

- alpha and beta globulins

- agglutination

- albumin

- fibrinogen

6

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?
Select one:
A. pancreas
B. kidney
C. brain
D. liver

B

7

The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ________.
Select one:
A. atrial depolarization
B. ventricular depolarization
C. ventricular repolarization
D. atrial repolarization

A

8
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Figure 18.4

Using Figure 18.4, match the following:

Mitral (bicuspid) valve.

D

9
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Figure 18.4

Using Figure 18.4, match the following:

Right atrium.

A

10

With a patient that is administered an injection of erythropoietin (EPO) you would expect to see ________.
Select one:
A. decreased hematocrit
B. increased hematocrit
C. increased white blood cell count
D. decreased white blood cell count

B

11
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Figure 18.1

Using Figure 18.1, match the following:

Atrioventricular (AV) node.

B

12

Hemolytic disease of the newborn will not be possible in which of the following situations listed below?
Select one:
A. if the child is type O positive
B. if the father is Rh-
C. if the child is Rh+
D. if the father is Rh+

B

13
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Figure 18.4

Using Figure 18.4, match the following:

Pulmonary veins.

C

14

The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ________.
Select one:
A. expand the thoracic cage during diastole
B. accommodate a greater volume of blood
C. pump blood through a smaller valve
D. pump blood with greater pressure

D

15

Blood reticulocyte counts provide information regarding ________.
Select one:
A. clotting ability of the blood
B. rate of platelet formation
C. rate of erythrocyte formation
D. WBC ability to defend the body against disease

C

16

The atrioventricular (AV) valves are closed ________.
Select one:
A. while the atria are contracting
B. when the ventricles are in diastole
C. by the movement of blood from atria to ventricles
D. when the ventricles are in systole

D

17

Given an end diastolic volume (EDV) of 120 ml / beat and an end systolic volume (ESV) of 50 ml / beat, the stroke volume (SV) would be ________.
Select one:
A. 70 ml / beat
B. 170 ml / beat
C. 120 ml / beat
D. 50 ml / beata

A

18
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Figure 17.1

Using Figure 17.1, match the following:

When activated becomes a macrophage that fights infection.

B

19

Damage to the ________ causes heart block.
Select one:
A. atrioventricular (AV) bundle
B. atrioventricular (AV) node
C. atrioventricular (AV) valves
D. sinoatrial (SA) node

B

20

If you centrifuge (spin) whole blood you will find the band of white blood cells and platelets (the Buffy coat) is much thinner than the packed red blood cells below it. This difference reflects the fact that ________.
Select one:
A. platelets are larger than red blood cells
B. white blood cells are fewer in number than red blood cells
C. platelets are larger than white blood cells
D. white blood cells are smaller than red blood cells

B

21

If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that ________.
Select one:
A. parasympathetic stimulation would increase, causing a decrease in heart rate
B. the heart would stop, since the vagal nerves trigger the heart to contract
C. the atrioventricular (AV) node would become the pacemaker of the heart
D. the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute

D

22

All of the following can be expected with polycythemia except ________.
Select one:
A. low blood viscosity
B. increased blood volume
C. high blood pressure
D. high hematocrit

A

23

With a patient that is administered an injection of erythropoietin (EPO) you would expect to see ________.
Select one:
A. decreased hematocrit
B. decreased white blood cell count
C. increased white blood cell count
D. increased hematocrit

D

24
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Figure 17.1

Using Figure 17.1, match the following:

A granulocyte, phagocyte and the most common white blood cell found in whole blood.

A

25

The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is ________.
Select one:
A. angina pectoris
B. ischemia
C. myocardial infarct
D. pericarditis

A

26
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Figure 17.1

Using Figure 17.1, match the following:

Main bacteria killer during acute infections.

A

27
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Figure 18.1

Using Figure 18.1, match the following:

Sinoatrial (SA) node.

A

28

A person with an extremely high count of neutrophils is likely suffering ________.
Select one:
A. a bacterial infection
B. a viral infection
C. anemia
D. polycythemia

A

29
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Figure 18.2

Using Figure 18.2, match the following:

Atrial depolarization.

A

30

No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in ________.
Select one:
A. neutrophils
B. monocytes
C. eosinophils
D. basophils

B

31

Loss of fibrinogen within the plasma would most likely cause which of the following?
Select one:
A. edema (swelling)
B. fever with pain
C. pallor (pale skin)
D. loss of blood clotting

D

32

During contraction of heart muscle cells ________.
Select one:
A. some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of calcium from intracellular stores
B. calcium is prevented from entering cardiac fibers that have been stimulated
C. the action potential is prevented from spreading from cell to cell by gap junctions
D. all of the calcium required for contraction comes from storage in the sarcoplasmic reticulum

A

33
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Figure 17.1

Using Figure 17.1, match the following:

Neutrophil.

A

34

Damage to the ________ causes heart block.
Select one:
A. atrioventricular (AV) bundle
B. atrioventricular (AV) node
C. atrioventricular (AV) valves
D. sinoatrial (SA) node

B

35

The heart is called a "double pump" because there are two functionally separate circulations. Trace the pathway of each of these circulations and include the following information: heart chambers involved, major blood vessels involved, and general areas through which the blood flows. Begin with the right atrium.

1) Right atrium > tricuspid valve > right ventricle > pulmonary SL valve > lungs to pick up O2 and dispel CO2 >

2) Pulmonary veins > left atrium > bicuspid valve > left ventricle > aortic SL valve > aorta > body tissues

36

Select the correct statement about the structure of the heart wall.
Select one:
A. The heart chambers are lined by the endomysium.
B. The fibrous cardiac skeleton forms the bulk of the heart.
C. The myocardium is the layer of the heart that actually contracts.
D. Connective tissue in the heart wall aids in the conduction of the action potential.

C

37
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Figure 18.1

Using Figure 18.1, match the following:

Bundle branches.

D

38
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Figure 18.4

Using Figure 18.4, match the following:

Left ventricle.

E

39
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Figure 18.1

Using Figure 18.1, match the following:

Subendocardial conducting network (Purkinje fibers).

E

40
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Figure 18.2

Using Figure 18.2, match the following:

Ventricular repolarization.

E

41

What is the functional importance of the intercalated discs of cardiac muscle? What is the functional importance of the fibrous cardiac skeleton of the heart?

1) The intercalated discs hold the gap junctions, which are for ions to enter and leave the cell as well as to allow the heart to be a functional syncytium. The intercalated discs also have desmosomes, which prevent the cell from shifting.

2) The fibrous cardiac skeleton allows it to withstand stress and support the heart muscles when it constantly contracts.

42
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Figure 18.4

Using Figure 18.4, match the following:

Tricuspid valve.

B

43

Prevents backflow into the left atrium.

Prevents backflow into the left ventricle.

Prevents backflow into the right atrium.

Prevents backflow into the right ventricle.

- bicuspid valve

- aortic semilunar valve

- tricuspid valve

- pulmonary semilunar valve

44

Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ________.
Select one:
A. has more nuclei per cell
B. lacks striations
C. cells are larger than skeletal muscle cells
D. has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium

D

45

During exercise, which of the following would occur on an electrocardiogram (ECG) compared to an individual at rest?
Select one:
A. the T wave would decrease
B. the time from one R to the R of the next heartbeat would decrease
C. the S-T segment would decrease
D. the P-R interval would decrease

B

46

If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells so that sodium influx is more rapid, ________.
Select one:
A. heart rate would decrease, but blood pressure would rise due to the excess sodium present
B. tetanic contraction would occur due to the short absolute refractory period of cardiac muscle
C. potassium channels compensate and no change in heart rate would occur
D. threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase

D

47

All of the following conditions impair coagulation except ________.
Select one:
A. liver disease
B. vitamin K deficiency
C. vascular spasm
D. severe hypocalcemia

C

48
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Figure 17.1

Using Figure 17.1, match the following:

Releases granules that kill parasitic worms.

C

49

Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes ________.
Select one:
A. no change in blood pressure but a slower heart rate
B. a rise in blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
C. a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
D. no change in blood pressure but a change in respiration

C

50

When viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by ________.
Select one:
A. finding the papillary muscles
B. tracing out where the auricles connect
C. locating the base
D. noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls

D

51
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Figure 18.1

Using Figure 18.1, match the following:

Atrioventricular (AV) bundle.

C

52
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Figure 18.2

Using Figure 18.2, match the following:

Point after which pressure begins to rise in the aorta.

D

53

During the period of ventricular filling ________.
Select one:
A. the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves are open
B. pressure in the heart is at its peak
C. the atria remain in diastole
D. blood flows mostly passively through the atria and the open atrioventricular (AV) valves into the ventricles

D

54

Which blood type is generally called the universal donor?
Select one:
A. A
B. B
C. AB
D. O

D

55

Higher viscosity of blood will increase the amount of stress placed on the heart while it is pumping. Viscosity of blood is highest when ________.
Select one:
A. HbA1C levels are lowest
B. plasma levels are highest
C. hemoglobin levels are lowest
D. hematocrit is highest

D

56

If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells, ________.
Select one:
A. contractions would last as long as the refractory period
B. it would be much longer before cardiac cells could respond to a second stimulation
C. pacemaker cells would cease to spontaneously depolarize
D. tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action

D

57

If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells, ________.
Select one:
A. pacemaker cells would cease to spontaneously depolarize
B. contractions would last as long as the refractory period
C. tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action
D. it would be much longer before cardiac cells could respond to a second stimulation

C

58

The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ________.
Select one:
A. expand the thoracic cage during diastole
B. pump blood through a smaller valve
C. pump blood with greater pressure
D. accommodate a greater volume of blood

C

59

Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?
Select one:
A. closure of the heart valves
B. opening of the heart valves
C. excitation of the sinoatrial (SA) node
D. friction of blood against the chamber walls

A

60
card image

Figure 17.1

Using Figure 17.1, match the following:

Mounts a humoral immune response by producing antibodies.

D

61

A total WBC count and a differential WBC count have been ordered for Mrs. Johnson. What information is obtained from the differential count that the total count does not provide?

The differential count determines the relative proportion of individual leukocyte types (a valuable diagnostic tool). The total WBC count indicates an increase or decrease in number of WBCs.

62

A person who drinks a lot of alcoholic beverages must urinate frequently. Why?

Alcohol inhibits ADH secrection