Micro Bio Chapter 10 Final Exam Flashcards


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1

Broad-spectrum synthetic antimicrobials were discovered by

Gerhard Domagk.

2

An antimicrobial that inhibits cell wall synthesis will result in which of the following?

Cells become more susceptible to osmotic pressure.

3

Beta-lactam antibiotics have an effect on which of the following types of cells?

bacterial cells

4

Which of the following is a primary advantage of semisynthetic drugs?

They have a broader spectrum of action.

5

A medication which specifically targets cell walls that contain arabinogalactan-mycolic acid is

isoniazid.

6

Which of the following antibiotics disrupts cytoplasmic membrane function?

amphotericin B

7

A new antibacterial medication prevents the assembly of ribosomes on mRNA. The new
medication would be

either an antisense RNA or a type of oxazolidinone.

8

This figure represents a Petri plate. The gray area is where bacteria A is growing. The black area
is where bacteria B is growing. The white area is a zone where neither organism is growing.
What is the best interpretation of what is observed on the plate?

Bacteria B is producing an antibiotic that inhibits the growth of bacteria A.

9

Which of the following types of antimicrobial agent has the narrowest spectrum of action?

antivirals

10

The first synthetic antimicrobial widely available for treatment of infections

was an antimetabolite.

11

In the compound lamivudine an -SH group replaces an -OH group found in cytosine. When
used as a medication it will

interfere with nucleic acid synthesis.

12

Medications which should NOT be prescribed for a pregnant woman include

sulfonamides and tetracyclines.

13

Which of the following can result when antibiotic therapy disrupts the normal microbiota?

both pseudomembranous colitis and thrush

14

A compound is extracted from a microbial culture and is modified in the laboratory for use
as an oral medication. This product would be a(n)

semisynthetic antimicrobial.

15

The CDC issued alerts about a bacterial strain known as NDM1 (New Delhi metalo-
lactamase 1). What type of antibiotic resistance is indicated by the name?

inactivation of the drug

16

Bacillus licheniformis secretes a compound that inhibits the growth of other Gram-positive
bacteria. This is an example of a(n)

antibiotic.

17

Most drugs that inhibit the synthesis of the cell wall act by

preventing the cross-linkage of NAM subunits.

18

Most broad-spectrum antibiotics act by

inhibiting protein synthesis.

19

A medication that inhibits synthesis of ergosterol would be effective in treating

fungal infections.

20

A compound is structurally similar to PABA and inhibits folic acid synthesis. It is most
likely a(n)

sulfonamide.

21

Which of the following pathways is specifically inhibited by trimethoprim?

the conversion of dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid

22

Inhibiters of DNA synthesis specifically effective on prokaryotes are

quinolones.

23

The cooperative activity of drugs such as beta-lactam antibiotics and clavulanic acid, a β-
lactamase inhibitor, is known as

synergism.

24

Alterations in the structure of which of the following are an important aspect of Gram-
negative bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs?

porins

25

A sulfonamide and trimethoprim may be administered in combination to

reduce development of antibiotic resistance.

26

Who discovered the first antibiotic widely available to the general public?

Domagk

27

Bacterial DNA replication requires the enzyme gyrase, but eukaryotic replication does not.
Ciprofloxacin ("Cipro") inhibits gyrase activity. This is an example of

selective toxicity.

28

Synthetic antimicrobials that block protein synthesis by binding to the mRNA are

antisense nucleic acids.

29

The E-test determines which of the following?

both susceptibility and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration)

30

The therapeutic range of an antimicrobial is the

range of concentrations at which the antimicrobial is both effective and non-toxic.

31

Which of the following interferes with cell wall synthesis by blocking alanine bridge
formation?

both cycloserine and vancomycin

32

Antimicrobial sugar analogs are effective for

preventing virus attachment.

33

Which of the following is measured in the broth dilution test?

lack of turbidity

34

Infection of the ________ would be the hardest to treat with antimicrobial drugs.

brain

35

Disruption of the normal microbiota can result in infections caused by which of the
following microbes?

Candida albicans, Mycobacterium, and Clostridium difficile

36

The β-lactams are narrow spectrum antibacterials because

the outer membrane prevents their entry into cells.

37

How does resistance to drugs spread in bacterial populations?

Both horizontal gene transfer and the growth of biofilms spread drug resistance.

38

The mechanism of action of the antibiotic vancomycin is

inhibition of cell wall synthesis.

39

Several antiviral medications used to treat HIV interfere with

nucleic acid synthesis.

40

Pentamidine is an example of an antimicrobial that

binds to DNA.

41

The mechanism of action of erythromycin is

inhibition of protein synthesis.

42

Antiviral medications can best be described as

extremely narrow spectrum synthetic antimicrobials.

43

Ribavirin is an antiviral that interferes with

nucleic acid synthesis.

44

The antimicrobial polymyxin is primarily effective for treating superficial infections with

Gram-negative bacteria.

45

Drug-resistant populations of microbes arise when

exposure to drugs selectively kills sensitive cells, allowing overgrowth of resistant cells.

46

Paul Ehrlich coined the term antibiotics for the "magic bullet" antimicrobials he pursued.

FALSE

47

Antisense nucleic acids are designed to have no side effects against humans.

TRUE

48

Nucleic acid analog drugs act by inhibiting ribosome function.

FALSE

49

A side effect known as "black hairy tongue" may result from antifungal therapy.

FALSE

50

R-plasmids are extrachromosomal DNAs that contain genes for antimicrobial resistance.

TRUE

51

Some bacterial cells are resistant to a variety of antimicrobials because they actively pump the
drugs out of the cell.

TRUE

52

The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria enables many antimicrobial drugs to enter the
cell more easily.

FALSE

53

If a subculture of an MIC test grows in an MBC test, the concentration of the drug was
bactericidal.

FALSE

54

Medications administered intravenously can provide much higher effective concentrations
than other delivery methods.

TRUE

55

A compound that slows the activity of efflux pumps, when administered with an antibiotic
which requires high concentration to be effective, the combination is highly effective for treating
bacterial infections. This is an example of synergy.

TRUE

56

While not the first person to discover antibiotics _____ discovered the sources of many useful antibiotics.

Waksman

57

Selective _____ means that a given antimicrobial agent is more toxic to a
pathogen than to the host being treated.

toxicity

58

Nucleotide or nucleoside _____ are antimicrobial agents that mimic the
chemical structure of DNA building blocks.

analogs

59

The majority of broad spectrum antibacterial medications inhibit _____ synthesis.

protein

60

Secondary infections that result from the killing of some of the normal microbiota are called ______.

superinfections

61

Competition between beneficial microbes and potential pathogens is called microbial _____.

antagonism

62

A _____ concentration of a drug is one at which microbes
survive but are not able to grow and reproduce.

bacteriostatic

63

The action of some antivirals prevent _____, an event shortly after
entry of the virus into the cell.

uncoating

64

Some bacteria develop resistance to groups of drugs because the drugs are all structurally
similar to each other; this is a phenomenon known as _____ resistance.

cross

65

Second-generation drugs are semisynthetic drugs developed to combat ______
against an existing drug.

resistance

66

Drugs that slow bacterial growth would be _____ to
penicillin.

antagonistic

67

External infections can be treated by ______ administration, in which a drug is
applied directly to the site of infection.

topical

68

The abbreviation _____ stands for the smallest amount of a drug that will inhibit
the growth and reproduction of a pathogen.

MIC

69

Antiviral medications frequently block unique ______ to prevent
production of new virus.

enzymes

70

Macrolides inhibit protein synthesis by blocking _____ of the
ribosome.

movement