Which of the following statements about phylum Anthophyta is FALSE?
The two major classes are the monocots and dicots.
Which of the following statements about myco-heterotrophic plants is FALSE?
They are indirectly associated with an autotroph.
In a myco-heterotrophic relationship, the ___________ transfers carbohydrates to the ___________.
The pedicel of a flower is:
the stalk of a flower in an inflorescence.
The fertile parts of a flower are the:
carpels and stamens.
The perianth consists of all the __________ of a flower.
sepals and petals
Which of the following statements about a stamen is FALSE?
It is part of the gynoecium.
The gynoecium consists of all the ______ of a flower.
The portion of a carpel that encloses the ovules is the:
The style connects the _____ to the ______.
In axile placentation, the ovules are borne:
on a central column of tissue in a partitioned ovary.
A perfect flower contains:
carpels and stamens
A monoecious species has:
staminate and carpellate flowers on the same plant.
A flower that has only stamens and petals is:
imperfect and incomplete
An example of connation is the union of stamens with:
By definition, a flower with a aposepalous calyx has:
sepals not joined together.
In flowers with sepals, petals, and stamens attached below the ovary, the ovary is said to be:
All bilaterally symmetrical flowers are:
In angiosperms, the mature female gametophyte consists of _____ cells.
In angiosperms, the ovary develops into a(n):
The innermost layer of the pollen sac wall is the:
Microsporocytes divide by ______, forming ______.
meiosis; haploid microspores
Which of the following statements concerning pollen grain apertures is FALSE?
They are located in the intine.
Sporopollenin is the primary constituent of the:
When the microspore of an angiosperm divides, it gives rise directly to:
a generative cell and a tube cell.
A polymer in the _____ protects the pollen grain against UV radiation, dehydration, and pathogen attack.
Which of the following statements about pollen grains is FALSE?
They are poorly represented in the fossil record.
About 70% of living angiosperms have a(n) _______ type of megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis.
In the most common pattern of embryo sac development in angiosperms, how many nuclei end up at the chalazal end?
______ are found at the chalazal end of the embryo sac.
In embryo sac development, the egg apparatus contains the egg cell and the:
In the center of the embryo sac are the:
The mature female gametophyte is called a(n):
The mature megagametophyte consists of ______ nuclei and _____ cells.
In the process of pollination, the:
pollen passes from the anther to a stigma.
Which of the following statements concerning transmitting tissue is FALSE?
It is classified as being either wet or dry.
________ mark the pathways of sperm cell and sperm nucleus migrations within the ovule.
In the process of double fertilization, one sperm fuses with the ______, and the other sperm fuses with the ______.
egg; polar nuclei
In most angiosperms, the primary endosperm nucleus is:
The process of double fertilization occurs:
only in angiosperms, Ephedra, and Gnetum.
The function of the endosperm is to provide ______ for the embryo.
In some angiosperms, the food store of the seed is perisperm derived from the:
Unlike gymnosperms, the stored food in angiosperms is:
formed after fertilization.
As the seed develops, the ovary wall becomes the:
Myco-heterotrophs have an obligate relationship with a mycorrhizal fungus.
A carpel is a leaflike structure that contains ovules.
A carpel is a leaflike structure that contains ovules.
In a carpel, the style connects the stigma with the ovary.
If a single ovule is borne on a central column in an unpartitioned ovary, the placentation is described as parietal.
A flower that has both stamens and carpels but lacks sepals is described as imperfect and incomplete.
In a flower with a superior ovary, the perianth and stamens are epigynous.
Radially symmetrical flowers are said to be irregular.
Angiosperms have archegonia but lack antheridia.
The function of the tapetum is to provide food for developing microspores.
Sporopollenin protects the microgametophyte against UV radiation.
The most common type of megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis is the Polygonum type.
The integuments envelope the nucellus except at the micropyle.
The central cell contains the egg apparatus.
The great majority of living angiosperms have mature embryo sacs consisting of seven cells and eight nuclei.
The first flowering plants had a Polygonum type of embryo sac.
Wet stigmas have a cuticle that contains a hydrated layer of proteins, carbohydates, and lipids.
The male germ unit consists of two sperms cells physically associated with the vegetative nucleus.
The male germ unit consists of two sperms cells physically associated with the vegetative nucleus.
Synergids produce chemicals that attract the pollen tube.
Endosperm may be an evolutionary derivative of a second embryo.
In angiosperms, embryogeny begins with a free nuclear stage.
Perisperm develops from the proliferation of the nucellus.
Exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp are the layers of the ovary wall in a fruit.
Angiosperms first appear in the fossil record in the ______ period.
The most recent evidence indicates that:
The angiosperms have close relatives among the living gymnosperms.
Which of the following is NOT a unique characteristic of the angiosperms?
Stamens with four pairs of pollen sacs
The monocots and eudicots comprise approximately _____ percent of living angiosperms.
Which of the following do NOT have single-pored pollen?
Which of the following statements concerning Amborella is FALSE?
It belongs to the Mesangiospermae.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Archaefructus?
The original angiosperms most likely:
had simple flowers.
In most angiosperms, petals are probably evolutionary derivatives of:
In contrast to living angiosperms, the stamens of archaic angiosperms:
are colored and fleshy.
In archaic angiosperms, the carpels:
Which of the following is NOT an evolutionary trend among flowers?
from an inferior ovary to a superior ovary
Ray flowers and disk flowers are characteristic of the:
:The largest angiosperm family is the:
The pollinium consists of the:
contents of an anther.
Which of the following was NOT an evolutionary adaptation of angiosperms in response to insects?
The most important flower-visiting animals in angiosperm evolution are:
Which of the following is NOT an example of coevolution of bees and flowers?
Flowers pollinated by bees are usually red.
Flowers with a long corrolla tube most likely pollinated by:
Which of the following statements concerning pollination by "deception" is FALSE?
"Sex-deception" occurs exclusively in the grasses.
Most flowers pollinated by birds:
are red or yellow.
Which of the following statements about most bat-pollinated flowers is FALSE?
They are relatively odorless.
Flowers pollinated by ___________ are most likely to produce no nectar, have dull colors, are relatively small, and have the sexes separated on the same plant.
The red, orange, and yellow pigments of flowers are:
The most important pigments in floral coloration are:
The red and blue pigments stored in vacuoles in flowers are:
___________ are flavonoids that vary in color with the pH of the cell sap.
Ultraviolet absorbance in flowers is related to the presence of:
The red color of beets is due to the presence of:
By definition, an accessory fruit develops from:
an ovary plus additional flower parts.
By definition, a parthenocarpic fruit lacks:
Apples and pears are:
simple accessory fruits.
A simple fruit in which the inner layer of the fruit wall is fleshy is a(n):
A simple fruit in which the fleshy portion is derived largely from the base of the perianth is a(n):
By definition, an indehiscent fruit:
does not breakopen at maturity.
The fruit characteristic of the pea family is a(n):
Which of the following is NOT an indehiscent fruit?
The grains typical of the grass family are a type of fruit known as a:
A __________, characteristic of the pea family and others, splits open at maturity into two or more one-seeded portions.
Which of the following is NOT an adaptation specific to wind-borne fruits or seed?
tissue with large air spaces
In _________, the seeds are shot aloft from the plant.
The function of elaisomes is to:
provide food for ants.
What is the apparent function of most secondary plant products?
restricting the palatability of the plant to herbivores
A relationship bewtween plants of the mustard family Brassicaceae and larvae of the butterfly family Pierniae has developed such that the larvae:
feed only on those plants.
Which of the following statements about the coevolution of angiosperms and insects is FALSE?
Many of the possible coevolution variants have evolved only once within a particular plant family.
Gnetophytes are more closely related to angiosperms than to gymnosperms.
Archaefructus is the earliest angiosperm whole-plant fossil.
Molecular evidence indicates angiosperm are 125 million years old.
Like gymnosperms, the earliest angiosperms had pollen grains with a single pore.
The monocots and eudicots each had a common ancestor.
The Nymphaeales (water lilies) are classified as basak angiosperms.
Amborella is a sister group of the Mesangiospermae.
Archaic members of the waterlily family (Nymphaeceae) arose before the divergence of the monocots and eudicots.
The magnoliids were the first lineage to diverge within the Mesangiospermae.
Archaefructus is the first intact fossil of a mature eudicot.
In the earliest angiosperms, sepals normally have the same number of vascular strands as the leaves of the same plant.
In angiosperms, there is a general trend from bilateral to radial symmetry.
A pollinium is a pollen-dispersal unit characteristic of the Orchidaceae.
"Honey guides" are usually located on the petals of the bee-pollinated flowers.
The nectary of a moth-pollinated flower is usually at the top of the corolla tube.
In "food deception", the plant signals the presence of nectar without providing it.
Wind-pollinated flowers often have feathery outgrowth for intercepting pollen grains.
Most red and blue pigments are anthocyanins.
Bougainvillea flowers are red due to the presence of anthocynanins as wells as betacyanins.
A parthenocarpic fruit is one that developed without seeds.
A mutiple fruit develops from an apocarpous gynecium.
Either seeds or fruits may have wings or plumes for wind dispersal.
An example of a secondary metabolite is caffeine.
In plants, the main role of chemicals such as cocaine and nicotine seems to be attracting pollinators.
Many insects that eat noxious plants are brightly colored.
A plant’s body plan consists of a(n) ______ and a(n) ______ pattern.
When the zygote first divides, the two daughter cells are the ______ cell and the ______ cell.
Located at the micropylar pole of the embryo is the:
Which of the following statements about the polarity of an embryo is FALSE?
It is established only after the zygote has divided.
Which primary meristem forms first?
Which of the following statements concerning primary meristems is FALSE?
An example is the suspensor.
The procambium is the precursor of the:
xylem and phloem.
During early embryogenesis, the ground meristem surrounds the:
Which of following lists the correct developmental sequence in eudicots, where I is the globular stage; II, the heart stage; III, the proembryo; IV, the torpedo stage; and V, the zygote?
V, III, I, II, IV
In embryogenesis in monocots, globular embryos next become:
The root and shoot apical meristems first become discernible during the transition between the ______ and ______.
globular stage; torpedo stage
The cotyledons elongate most dramatically and may become curved during the _______ stage.
Where does the shoot apical meristem arise in eudicot embryos?
between the two cotyledons
Normal development of the ______ prevents formation of extra embryos by the ______.
embryo proper; suspensor
During embryogenesis in Arabidopsis, mutants with the twn mutation:
form secondary embryos from the suspensor.
In Arabidopsis, embryonic development is thought to be coordinated by at least ______ distinct genes.
The stem-like axis above the cotyledon(s) is the:
Which of the following CANNOT be part of the plumule?
In some embryos, below the hypocotyl the _________ is found.
In eudicots, in which most of the endosperm is absorbed by the embryo, the cotyledons:
are large and fleshy.
The cotyledon of grasses is called a(n):
In monocots, the cotyledon can have all of the following functions EXCEPT:
protection of the plumule.
In a grass embryo, the coleorhiza encloses the:
The integuments develop into the:
Which of the following statements about the seed coat is FALSE?
It develops from the ovary.
In grasses, the pericarp consists of the:
mature ovary and remnants of the seed coat only.
The scar left on the seed coat after the seed has separated from its stalk is called the:
Which of the following statements concerning the maturation phase of seed development is FALSE?
Cell division in the embryo accelerates.
Which of the following events is NOT associated with seed germination?
synthesis of food reserves
When the seed coat is ruptured during germination, the seed:
switches to aerobic respiration.
A quiescent seed is different from a dormant seed in that a quiescent seed will germinate:
Which of the following would not typically cause coat-imposed dormancy?
prevention of the release of growth promoters from the seed
Embryo dormancy would typically be caused by:
an increase in abscisic acid concentrations.
The process of after-ripening involves:
enzymatic modification of a dormant seed so that it will germinate.
In temperate regions of the world, after-ripening is triggered by:
What induces the seeds of manzanita and other plants of the California chaparral to germinate?
The _________ is usally the first structure to emerge from germinating seed.
In monocots, the root system commonly develops from:
In epigeous germination, which structure emerges above ground first?
In the pea (Pisum sativum), the ________ forms the hook that pushes to the soil surface during seed germination.
Which of the following statements about seed germination in onion (Allium cepa) is FALSE?
Germination is hypogeous.
In maize (Zea mays), the first structure to emerge from the seed during germination is the:
The radial pattern of embryogenesis consits of concentrically arranged tissue systems.
In most angiosperms, the first division of the zygote is symmetrically and longitudinal to the long axis of the zygote.
In angiosperms, polarity can be either with the first division of the zygote or before.
The suspensor anchors the embryo at the micropyle.
The root and shoot apical meristems are two of the primary meristems.
The protoderm is formed by anticlinal divisions of the outermost cells of the embryo proper.
In the heart stage of development, the lobes of the "heart" are the cotyledons.
The apical meristems are the source of virtually all of the tissues of the seedling and adult plant.
The suspensor is an example of a structure that undergoes programmed death.
The embryonic root is called the radicle.
Seeds with large cotyledons typically have little or no endosperm.
The cotyledon of grasses is called a scutellum.
The coleoptile and coleorhiza are typically found in monocots and eudicots.
In a grass embryo, the coleoptile encloses the plumule.
In grasses, the pericarp is found immediately inside the seed coat.
The funiculus is the stalk of the seed.
Metabolism increases toward the end of the maturation phase of seed development.
Before the seed coat ruptures during germination, glucose breakdown may be entirely anerobic.
A quiescent seed will not germinate even when external conditions are favorable.
An example of a coat-imposed dormancy is a mechanically rigid seed coat.
The dormancy acquired during seed maturation is called primary dormancy.
In temperate regions, after-ripening ensures that seeds will germinate in the fall rather than in the spring.
In hypogeous germination, the cotyledons remain in the soil.
In maize, the pericarp functions as the seed coat.