TEST 5 , 24, 25, 32, 33 Flashcards


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1
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Based on the phylogenetic tree shown below, which statement best describes a relationship between the common ancestor and the organisms shown?

A) Rhesus monkeys have exact same DNA as the common ancestor

B) Chimpanzees were the first organisms to evolve from the common ancestor.

C) The common ancestor is more closely related to humans than to baboons

D) The common ancestor shares DNA with all the other organism

E) All the organisms on the phylogenetic tree are equally related to the common ancestor

Answer: D

2
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Based on the phylogenetic tree below, which species are most closely related?

A) species II

B) species I and IV

C) species I and II

D) species I and III

E) species II and III

Answer: C

3

What do animals as diverse as corals and monkeys have in common?

A) body cavity between body wall and digestive system

B) number of embryonic tissue layers

C) type of body symmetry

D) presence of hox genes

E) degree of cephalization

Answer: D

4

Approximately how far back in time does the fossil record extend?

A) 3.5 million years

B) 5.0 million years

C) 3.5 billion years

D) 5.0 billion years

Answer: C

5

The largest unit within which gene flow can readily occur is a

A) population

B) species

C) genus

D) hybrid

E) phylum

Answer: B

6

What would be the most effective method of reducing the incidence of blood flukes in a human population?
A) reduce the mosquito population
B) reduce the population of the intermediate snail host
C) purify all drinking water
D) avoid contact with rodent droppings
E) carefully wash all raw fruits and vegetables

Answer: B

7

Which of the following animal groups is entirely aquatic?
A) Mollusca
B) Crustacea
C) Echinodermata
D) Nematoda
E) Platyhelminthes

Answer: C

8

Assuming chimps and gorillas are human's closest relatives removing humans from the great ape clade placing them in a different clade has the effect of making the phylogenetic tree of the great apes

A) polyphyletic

B) paraphyletic

C) monophyletic

D) conform with Linnaeus' view of great ape phylogeny

Answer: B

9

You find a multi-legged animal in your garden and want to determine if it is a centipede or a millipede. You take the animal to a university where a myriapodologist quickly tells you that you have found a centipede. Which of the following traits may have allowed her to make this distinction?

A) presence of body segments

B) poisonous claws

C) egg- laying

D) molting

E) two pairs of legs per body segment

Answer: B

10

Macroevolution is ____

A) the same as microevolution, but includes the origin of new species

B) evolution above the species level

C) defined as the evolution of microscopic organisms into organisms that can be seen with the naked eye

D) defined as a change in allele or gene frequency over the course of many generations

E) indistinguishable from microevolution

Answer: B

11

Which of the following combinations correctly matches a phylum to its description?

A) nematode --> segmented worms, closed circulatory system

B ) cnidaria --> flatworms, gastrovascular cavity, acoelomate

C) platyheminthes --> radial symmetry, polyp and medusa body forms

D) porifera --> triploblastic; sexual reproduction

E) echinoderms --> bilateral symmetry as a larva, radial symmetry as adult

Answer: E

12

Which of the following describes the most likely order of events in allopatric speciation?

A) genetic drift --> genetic isolation--> divergence

B) genetic isolation--> divergence--> genetic drift

C) divergence--> genetic drift--> genetic isolation

D) genetic isolation --> genetic drift--> divergence

Answer: D

13
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In the figure below, which two main clades branch from the most recent common ancestor of the eumetazoans

A) Porifera and Cnidaria

B) lophotrochozoa and ecdysozoa

C) ecdyzoa and deuterosoia

D) cnidaria and bilateria

E) deuterostomia and bilateria

Answer: D

14

Which phylum is characterized by animals that are assymetric and are diploblastic?

A) Cnidaria

B) Platyhelminthes

C) Mollusca

D) Nematoda

E) Porifera

Answer: E

15

Which of the following is true of the class, Hexapoda?

A) All of them undergo complete metamorphosis

B) They all have jointed appendages and a radula

C) They have a chitinous exoskeleton

D) Their bodies are divided into cephalothorax stomach

Answer: C

16

During embryological development, the anus forms before the mouth in:

A) snails

B) vertebrates

C) flatworms

D) arthropods

E) annelids

Answer: B

17

If the half-life of carbon-14 is about 5,730 years, then a fossil that has 1/8 the normal proportion of carbon-14 to carbon-12 should be about how many years old?

A) 2,800

B) 11,200

C) 17,190

D) 22,900

E) 28,650

Answer: C

18

The worms in ___ (phylum) occur in raw meats, have a pseudocoelom, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that shed during molting

A) Platyhelminthes

B) Arthropoda

C) Nematoda

D) Annelida

E) Mollusca

Answer: C

19

During animal development, the true coelom develops?

A) between the ectoderm and mesoderm

B) within the ectoderm

C) between the mesoderm and endoderm

D)within the mesoderm

E) within endoderm

Answer: D

20

Which of the following does not belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes?

A) flukes

B) tapeworms

C) roundworms

D) planaria

Answer: C

21

Cribrostatin is a substance that has the potential for use in cancer therapy as well as an antibiotic. This compound naturally found in animals belonging to which of the following phyla?

A) Poriferan

B) Cnidarian

C) Myriapoda

D) Echinodermata

E) Mollusca

Answer: A

22

Which of the following is not a characteristics of all animals?

A) they are all multicellular

B) they have tissues, organs and organ systems

C) they are eukaryotes

D) they are heterotrophic

E) they ingest their food

Answer: B

23

Which two scientists hypothesized that the early earth atmosphere was reducing?

A) Miller and Urey

B) Gould and Eldredge

C) Oparin and Haldane

D) Watson and Franklin

E) Huxley and Mayr

Answer: C

24

Which of the following is not a pancrustachean?

A) crayfish

B) spider

C) butterfly

D) lobster

E) beetle

Answer: B

25

He was the prominent 20th century biologist who formulated the biological species concept that based on the ability of organisms to interbreed

A) Stephen Gould

B) Charles Darwin

C) Alfred Wallace

D) Konrad Lorenz

E) Ernst Mayr

Answer: E

26

Ecdysozoans include all the following except:

A) insect

B) nematodes

C) lobsters

D) sea urchins

E) scorpions

Answer: D

27

Book lungs are characteristics of the respiratory organs of which animal group?

A) spiders

B) lobsters

C) horseshoe crabs

D) centipedes

E) crayfish

Answer: A

28

What does the biological species concept use as the primary criterion for determining species boundaries?
A) geographic isolation
B) niche differences
C) gene flow
D) morphological similarity
E) molecular (DNA, RNA, protein) similarity

Answer: C

29
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Assuming a continuous rate of sediment deposition, which section of seafloor crust should have the thickest layer of overlying sediment

A) A

B) B

C) C

D) D

E) E

Answer: E

30

The teacher and class were especially saddened when the colonial hydrozoan died. They had watched it carefully, and the unfortunate creature never even got to produce offspring by budding. Yet, everyone was elated when Tommy (now recovered) noticed a small colonial hydrozoan growing in a part of the tank far from the location of the original colony. The teacher was apparently unaware that these hydrozoans exhibit
A) spontaneous generation.
B) abiogenesis.
C) alternation of generations.
D) ecdysis.
E) a medusa stage.

Answer: E

31

The larvae of some insects are merely small versions of the adult, whereas the larvae of other insects look completely different from adults, eat different foods, and may live in different habitats. Which of the following most directly favors the evolution of the latter, more radical, kind of metamorphosis?
A) natural selection of sexually immature forms of insects
B) changes in the homeobox genes governing early development
C) the evolution of meiosis
D) the development of an oxidizing atmosphere on Earth
E) the origin of a brain

Answer: B

32

Which characteristic(s) is (are) shared by both cnidarians and flatworms?
A) dorsoventrally flattened bodies
B) true muscle
C) radial symmetry
D) a digestive system with a single opening

Answer: D

33
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Which tree depicts the microsporidians as a sister group of the ascomycetes?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV

Answer: A

34

If you were using cladistics to build a phylogenetic tree of cats, which of the following would be the best outgroup?

A) lion

B) domestic cat

C) dog

D) leopard

E) cheetah

Answer: C

35

A character that evolved in a group after it had branched from a common ancestor is known as ____

A) Ancestral character

B) analogous character

C) Homologous character

D) Derived character

E) Exaptation

Answer: D

36

More species have been extinct from this group than from any other animal group

A) echinoderm

B) mullusca

C) arthropoda

D) nematode

E) myriapoda

Answer: B

37

Whatever its ultimate cause(s), the Cambrian explosion ushered in ____

A) mass extinction

B) evolutionary stasis

C) adaptive radiation

D) a large meteor impact

E) animal migration from aquatic to terrestial environment

Answer: C

38

Which tissue type or organism is not correctly matched with its germ layer?

A) nervous --> mesoderm

B) muscular --> mesoderm

C) stomach --> endoderm

D) skin --> ectoderm

E) skeletal --> mesoderm

Answer: A

39

An organism that exhibits cephalization probably is also ____

A) bilaterally symmetrical

B) a coelomate

C) segmented

D) diploblastic

E) asexual

Answer: A

40

Plant species A has a diploid number of 12. Plant species B has a diploid number of 16. A new species, C, arises as an allopolyploid from A and B. The diploid number for species C would probably be
A) 12.
B) 14.
C) 16.
D) 28.
E) 56.

Answer: D

41

What do both nematodes and arthropods share in common?

A) develop an anus from the blastopore (pore) formed in the gastrula stage

B) they are suspension feeders

C) they grow by shedding their exoskeleton

D) they have ciliated larvae

E) they have a closed circulatory system

Answer: C

42

The largest clade in lophotrochozoan are the:

A) bryozoans

B) bivalves

C) ectoprocta

D) molluses

E) platyhelminthes

Answer: D

43

Three populations of the finches look very similar, but the males have courtship songs that sound different. What function would this difference in song likely serve if the populations came in contact?

A) a temporal reproductive isolating mechanism

B) a postzygotic isolating mechanism

C) a behavioral reproductive isolating mechanism

D) a gametic reproductive isolation mechanism

E) habitat reproductive isolation

Answer: C

44
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Based on phylogenetic relationships you would group the creature below with :

A) Lobster

B) Spider

C) Centipedes

D) Millipedes

E) Insects

Answer: B

45
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Which insect order is shown in the figure below?

A) Diptera

B) Coleoptera

C) Lepidoptera

D) Hymenoptera

E) Orthoptera

Answer: B

46
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Which of the letter correspond to a gastropod mollusk?

A) E

B) D

C) C

D) B

E) A

Answer: A

47
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Which letter shows an organism that has Tubellaria as one of its members?

A) E

B) D

C) C

D) B

E) A

Answer: C

48
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Which letter indicates an organism that can be grouped together with the oyster?

A) E

B) D

C) C

D) B

E) A

Answer: E

49
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Which letter shows an organism in the phylum Nematoda?

A) E

B) D

C) C

D) B

E) A

Answer: D

50
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What is the common name of the organism shown in letter D above?

A) Roundworm

B) Pinworm

C) Tapeworm

D) Earthworm

Answer: D