anatomy exam 4 ch. 13 Flashcards


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1
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The nasal cavity is indicated by the letter __________.

Answer: A

2
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The right main (primary) bronchus is indicated by letter __________.

Answer: H

3
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The trachea is indicated by letter __________.

Answer: I

4
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The diaphragm muscle is indicated by letter __________.

Answer: G

5
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The oral cavity is indicated by letter __________.

Answer: C

6
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The base of the right lung is indicated by letter __________.

Answer: F

7
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The nostrils are indicated by letter __________.

Answer: B

8
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The apex of the right lung is indicated by letter __________.

Answer: E

9
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The larynx is indicated by letter __________.

Answer: D

10
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The pharynx is indicated by letter __________.

Answer: J

11

The three mucosa-covered projections into the nasal cavity that greatly increase surface area of mucosa exposed to air are called __________.

Answer: conchae

12

The anterior portion of the palate that is supported by bone is called the __________.

Answer: hard palate

13

The three regions of the pharynx are the __________.

Answer: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

14

Inflammation of the sinuses that can cause marked changes in voice quality is called __________.

Answer: sinusitis

15

The large shield-shaped thyroid cartilage that protrudes anteriorly is commonly called the __________.

Answer: Adam's apple

16

The mucosa-lined windpipe that extends from the larynx to the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra is called the __________.

Answer: trachea

17

Clusters of lymphatic tissue in the pharynx are referred to as __________.

Answer: tonsils

18

The opening between the vocal folds is called the __________.

Answer: glottis

19

The C-shaped rings that reinforce the trachea are constructed of __________ cartilage.

Answer: hyaline

20

The flap of elastic cartilage that protects the opening of the larynx is called the __________.

Answer: epiglottis

21

Folds of mucous membrane called __________ vibrate to provide speech.

Answer: vocal folds or true vocal cords

22

The serous membrane that surrounds each lung is created by a parietal and visceral __________.

Answer: pleura

23

The division of the trachea produces two tubes called the right and left main (primary) __________.

Answer: bronchus

24

Dust cells" that wander in and out of the alveoli, picking up bacteria, carbon particles, and other debris, are actually __________.

Answer: macrophages

25

The air sacs of the lungs are called __________.

Answer: alveoli

26

The process of moving air into and out of the lungs is commonly called breathing or __________.

Answer: pulmonary ventilation

27

Gas exchange between the blood and tissue cells is called __________.

Answer: internal respiration

28

The inspiratory muscles that contract so we can inspire air are the __________ and __________.

Answer: diaphragm; external intercostals

29

The presence of air in the intrapleural space is known as __________.

Answer: pneumothorax

30

Normal quiet breathing moves about __________ mL of air into and out of the lungs with each breath.

Answer: 500

31

A mechanism that clears the upper respiratory passages, which is similar to a cough except that the expelled air is directed through the nasal cavities instead of the oral cavity, is called a __________.

Answer: sneeze

32

Air that remains in the conducting zone passageways and never reaches the alveoli is called the __________.

Answer: dead space volume

33

Respiratory capacities are measured with a __________.

Answer: spirometer

34

During __________, oxygen binds to hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin.

Answer: external respiration

35

__________ is an odorless, colorless gas which binds preferentially with the same binding site on hemoglobin.

Answer: Carbon monoxide

36

Most carbon dioxide is dissolved in blood plasma and transported as __________.

Answer: bicarbonate ion

37

Inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues is called __________.

Answer: hypoxia

38

The portions of the brain that contain respiratory centers and set the breathing rate are the __________

Answer: medulla oblongata and pons

39

A normal respiratory rate of about 12-15 breaths per minute is called __________.

Answer: eupnea

40

The most important stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is the body's need to rid itself of the blood gas called __________.

Answer: carbon dioxide

41

In order to return acidic blood pH to normal, breathing becomes deeper and more rapid, a phenomenon known as __________.

Answer: hyperventilation

42

The fatty molecule made by alveolar cells known as __________ reduces surface tension prevents alveoli collapse between breaths.

Answer: surfactant

43

Gas exchange occurs in the

A) larynx

B) alveoli

C) pharynx

D) nose

E) trachea

Answer: B) alveoli

44

The respiratory conducting passageways perform all of the following functions EXCEPT:

A) humidify air

B) exchange gases
C) warm incoming air

D) purify air
E) allow air to reach the lungs

Answer: B) exchange gases

45

Which one of the following terms does NOT apply to the nose:

A) external nares

B) nasopharynx

C) nasal cavity

D) nostrils
E) nasal septum

Answer : B) nasopharynx

46

What is the role of mucus in the nasal cavity:

A) act as a resonance chamber for speech

B) trap incoming bacteria and other foreign debris

C) increase the air turbulence in the nasal cavity

D) lighten the skull
E) separate the oral from the nasal cavity

Answer : B) trap incoming bacteria and other foreign debris

47

The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by:

A) the hard palate

B) the soft palate
C) the nasal conchae

D) both the hard and soft palate
E) both the nasal conchae and hard palate

Answer : D) both the hard and soft palate

48

Which one of the following bones does NOT contain paranasal sinuses:
A) frontal

B) mandible

C) ethmoid

D) maxilla

E) sphenoid

Answer : B) mandible

49

Which tonsil(s) is/are located in the oropharynx at the end of the soft palate:

A) lingual tonsils

B) thymus gland

C) adenoid

D) palatine tonsils

E) pharyngeal tonsil

Answer : D) palatine tonsils

50

Air from the nasal cavity enters the superior portion of the pharynx called the

A) laryngopharynx

B) oropharynx
C) tracheopharynx

D) palatopharynx

E) nasopharynx

Answer : E) nasopharynx

51

The pharynogotympanic tubes, which drain the middle ear, open into the:

A) nasopharynx

B) laryngopharynx

C) oropharynx

D) tracheopharynx

E) palatopharynx

Answer : A) nasopharynx

52

Contaminated mucus is removed from the lower respiratory passageways, such as the trachea, by:

A) flagella

B) contractions of smooth muscles

C) yawning

D) cilia
E) laughing

Answer : D) cilia

53

Following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to:
A) speak

B) hear

C) eat

D) sneeze

E) breathe

Answer : A) speak

54

The opening between the vocal cords is called the:

A) esophagus

B) larynx

C) glottis

D) epiglottis
E) thyroid cartilage

Answer : C) glottis

55

The flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the:

A) trachea

B) Adam's apple

C) thyroid cartilage

D) epiglottis

E) glottis

Answer : D) epiglottis

56

Vibration due to exhaled air that results in speech is a function of the:

A) glottis

B) complete voice box

C) true vocal cords

D) epiglottis
E) false vocal cords

Answer: D) epiglottis

57

Terminal bronchioles eventually terminate in:

A) diaphragm

B) glottis
C) bronchioles

D) alveoli
E) main (primary) bronchi

Answer: D) alveoli

58

The serous membrane covering the surface of the lungs is called the:

A) main (primary) bronchi

B) pleurisy
C) mediastinum

D) parietal pleura

E) visceral pleura

Answer: E) visceral pleura

59

Which one of the following is NOT true of the lungs:

A) the right lung has three lobes

B) the bases rest on the diaphragm

C) the left lung has two lobes

D) the narrower portion of each lung is called the apex

E) both lungs have two lobes

Answer: E) both lungs have two lobes

60

When oxygen enters the respiratory system, what is the next structure to which it travels immediately upon leaving the trachea:

A) alveoli
B) bronchioles

C) pleura
D) main (primary) bronchi

E) tertiary bronchi

Answer: D) main (primary) bronchi

61

Which one of the following structures is NOT part of the respiratory zone:

A) alveoli

B) alveolar ducts
C) respiratory bronchioles

D) primary bronchi

E) alveolar sacs

Answer: D) primary bronchi

62

Which of the following is NOT one of the four main events of respiration:

A) external respiration

B) pulmonary ventilation

C) respiratory gas transport

D) residual volume
E) internal respiration

Answer: D) residual volume

63

Exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by:

A) facilitated diffusion

B) simple diffusion

C) endocytosis

D) osmosis
E) active transport

Answer: B) simple diffusion

64

The lipid molecule critical to lung function that coats the gas-exposed alveolar surfaces is called:
A) surfactant

B) renin

C) kinin

D) interferon

E) lecithin

Answer: A) surfactant

65

Air moving in and out of the lungs is called:

A) internal respiration

B) expiration
C) pulmonary ventilation

D) inspiration
E) external respiration

Answer: C) pulmonary ventilation

66

Which one of the following is NOT true of inspiration:
A) increased intrapulmonary volume causes inhaled gases to spread out

B) relaxation of the external intercostal muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity

C) contraction of the diaphragm muscle helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity

D) air continues to move into the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure equals atmospheric pressure

E) the decreased gas pressure produces a partial vacuum that forcibly sucks air in

Answer: B) relaxation of the external intercostal muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity

67

The gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systemic capillaries is called:

A) external respiration

B) expiration
C) pulmonary ventilation

D) internal respiration
E) respiratory gas transport

Answer: D) internal respiration

68

Expiration (exhalation) occurs when:
A) intrapulmonary volume increases

B) intrapulmonary pressure decreases
C) diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract

D) diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax

E) air moves into the lungs

Answer: D) diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax

69

Which nonrespiratory air movement clears the upper respiratory passageways:
A) laughing

B) sneezing

C) hiccupping

D) coughing

E) yawning

Answer: B) sneezing

70

The presence of air in the intrapleural space is known as:

A) atelectasis

B) pneumothorax

C) hypoxia

D) asthma

E) pleurisy

Answer: B) pneumothorax

71

The respiratory movement representing the total amount of exchangeable air is the:

A) tidal volume

B) dead space volume
C) inspiratory reserve volume

D) expiratory reserve volume

E) vital capacity

Answer: E) vital capacity

72

The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a tidal expiration is about:

A) 1200 mL

B) 4800 mL

C) 500 mL

D) 6000 mL

E) 2100 mL

Answer: A) 1200 mL

73

The amount of air exchanged during normal quiet breathing is about:

A) 4800 mL

B) 1200 mL

C) 500 mL

D) 6000 mL

E) 2100 mL

Answer: C) 500 mL

74

Carbon dioxide dissolves in blood plasma for transport as:

A) oxyhemoglobin

B) carbohemoglobin

C) carbon monoxide

D) bicarbonate ion

E) deoxyhemoglobin

Answer: D) bicarbonate ion

75

Oxygen binds with hemoglobin in the blood to form:

A) oxyhemoglobin

B) plasma
C) bicarbonate ion

D) carbon dioxide

E) carbonic acid

Answer: A) oxyhemoglobin

76

The bluish cast that results from inadequate oxygenation of the skin and mucosa is called:

A) melanosis

B) erythema

C) albinism

D) cyanosis

E) xanthosis

Answer: D) cyanosis

77

Where are the respiratory centers housed which control involuntary breathing rates:

A) thalamus and corpus callosum

B) hypothalamus and thalamus

C) cerebellum and occipital lobe

D) medulla and pons
E) midbrain and medulla

Answer: D) medulla and pons

78

Cessation of breathing is called:
A) apnea

B) hyperpnea

C) dyspnea

D) eupnea

E) tachypnea

Answer: A) apnea

79

Hypoventilation dramatically increases carbonic acid concentration and involves:

A) irregular breathing

B) extremely slow breathing

C) extremely fast breathing

D) extremely deep breathing

E) intermittent breathing

Answer: B) extremely slow breathing

80

Hyperventilation leads to all of the following except:

A) brief periods of apnea

B) buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood

C) cyanosis

D) dizziness

E) fainting

Answer: B) buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood

81

The most important chemical stimulus leading to increased rate and depth of breathing is:

A) decreased oxygen level in the blood

B) decreased carbon dioxide in the blood C) increased blood pH

D) increased hydrogen ion in the blood E) increased carbon dioxide in the blood

Answer: E) increased carbon dioxide in the blood

82

Which one of the following is NOT a feature of COPD:
A) most patients have a genetic predisposition to COPD

B) most patients have a history of smoking
C) frequent pulmonary infections are common

D) most COPD victims are hypoxic
E) dyspnea becomes progressively more severe

Answer: A) most patients have a genetic predisposition to COPD

83

Which congenital respiratory disease results in the oversecretion of mucus and clogging of respiratory passageways:

A) cystic fibrosis

B) atelectasis

C) asthma
D) cleft palate

E) emphysema

Answer: A) cystic fibrosis

84

The molecule that prevents lung collapse by lowering the surface tension of the water film lining each alveolar sac is called:

A) resorbin

B) renin

C) lecithin

D) fibrosin

E) surfactant

Answer: E) surfactant

85

Surfactant is usually present in fetal lungs in adequate quantities by:

A) 22-24 weeks of pregnancy

B) 24-26 weeks of pregnancy

C) 26-28 weeks of pregnancy

D) 28-30 weeks of pregnancy

E) 20-22 weeks of pregnancy

Answer: D) 28-30 weeks of pregnancy

86

The abbreviation IRDS stands for:
A) infant respiratory disease syndrome

B) intermittent respiratory distress state C) infant respiratory disease state

D) intermittent respiratory disease syndrome

E) infant respiratory distress syndrome

Answer: E) infant respiratory distress syndrome

87

What is the most common cause for lung cancer:

A) diet

B) smoking

C) hereditary

D) asthma
E) work environment

Answer: B) smoking

88

The respiratory rate in adults is:
A) over 40 respirations per minute

B) 12-18 respirations per minute

C) 5-10 respirations per minute

D) 30 respirations per minute
E) 20-25 respirations per minute

Answer: B) 12-18 respirations per minute

89

The homeostatic imbalance associated with the death of many full-term newborn infants is called:
A) SIDS

B) CTRL

C) CF

D) COPD

E) IRDS

Answer: A) SIDS

90

Obstruction of the trachea by a piece of food can lead to:

A) pneumothorax

B) hemothorax

C) pleurisy

D) pulmonary tamponade

E) aspiration pneumonia

Answer: E) aspiration pneumonia

91

Which of these age-related disorders is related to loss of elasticity of the lungs and hypoxia:

A) sudden infant death syndrome

B) asthma
C) sleep apnea

D) pneumonia

E) tuberculosis

Answer: C) sleep apnea

92

Which one of the following is NOT true of lung cancer:
A) it accounts for one-third of all cancer deaths in the U.S.

B) it is generally more prevalent in males than females

C) its incidence is currently increasing

D) most types of lung cancer are very aggressive
E) lung cancers often metastasize rapidly and widely

Answer: B) it is generally more prevalent in males than females

93

The ciliated cells of the nasal mucosa propel contaminated mucus posteriorly toward the pharynx.

True or False

True

94

The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by the nasal conchae.

True or False

False

95

There are only three paranasal sinuses located in the frontal, sphenoid, and parietal bones.

True or False

False

96

The portion of the pharynx continuous with the mouth is termed the oropharynx.

True or False

True

97

The tonsils are located in the larynx. True or False

False

98

The larynx routes air and food into their proper channel and plays an important role in speech production.

True or False

True

99

The "guardian of the airways" that prevents food from entering the superior opening of the larynx is the thyroid cartilage.

True or False

False

100

The function of the C-rings of hyaline cartilage in the trachea is to keep the airway patent or open for breathing.

True or False

True

101

The emergency surgical opening of the trachea is called a tracheostomy.

True or False

True

102

Each main (primary) bronchus enters the lung at the apex.

True or False

False

103

The lungs are housed in the mediastinum of the thoracic cavity.

True or False

False

104

The bronchioles are the smallest of the conducting passageways in the lungs.

True or False

True

105

The parietal pleura is superficial to the visceral pleura.

True or False

True

106

The respiratory membrane is the air-blood barrier, where gases are exchanged.

True or False

True

107

The respiratory zone includes the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.

True or False

True

108

The process of breathing is known as pulmonary ventilation.

True or False

True

109

Inspiration results when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax.

True or False

False

110

Expiration occurs when the thoracic and intrapulmonary volumes decrease and the intrapulmonary pressure increases

True or False

True

111

The amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled over the tidal volume is around 3100 mL.

True or False

True

112

Normal quiet breathing, known as tidal volume, is around 500 mL of air.

True or False

True

113

Sudden inspirations resulting from spasms of the diaphragm are hiccups.

True or False

True

114

Bronchial sounds are produced as air fills the alveoli of the lungs.

True or False

False

115

Wheezing is a whistling sound associated with diseased respiratory tissue, mucus, or pus.

True or False

True

116

According to the laws of diffusion, movement of a respiratory gas occurs toward the area of higher concentration of that particular respiratory gas.

True or False

False

117

The general term for inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues regardless of the cause is called hypoxia.

True or False

True

118

Venous blood in systemic circulation is poorer in oxygen and richer in carbon dioxide.

True or False

True

119

Hyperpnea results from exercise when breathing becomes deeper and more vigorous.

True or False

True

120

The lungs of the fetus are filled with air late in pregnancy.

True or False

False

121

Changes in oxygen levels in the blood are the most important stimuli for breathing in a healthy person.

True or False

False