Geol. 1403/Cook ch. 11 quiz

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GEOL
Chapter 11
Running Water
updated 1 year ago by Devalon_N_Burk
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geology, science
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1

T/F Alluvial fans develop at unusual locations where stream gradients abruptly increase for a short distance.

false

2

T/F Gradients usually decrease downstream in a major river system.

true

3

T/F Alluvium refers to stream deposits, mainly sand and gravel.

true

4

T/F The lowest base level for most streams is sea level.

true

5

T/F Natural levees are constructed by machine-compacted sand and mud; artificial levees are made of concrete.

false

6

T/F Point bars are depositional features located along the outer portions of meander bends.

false

7

T/F Rapids and waterfalls are characteristic of laterally cutting streams.

false

8

T/F After a meander is cut off, the gradient through the newly formed cutoff is steeper than the gradient along the abandoned meander loop.

true

9

T/F The lower Mississippi river has the largest discharge of any river in North America.

true

10

T/F Stream discharge is defined as the quantity of water flowing past a specific channel location per unit time.

true

11

T/F Urbanization lowers peak discharges on small streams by routing the runoff directly to the stream.

false

12

T/F A stream flowing out from a lake cannot downcut below the water surface elavation of the lake.

false

13

T/F Evapotranspiration and average velocity are both important components of the hydrologic cycle.

false

14

T/F Most precipitation in land areas originates by transpiration and by evaporation from lakes and rivers.

false

15

T/F A V-shaped valley and no floodplain indicate a youthful downcutting stream.

true

16

T/F Lateral cutting and deposition are important factors in floodplain development.

true

17

T/F With the passage of time, deposition and erosion gradually shorten the channel length of a meander loop.

false

18

T/F Forest beds are part of a deltaic, depositional sequence.

true

19

T/F For the same discharge, gradient and channel cross-section, a stream with a boulder-strewn bed would be more turbulent than one with a sandy bed.

true

20

T/F The lower most distal portion of the modern Mississippi delta is a typical bird-foot delta.

true

21

____ is the quantity of water flowing past a certain stream cross-section per unit time.

a) alluvium

b) sinkhole

c) competency

d) transpiration

e) capacity

ab) saltation

ac) stream divide

ad) base level

ae) gradient

bc) infiltration

bd) discharge

be) bird-foot

ce) spring

discharge

22

What stream characteristic is measured by the size of the largest particle that a stream can move?

a) alluvium

b) sinkhole

c) competency

d) transpiration

e) capacity

ab) saltation

ac) stream divide

ad) base level

ae) gradient

bc) infiltration

bd) discharge

be) bird-foot

ce) spring

competency

23

____ refers to sediments deposited from streams.

a) alluvium

b) sinkhole

c) competency

d) transpiration

e) capacity

ab) saltation

ac) stream divide

ad) base level

ae) gradient

bc) infiltration

bd) discharge

be) bird-foot

ce) spring

alluvium

24

Which component of the hydrologic cycle describes the recharge of water to the soil and groundwater systems?

a) alluvium

b) sinkhole

c) competency

d) transpiration

e) capacity

ab) saltation

ac) stream divide

ad) base level

ae) gradient

bc) infiltration

bd) discharge

be) bird-foot

ce) spring

infiltration

25

The lowest elevation limiting stream erosion is called ____.

a) alluvium

b) sinkhole

c) competency

d) transpiration

e) capacity

ab) saltation

ac) stream divide

ad) base level

ae) gradient

bc) infiltration

bd) discharge

be) bird-foot

ce) spring

base level

26

____ is the boundary line separating adjacent, stream drainage basins.

a) alluvium

b) sinkhole

c) competency

d) transpiration

e) capacity

ab) saltation

ac) stream divide

ad) base level

ae) gradient

bc) infiltration

bd) discharge

be) bird-foot

ce) spring

stream divide

27

____ is the release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants.

a) alluvium

b) sinkhole

c) competency

d) transpiration

e) capacity

ab) saltation

ac) stream divide

ad) base level

ae) gradient

bc) infiltration

bd) discharge

be) bird-foot

ce) spring

transpiration

28

____ is defined as the drop in elevation of the stream surface divided by the distance the water flows.

a) alluvium

b) sinkhole

c) competency

d) transpiration

e) capacity

ab) saltation

ac) stream divide

ad) base level

ae) gradient

bc) infiltration

bd) discharge

be) bird-foot

ce) spring

gradient

29

____ is the total quantity of sediment carried by a river.

a) alluvium

b) sinkhole

c) competency

d) transpiration

e) capacity

ab) saltation

ac) stream divide

ad) base level

ae) gradient

bc) infiltration

bd) discharge

be) bird-foot

ce) spring

capacity

30

____ is the sediment transport mode in which sand grains alternately bounce up into the water column, sink, and roll or skip along the bottom before bouncing again.

a) alluvium

b) sinkhole

c) competency

d) transpiration

e) capacity

ab) saltation

ac) stream divide

ad) base level

ae) gradient

bc) infiltration

bd) discharge

be) bird-foot

ce) spring

saltation

31

What is the drop in water surface elevation divided by the distance the water flows?

a) stream discharge

b) hydraulic capacity

c) hydrologic resistance

d) stream gradient

stream gradient

32

The ____ river has the largest discharge of any in the world.

a) Nile

b) Mississippi

c) Congo

d) Amazon

Amazon

33

Which of the following is the correct definition of stream gradient?

a) the distance traveled by water in a channel times a drop in elevation

b) the drop in elevation of a stream divided by the distance the water travels

c) the water pressure at the bottom of a stream divided by the streams width

d) the increase in discharge of a stream per unit drop in elevation.

the drop in elevation of a stream divided by the distance the water travels

34

A ____ stream pattern is developed only on growing mountains like volcaoes or where the land surface is tectonically doming upwards.

a) radial

b) dendritic

c) boreal

d) trellis

radial

35

A ____ stream pattern develops on lands underlain by tilted or folded, alternating hard and soft, sedimentary strata.

a) dendritic

b) radial

c) trellis

d) boreal

trellis

36

____ is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.

a) a builtrail

b) an oxbow

c) a cowhock

d) a gatorback

an oxbow

37

____ are characteristics of downcutting streams and a youthful stage of valley evolution.

a) rapids and lots of whitewater

b) wide floodplains

c) a U-shaped cross-valley profile

d) meandering channels and lots of levees

rapids and lots of whitewater

38

How does urbanization (paving etc.) affect runoff and infiltration in a small previously forested, drainage basin?

a) both decrease

b) runof decreases, infiltration increases

c) both increase

d) infiltration decreases runoff increases

infiltration decreases, runoff increases

39

Which one if the following statements is correct?

a) sea level drops when water is stored in expanding icesheets and continental glaciers

b) sea level rises when water is added to the oceans through increased and icreased inflow from rivers

c) sea level drops when evaporation rates increase iver the oceans and when this extra atmosheric moisture falls on land as rain.

d) sea level rises when water is stored in expanding icesheeta and continental glaciers

sea level drops when water is stored in expanding icesheets and continental glaciers

40

A natural, meandering, river channel is modified into a more or less straight and smooth cannal-like channel. Which of the following statement is correct?

a) the natural channel had a lower gradient and less friction than the modified channel

b) the straight channel has a higher gradient and more friction than the natural channel

c) the natural channel had a lower gradient and higher friction than the straight channel.

d) all of the above statement are true

the natural channel had a lower gradient and higher friction than the straight channel

41

Which of the following must result in a lower base level for rivers and streams?

a) sea level drops; land subsides

b) sea level falls; land rises

c) sea level rises; land subsides

d) sea level rises; land rises

sea level falls; land rises

42

____ make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.

a) dissolved ions and sand

b) dissolved salts

c) silt and clay-sized detrital grains

d) sand and gravel that move during floods

silt and clay-sized detrital grains

43

____ describes the total sediment load transported by a stream.

a) capacity

b) discharge

c) competence

d)hydro-load factor

capacity

44

At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as ____.

a) endotributaries

b) exotributaries

c) distributaries

d) cotributaries

distributaries

45

Why is a bird-foot delta, like that of the present day Mississippi below New Orleans, likely to change naturally toward one with the shape of an equilateral triangle like the upper-case, Greek letter delta (Δ)?

a) present day distributaries have higher gradients than potential new ones.

b) potential, new, major distributary channels have steeper gradients than existing channels.

c) potential, new, distributary channels have higher gradients causing downcutting of the existing channels

d) increased sediment loads, since the mid 19th century, have caused the major distributaries to be filled with sand.

potential, new, major distributary channels have steeper gradients than steeper channels