AP Practice Chapter 7

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1

Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of:

a) negative reinforcement.
b) classical conditioning.
c) conditioned reinforcers.
d) operant conditioning.
e) observational learning.

d) operant conditioning.

2

The fact that rats can learn the layout of a maze while passively riding through it in a wire basket highlights the importance of:

a)shaping.
b) secondary reinforcers.
c) spontaneous recovery.
d) cognitive processes.
e) primary reinforcers.

d) cognitive processes.

3

Latent learning can occur in the absence of:

a) reinforcement.
b) cognition.
c) experience.
d) any of the above.

a) reinforcement.

4

Reinforcement is to operant conditioning as ________ is to observational learning.

a) prosocial behavior
b) punishment
c)respondent behavior
d) modeling

d) modeling

5

It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.

a) primary reinforcement
b) generalization
c) biological predispositions
d) negative reinforcement
e) spontaneous recovery

c) biological predispositions

6

The best evidence that animals develop cognitive maps comes from studies of:

a) shaping.
b) generalization.
c) latent learning.
d) secondary reinforcement.
e) spontaneous recovery.

c) latent learning.

7

Evidence that organisms are biologically predisposed to learn the particular associations that most readily facilitate their survival has been provided by:

a) Watson and Rayner's study of fear conditioning in Little Albert.
b) Bandura's study of observational learning and aggression in children.
c) Pavlov's study of salivary conditioning in dogs.
d) Garcia and Koelling's study of taste aversion in rats.

d) Garcia and Koelling's study of taste aversion in rats.

8

Although 5-year-old Katelyn is not really thirsty, she frequently begins whining for a glass of water about 10 minutes after being put to bed. Her parents would be best advised to:

a) simply ignore her complaining.
b) provide her with a very small drink of water.
c) close her bedroom door to indicate that they disapprove of her whining.
d) read her a short story so she forgets about wanting a drink.

a) simply ignore her complaining.

9

A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ________ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ________ reinforcement.

a) positive; negative
b) negative; positive
c) continuous; partial
d) partial; continuous
e) primary; secondary

c) continuous; partial

10

Janna's behavior is more strongly influenced by the momentary thrill of unprotected sex than by the prospect of an unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease. This best illustrates the impact of:

a) classical conditioning.
b) the overjustification theory.
c) immediate reinforcement.
d) a variable-interval schedule.
e) spontaneous recovery.

c) immediate reinforcement.

11

Punishment is a potentially hazardous way for parents to control their young children's behaviors because:

a) the more severely children are punished for undesirable behaviors, the more likely they will exhibit those behaviors.
b) children will forget how to perform punished behaviors in circumstances where they are justified and necessary.
c) the use of punishment could condition children to fear and avoid their parents.
d) punishment cannot even temporarily restrain undesirable behaviors.

c) the use of punishment could condition children to fear and avoid their parents.

12

A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n):

a) conditioned stimulus.
b) unconditioned stimulus.
c) unconditioned response.
d) conditioned response.

d) conditioned response.

13

What is the greatest danger associated with using small bribes to entice children to read good books?

a) latent learning
b) delayed reinforcement
c) the overjustification effect
d) respondent behavior
e) discrimination

c) the overjustification effect

14

Which of the following provides evidence that a CR is not completely eliminated during extinction?

a) latent learning
b) partial reinforcement
c) spontaneous recovery
d) generalization
e) discrimination

c) spontaneous recovery

15

Pigeons learn to flap their wings to avoid shock ________ easily than they learn to peck a disk to avoid shock. They learn to flap their wings to obtain food ________ easily than they learn to peck a disk to obtain food.

a) more; more
b) more; less
c) less; less
d) more; less
e) less; more

b) more; less

16

Money is to food as ________ is to ________.

a) delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer
b) secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer
c) discrimination; generalization
d) partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
e) operant conditioning; classical conditioning

b) secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer

17

It's easier to condition young children to fear snakes than to fear flowers. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.

a) biological predispositions
b) primary reinforcement
c) generalization
d) spontaneous recovery
e) punishment

a) biological predispositions

18

Pavlov is to ________ as Skinner is to ________.

a) operant conditioning; classical conditioning
b) latent learning; observational learning
c) observational learning; operant conditioning
d) respondent behavior; operant behavior

d) respondent behavior; operant behavior

19

Mr. Schlenker has improved worker productivity at his furniture manufacturing plant by occasionally sending notes of appreciation to his hardworking employees. Mr. Schlenker has improved productivity by means of:

a) latent learning.
b) classical conditioning.
c) modeling.
d) operant conditioning.

d) operant conditioning.

20

Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ________ reinforcer.

a) positive
b) negative
c) secondary
d) partial
e) delayed

b) negative

21

Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates:

a) the law of effect.
b) spontaneous recovery.
c) respondent behavior.
d) the overjustification effect.
e) associative learning.

e) associative learning.

22

Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n):

a) primary reinforcer.
b) unconditional stimulus.
c) immediate reinforcer.
d) conditioned stimulus.

d) conditioned stimulus.

23

Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a(n):

a) UCR.
b) UCS.
c) CR.
d) CS.

a) UCR.

24

Conditioning seldom occurs when a(n) ________ comes after a(n) _____.

a) CS; UCS
b) UCR; CS
c) secondary reinforcer; operant behavior
d) negative reinforcer; operant behavior

a) CS; UCS

25

Long after her conditioned fear of spiders had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin's new pet tarantula. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates:

a) latent learning.
b) spontaneous recovery.
c) delayed reinforcement.
d) the overjustification effect.
e) shaping.

b) spontaneous recovery.

26

A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Matthew Birnie still responded with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates:
a) an unconditioned response.

b) operant conditioning.
c) latent learning.
d) generalization.
e) extinction.

d) generalization.

27

The predictability of an association between a CS and a UCS facilitates an organism's ability to anticipate the occurrence of the UCS. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) ________ perspective.

a) evolutionary
b) behaviorist
c) cognitive
d) neuroscience

c) cognitive

28

The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by:

a) Pavlov's studies of conditioned salivation.
b) Garcia and Koelling's research on taste aversion.
c) Skinner's experiments on reinforcement.
d) Bandura's studies of observational learning.
e) Watson and Raynor's findings on fear conditioning.

c) Skinner's experiments on reinforcement.

29

In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as:

a) generalization.
b) partial reinforcement.
c) spontaneous recovery.
d) secondary reinforcement.
e) shaping.

e) shaping.

30

If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.

a) partial
b) primary
c) negative
d) conditioned
e) delayed

d) conditioned

31

Amos plays the slot machine for hours at a time. The monetary winnings dispensed to him by the machine provide an example of ________ reinforcement.

a) negative
b) primary
c) delayed
d) partial

d) partial

32

Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.

a) fixed-interval
b) variable-interval
c) fixed-ratio
d) variable-ratio

c) fixed-ratio

33

Because she has oversight responsibility for the servicing and repair of her company's fleet of cars, Rhonda frequently calls the garage mechanic to inquire whether service on various cars has been completed. She is likely to be reinforced with positive responses to her inquiries on a ________ schedule.

a)fixed-interval
b)variable-interval
c)fixed-ratio
d)variable-ratio

b)variable-interval

34

The overjustification effect involves the loss of:

a) continuous reinforcement.
b) primary reinforcers.
c) spontaneous recovery.
d) intrinsic motivation.
e) immediate reinforcers.

d) intrinsic motivation.

35

If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates:

a) operant conditioning.
b) observational learning.
c) respondent behavior.
d) spontaneous recovery.
e) classical conditioning.

b) observational learning.

36

If you have frightening experience immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates:
a) generalization.
b) spontaneous recovery.
c) the overjustification effect.
d) classical conditioning.
e) the law of effect.

d) classical conditioning.

37

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n):

a) negative reinforcer.
b) conditioned stimulus.
c) conditioned reinforcer.
d) unconditioned stimulus

d) unconditioned stimulus

38

You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a(n):

a) UCR.
b) UCS.
c) CR.
d) CS

c) CR.

39

People have been observed to form negative attitudes toward Pokémon characters who were repeatedly shown with negative words and images next to them. This best illustrates the impact of:

a) classical conditioning.
b) the law of effect.
c) negative reinforcers.
d) the overjustification effect.
e) delayed reinforcers.

a) classical conditioning.

40

One psychologist recalled that the smell of onion breath no longer to trigged sexual arousal after the smell was no longer paired with his girlfriend's kisses. This best illustrates:

a) acquisition.
b) extinction.
c) generalization.
d) discrimination.
e) the law of effect.

b) extinction.

41

After being bitten by his neighbor's dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of:

a) extinction.
b) discrimination.
c) conditioned reinforcement.
d) latent learning.
e) shaping.

b) discrimination.

42

If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by:

a) intrinsic motivation.
b) spontaneous recovery.
c) biological predispositions.
d) conditioned reinforcers.
e) the law of effect.

c) biological predispositions.

43

If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates:

a) spontaneous recovery.
b) respondent behavior.
c) operant conditioning.
d) latent learning.
e) habituation.

c) operant conditioning.

44

Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of:

a) respondent behavior.
b) negative reinforcement.
c) generalization.
d) secondary reinforcement.
e) spontaneous recovery.

b) negative reinforcement.

45

A word of praise is to a soothing backrub as ________ is to ________.

a) delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer
b) operant conditioning; classical conditioning
c) partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
d) observational learning; latent learning
e) conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforce

e) conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforce

46

For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule.

a) fixedinterval
b) variable-interval
c) fixed-ratio
d) variable-ratio

d) variable-ratio

47

During a typical morning, Colin checks the clock frequently before being reinforced with confirmation that the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break has arrived. In this case, Colin's behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.

a) fixedinterval
b) variable-interval
c) fixed-ratio
d) variable-ratio

a) fixedinterval

48

For some children who bite themselves or bang their heads, squirting water into their faces when they hurt themselves has been observed to decrease the frequency of these self-abusive behaviors. This best illustrates the potential value of:

a) latent learning.
b) conditioned reinforcers.
c) negative reinforcers.
d) primary reinforcers.
e) punishment.

e) punishment.

49

Laurie lost some of her intrinsic interest in caring for her baby sister when her mother began promising to pay her money to look after her sister. Laurie's experience best illustrates:

a) respondent behavior.
b) latent learning.
c) the overjustification effect.
d) spontaneous recovery.
e) negative reinforcement.

c) the overjustification effect.

50

Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?

a) Watson
b) Bandura
c) Pavlov
d) Skinner

b) Bandura