50 notecards = 13 pages (4 cards per page)
Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of:
d) operant conditioning.
The fact that rats can learn the layout of a maze while passively riding through it in a wire basket highlights the importance of:
d) cognitive processes.
Latent learning can occur in the absence of:
Reinforcement is to operant conditioning as ________ is to observational learning.
It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
c) biological predispositions
The best evidence that animals develop cognitive maps comes from studies of:
c) latent learning.
Evidence that organisms are biologically predisposed to learn the particular associations that most readily facilitate their survival has been provided by:
d) Garcia and Koelling's study of taste aversion in rats.
Although 5-year-old Katelyn is not really thirsty, she frequently begins whining for a glass of water about 10 minutes after being put to bed. Her parents would be best advised to:
a) simply ignore her complaining.
A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ________ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ________ reinforcement.
c) continuous; partial
Janna's behavior is more strongly influenced by the momentary thrill of unprotected sex than by the prospect of an unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease. This best illustrates the impact of:
c) immediate reinforcement.
Punishment is a potentially hazardous way for parents to control their young children's behaviors because:
c) the use of punishment could condition children to fear and avoid their parents.
A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n):
d) conditioned response.
What is the greatest danger associated with using small bribes to entice children to read good books?
c) the overjustification effect
Which of the following provides evidence that a CR is not completely eliminated during extinction?
c) spontaneous recovery
Pigeons learn to flap their wings to avoid shock ________ easily than they learn to peck a disk to avoid shock. They learn to flap their wings to obtain food ________ easily than they learn to peck a disk to obtain food.
b) more; less
Money is to food as ________ is to ________.
b) secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer
It's easier to condition young children to fear snakes than to fear flowers. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
a) biological predispositions
Pavlov is to ________ as Skinner is to ________.
d) respondent behavior; operant behavior
Mr. Schlenker has improved worker productivity at his furniture manufacturing plant by occasionally sending notes of appreciation to his hardworking employees. Mr. Schlenker has improved productivity by means of:
d) operant conditioning.
Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ________ reinforcer.
Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates:
e) associative learning.
Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n):
d) conditioned stimulus.
Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a(n):
Conditioning seldom occurs when a(n) ________ comes after a(n) _____.
a) CS; UCS
Long after her conditioned fear of spiders had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin's new pet tarantula. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates:
b) spontaneous recovery.
A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Matthew Birnie still responded with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates:
The predictability of an association between a CS and a UCS facilitates an organism's ability to anticipate the occurrence of the UCS. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) ________ perspective.
The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by:
c) Skinner's experiments on reinforcement.
In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as:
If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.
Amos plays the slot machine for hours at a time. The monetary winnings dispensed to him by the machine provide an example of ________ reinforcement.
Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
Because she has oversight responsibility for the servicing and repair of her company's fleet of cars, Rhonda frequently calls the garage mechanic to inquire whether service on various cars has been completed. She is likely to be reinforced with positive responses to her inquiries on a ________ schedule.
The overjustification effect involves the loss of:
d) intrinsic motivation.
If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates:
b) observational learning.
If you have frightening experience immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates:
d) classical conditioning.
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n):
d) unconditioned stimulus
You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a(n):
People have been observed to form negative attitudes toward Pokémon characters who were repeatedly shown with negative words and images next to them. This best illustrates the impact of:
a) classical conditioning.
One psychologist recalled that the smell of onion breath no longer to trigged sexual arousal after the smell was no longer paired with his girlfriend's kisses. This best illustrates:
After being bitten by his neighbor's dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of:
If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by:
c) biological predispositions.
If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates:
c) operant conditioning.
Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of:
b) negative reinforcement.
A word of praise is to a soothing backrub as ________ is to ________.
e) conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforce
For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule.
During a typical morning, Colin checks the clock frequently before being reinforced with confirmation that the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break has arrived. In this case, Colin's behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
For some children who bite themselves or bang their heads, squirting water into their faces when they hurt themselves has been observed to decrease the frequency of these self-abusive behaviors. This best illustrates the potential value of:
Laurie lost some of her intrinsic interest in caring for her baby sister when her mother began promising to pay her money to look after her sister. Laurie's experience best illustrates:
c) the overjustification effect.
Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?