AP Practice Chapter 5

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1

Self-esteem in children is most positively correlated with ________ parenting.

A)permissive
B)authoritative
C)conservative
D)authoritarian

D)authoritarian

2

Formal operational thought is most necessary for the development of ________ morality.

A)preoperational
B)conventional
C)preconventional
D)postconventional

C)preconventional

3

According to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the achievement of:

A)integrity.
B)autonomy.
C)competence.
D)initiative.
E)identity.

E)identity.

4

Marriage bonds are especially likely to endure when members of a couple:

A)avoid open disagreements and arguments.
B)live together for a time before they marry.
C)focus their time and energy on their growing children's needs.
D)engage in less frequent sexual interactions.
E)engage in more positive than negative interactions with each other.

E)engage in more positive than negative interactions with each other.

5

Autism is a disorder characterized by deficient social interaction and an impaired:

A)capacity for habituation.
B)sense of object permanence.
C)theory of mind.
D)concept of conservation.

C)theory of mind.

6

Newborn infants typically prefer their mother's voice over their father's voice because:

A)their rooting reflex is naturally triggered by higher-pitched sounds.
B)they rapidly habituate to lower-pitched male voices.
C)they become familiar with their mother's voice before they are born.
D)they form an emotional attachment to their mother during breast-feeding.
E)they have difficulty hearing lower-pitched voices during the first few days after birth.

C)they become familiar with their mother's voice before they are born.

7

Which theory emphasizes that immediate gut-level feelings often precede and influence our moral reasoning?

A)Erikson's psychosocial development theory
B)Piaget's cognitive development theory
C)Haidt's social intuitionist theory
D)Kohlberg's moral development theory

C)Haidt's social intuitionist theory

8

Women report that their friendships with women are ________ enjoyable and intimate than their friendships with men. Men report that their friendships with men are ________ enjoyable and intimate than their friendships with women.

A)more; less
B)less; more
C)more; more
D)less; less

A)more; less

9

According to Erikson, later adulthood is to integrity as young adulthood is to:

A)autonomy.
B)initiative.
C)intimacy.
D)identity.

C)intimacy.

10

Children's distress over momentary separation from parents reaches peak levels at around the age of _______ months.

A)3
B)8
C)13
D)18

C)13

11

Cognitive development is to ________ as moral development is to ________.

A)Gilligan; Kohlberg
B)Kohlberg; Erikson
C)Piaget; Erikson
D)Erikson; Piaget
E)Piaget; Kohlberg

E)Piaget; Kohlberg

12

During which stage do children understand the world primarily by observing the effects of their own actions on other people, objects, and events?

A)Aconcrete operational
B)sensorimotor
C)formal operational
D)preoperational

B)sensorimotor

13

Poor memory for early life experiences results from a baby's relative lack of:

A)brain cells.
B)neural connections.
C)perceptual abilities.
D)all of the above.

B)neural connections.

14

Monkeys raised in total isolation have been observed to:

A)imprint to the first moving object they observe.
B)become very fearful or aggressive when brought into close contact with other monkeys their age.
C)form a close attachment to the first monkey with whom they experience bodily contact.
D)show complete apathy and indifference to the first monkeys they encounter.

B)become very fearful or aggressive when brought into close contact with other monkeys their age.

15

A student who does not cheat on tests because he doesn't want to violate classroom rules is in Kohlberg's ________ stage.

A)preconventional
B)preoperational
C)conventional
D)postconventional

C)conventional

16

Babies who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are especially likely to show signs of:
A)egocentrism.
B)conservation.
C)crystallized intelligence.
D)insecure attachment.
E)habituation.

D)insecure attachment.

17

Identical twins typically begin walking on nearly the same day. This best illustrates the importance of _______ to motor skills.

A)responsive parenting
B)maturation
C)accommodation
D)secure attachment
E)habituation

B)maturation

18

Male self-identity is to ________ as female self-identity is to ________.

A)maturation; nurture
B)integrity; generativity
C)self-reliance; social connectedness
D)crystallized intelligence; fluid intelligence

C)self-reliance; social connectedness

19

Stage theories of adult development are most likely to be criticized for exaggerating the:

A)importance of social influence.
B)stability of personality.
C)predictability of development.
D)importance of fluid intelligence.
E)interaction of nature and nurture.

C)predictability of development.

20

Dmitri is a typical 6-month-old. When he looks into a mirror he is likely to:

A)recognize the image as himself.
B)show no interest and ignore what he sees.
C)reach toward the image as if it were another child.
D)be somewhat frightened and turn away.

C)reach toward the image as if it were another child.

21

Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the:

A)embryo.
B)ovaries.
C)teratogens.
D)placenta.

D)placenta.

22

The most immediate and direct function of the rooting reflex is the facilitation of:

A)identity.
B)object permanence.
C)food consumption.
D)visual development.

C)food consumption.

23

Infants' tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their:

A)selfconcepts.
B)egocentrism.
C)basic trust.
D)stranger anxiety.
E)memory capacities.

E)memory capacities.

24

The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by:

A)Erikson's psychosocial development theory.
B)Piaget's cognitive development theory.
C)Haidt's social intuitionist theory.
D)Kohlberg's moral development theory.

B)Piaget's cognitive development theory.

25

Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are suddenly judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a:

A)sense of object permanence.
B)concept of conservation.
C)capacity for habituation.
D)secure attachment.

B)concept of conservation.

26

A child's realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of:

A)object permanence.
B)egocentrism.
C)a theory of mind.
D)stranger anxiety.
E)menarche.

C)a theory of mind.

27

The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as:

A)menarche.
B)puberty.
C)menopause.
D)habituation.
E)a critical period.

E)a critical period.

28

Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist's waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother's side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of:

A)secure attachment.
B)object permanence.
C)egocentrism.
D)conservation.
E)stranger anxiety.

A)secure attachment.

29

“I don't care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!” This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.

A)preconventional
B)authoritative
C)formal operational
D)authoritarian

B)authoritative

30

Female breasts are to ________ as male testes are to ________.

A)menarche; menopause
B)menopause; menarche
C)secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics
D)primary sex characteristics; secondary sex characteristics

C)secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics

31

Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.

A)conventional
B)unconventional
C)preconventional
D)postconventional

D)postconventional

32

Adolescent females spend _______ time alone and _______ time praying than do adolescent males.

A)more; more
B)less; less
C)more; less
D)less; more

D)less; more

33

A reduction in estrogen levels is most closely associated with:

A)puberty.
B)menopause.
C)Alzheimer's disease.
D)fetal alcohol syndrome.

B)menopause.

34

People differ the most in their learning and memory abilities during:

A)late adolescence.
B)early adulthood.
C)middle adulthood.
D)later adulthood.

D)later adulthood.

35

A researcher who administers a personality test to the same children every 3 years as they progress through school is conducting a(n) ________ study.

A)longitudinal
B)experimental
C)cross-sectional
D)chronological

A)longitudinal

36

For the unborn children of mothers who smoke heavily, nicotine is a(n):

A)agonist.
B)depressant.
C)teratogen.
D)hallucinogen.

C)teratogen.

37

Immediately after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers' and strangers':

A)faces.
B)voices.
C)body odors.
D)tender touches.

B)voices.

38

Newborns habituate more rapidly to a ________ than to a ________.

A)solid disk; facelike image
B)facelike image; bull's-eye pattern
C)bull's-eye pattern; solid disk
D)facelike image; solid disk

A)solid disk; facelike image

39

After Nadia learned that penguins can't fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of:

A)conservation.
B)attachment.
C)assimilation.
D)habituation.
E)accommodation.

E)accommodation.

40

During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire a:

A)theory of mind.
B)concept of conservation.
C)sense of object permanence.
D)capacity for abstract reasoning.

C)sense of object permanence.

41

Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others' states of mind is most characteristic of:

A)autism.
B)menarche.
C)crystallized intelligence.
D)object permanence.
E)an insecure attachment.

A)autism.

42

Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of:

A)egocentrism.
B)accommodation.
C)insecure attachment.
D)habituation.
E)conservation.

C)insecure attachment.

43

Many researchers believe that people's styles of romantic love in adulthood reflect their childhood:

A)habituation.
B)egocentrism.
C)theory of mind.
D)attachment experiences.

D)attachment experiences.

44

Compared to the children with authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative parents are ________ likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and _______ likely to demonstrate a postconventional morality.

A)less; more
B)more; less
C)less; less
D)more; more

D)more; more

45

Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ________ morality.

A)conventional
B)unconventional
C)preconventional
D)postconventional

C)preconventional

46

The sexual abuse of a very young child is so emotionally repulsive to most people that they immediately recognize it as shamefully immoral. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect:

A)habituation.
B)fluid intelligence.
C)insecure attachments.
D)gut-level intuitions.
E)concrete operational thought.

D)gut-level intuitions.

47

The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by:

A)Erikson's psychosocial development theory.
B)Piaget's cognitive development theory.
C)Kohlberg's moral development theory.
D)Harlow's attachment theory.

A)Erikson's psychosocial development theory.

48

A series of small strokes that progressively damage an elderly person's brain is most likely to produce:

A)menarche.
B)dementia.
C)crystallized intelligence.
D)Alzheimer's disease.
E)autism.

B)dementia.

49

As adults age, they show the greatest declines in _______ intelligence and in the memory capacities needed to _______ recently presented information.

A)fluid; recognize
B)fluid; recall
C)crystallized; recognize
D)crystallized; recall

B)fluid; recall

50

Research on developmental stability and change indicates that:

A)at the age of 1 or 2, adult personality traits are still largely unpredictable.
B)development is almost completely dominated by discontinuity over time.
C)temperament is a particularly unstable trait.
D)all of the above are true.

A)at the age of 1 or 2, adult personality traits are still largely unpredictable.