chapter 23 respiratory Flashcards


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1

Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?

A. It helps control the pH of body fluids.
B. It promotes the flow of lymph and venous blood.
C. It helps regulate blood pressure.
D. It assists in the synthesis of vasodilators.
E. It helps with defecation

D

2

The upper respiratory tract extends;
a) From the nose through the trachea.
b) From the nose through the pharynx.
c) From the nose through the larynx.
d) From the nose through the alveoli.
e) From the nose through the lungs.
.

C

3

The nose is divided into right and left halves termed the;
a) Nasal cavities.
b) Nasal fossae
c) Nasal septa.
d) Nasal vestibules.
e) Nasal apertures.b) Nasal fossae

B

4

Which two ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages?
a) Vestibular and vocal ligaments.
b) Laryngeal and corniculate.
c) Corniculate and cricoid.
d) Cricoids and arytenoids.
e) Thyrohyoid and cricoids.

A

5

) The most numerous cells in the lungs are called
a) Mucosal cells.
b) Type I alveolar cells.
c) Type II alveolar cells.
d) Dust cells.
e) Vibrissae

D

6

Each alveolus is surrounded by blood capillaries supplied by
a) The aorta.
b) The pulmonary artery.
c) The pulmonary vein.
d) The inferior vena cava.
e) The superior vena cava.

B

7

Which of the following does not have cilia?
a) The nasal cavity.
b) The trachea.
c) Primary bronchi.
d) Tertiary bronchi.
e) Respiratory bronchioles

E

8

What is the basic distinction between an alveolar duct and an alveolar atrium?
a) Their shape
b) Their size.
c) Their function.
d) Their epithelial type.
e) Presence or absence of cilia.

A

9

Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except
a) The pharynx.
b) The epiglottis.
c) The oral cavity.
d) The tongue.
e) The lips.

B

10

Which of the following cartilages is largest?
a) The corniculate cartilage.
b) The epiglottic cartilage.
c) The thyroid cartilage.
d) The cricoid cartilage.
e) The arytenoid cartilage.

C

11

____ states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases.
a) Boyle's law.
b) Valsalva's law.
c) Dalton's law.
d) Charles's law.
e) Henry's law.

C

12

In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?
a) Atmospheric pressure.
b) Respiratory rate.
c) Bronchiole diameter.
d) Quantity of surfactant.
e) The diaphragmc) Bronchiole diameter.

C

13

The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is called
a) Vital capacity.
b) Inspiratory reserve volume.
c) Expiratory reserve volume.
d) Residual volume.
e) Inspiratory capacity

B

14

Vital capacity consists of
a) Inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory volume.
b) Inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume.
c) Expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume.
d) Expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume.
e) Respiratory volume + tidal volume.

D

15

Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?
a) Tachypnea.
b) Dyspnea.
c) Orthopnea.
d) Hyperpnea.
e) Kussmaul respiration

E

16

Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except
a) Carbaminohemoglobin.
b) Carbonic acid.
c) Carbonate.
d) Bicarbonate ions.
e) Dissolved gas.

C

17

Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a Good Samaritan have up to 4 or 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom's life?
a) Reserve oxygen in Tom's lungs.
b) A venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood
c) The ambient Po2 can support life that long.
d) The Haldane effect lasts up to 5 minutes.
e) Tom's hypoxic drive will keep him alive for up to 5 minutes.

B

18

During exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?
a) Increased H+ level in the blood.
b) The Bohr Effect.
c) Reduced blood pH.
d) Reduced oxyhemoglobin.
e) Anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle

E

19

) Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
a) An increase in membrane thickness.
b) An increase in alveolar surface area.
c) An increase in respiratory rate.
d) A decrease in membrane thickness.
e) A decrease in nitrogen solubility

A

20

The addition of CO2 to the blood generates ___ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen.
a) Sodium.
b) Potassium.
c) Nitrogen.
d) Hydrogen.
e) Chloride.

D

21

Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?
a) Epinephrine.
b) Fever.
c) Thyroid hormone.
d) Low pH.
e) Erythrocyte count

E

22

Which has the highest concentration in the air we breathe?
a) Oxygen.
b) Water vapor.
c) Nitrogen.
d) Carbon dioxide.
e) Hydrogen.

C

23

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to _____ oxygen molecules.
a) 1.
b) 2.
c) 3.
d) 4.
e) 5.

D

24

Normally the systemic arterial blood has a Po2 of _____ mm Hg, a Pco2 of _____ mm Hg, and a pH of _____.
a) 40; 95; 7.4.
b) 95; 40; 7.4.
c) 7.4; 40; 95.
d) 95; 7.4; 40.
e) 40; 7.4; 95

B

25

Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
a) Hemoglobin.
b) Carboxyhemoglobin.
c) Carbonic anhydrase.
d) Bisphosphoglycerate.
e) Carbaminoreductase

C

26

In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?
a) 5% to 10%.
b) 10% to 15%.
c) 20% to 25%.
d) 30% to 40%.
e) 70% to 85%.

C

27

Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
a) Apoxia.
b) Hypoxia.
c) Anoxia.
d) Cyanosis.
e) Eupnea.

B

28

Congestive heart failure results in which of the following?
a) Hypoxemic hypoxia.
b) Ischemic hypoxia.
c) Anemic hypoxia.
d) Histotoxic hypoxia.
e) Idiopathic hypoxia

B

29

___ is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum.
a) Asthma.
b) Oat-cell carcinoma.
c) Atelectasis.
d) Chronic bronchitis.
e) Emphysema.

A

30

Which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia?
a) Sickle-cell disease.
b) Emphysema.
c) Squamous-cell carcinoma.
d) Asthma.
e) Atelectasis.

A

31

A lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli is
a) Cor pulmonale.
b) Pulmonary hemosiderosis.
c) Emphysema.
d) Atelectasis.
e) Collapsed lung

C

32

In ___, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis.
a) Pneumonia.
b) Dyspnea.
c) Pneumothorax.
d) Tuberculosis.
e) Rhinitis.

D

33

Which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi?
a) Squamous-cell carcinoma.
b) Oat-cell carcinoma.
c) Adenocarcinoma.
d) Pulmonary edema.
e) Cor pulmonale.

C

34

Polio can sometimes damage the brainstem respiratory centers and result in
a) A Bohr Effect.
b) Adult respiratory distress syndrome.
c) Pneumothorax.
d) Atelectasis.
e) Ondine's curse

E

35

Which of these is most likely to result from contact between contaminated fingers and the nasal mucosa?
a) Apnea.
b) Adult respiratory distress syndrome.
c) Acute bronchitis.
d) Acute rhinitis.
e) Asthma.

D

36

Scuba divers breathe a nitrogen-oxygen mixture rather than pure compressed oxygen in order to avoid
a) The bends.
b) Oxygen toxicity.
c) Rapture of the deep.
d) Caisson disease.
e) Hypoxemic hypoxia

B

37

Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and other tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called
a) Decompression sickness.
b) Hyperbaric disease.
c) Cerebral embolism.
d) Pulmonary barotrauma.
e) Pulmonary edema.

C

38

The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in
a) The pontine respiratory group.
b) The dorsal respiratory group.
c) The ventral respiratory group.
d) The medulla oblongata.
e) The pons.

D

39

Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by ___ of the respiratory tract.
a) Squamous alveolar cells.
b) Great alveolar cells.
c) The pleurae.
d) Ciliated cells.
e) Goblet cells.

E

40

The blood transports more CO2 in the form of ___ than in any other form.
a) Carbaminohemoglobin.
b) Carboxyhemoglobin.
c) Bicarbonate ions.
d) Dissolved CO2 gas.
e) Bisphosphocarbonate

C

41

Among its other purposes, the Valsalva maneuver is used
a) To aid in defecation and urination.
b) As part of the procedure for giving CPR to a person in respiratory arrest.
c) To ventilate the lungs during eupnea.
d) To expel more than the usual tidal volume from the lungs.
e) To clear carbon monoxide from the body and replace it with oxygen.

A

42

Blood banks dispose of blood that has low levels of bisphosphoglycerate. What would be the probable reason for doing so?
a) A low BPG level causes acidosis of blood.
b) Erythrocytes low in BPG does not unload CO2 very well.
c) Erythrocytes low in BPG does not unload O2 very well.
d) Erythrocytes low in BPG does not load O2 very well.
e) A decline in BPG level is accompanied by a decline in hemoglobin level.

C

43

Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is _____ mL/min.
a) 2,400.
b) 3,600.
c) 4,200.
d) 5,600.
e) 6,400.

C

44

Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1,200 mL. Your vital capacity is ______ mL.
a) 2,400.
b) 3,000.
c) 3,800.
d) 4,700.
e) 5,800.

D

45

Functions of the respiratory system include all of the following, except.
a) Moving air to and from the exchange surface.
b) Defending the respiratory system and other tissues from pathogenic invasion.
c) Protecting respiratory surfaces from dehydration, temperature changes, or other environmental variations.
d) Preventing choking from accidental respiration of chewed food.
e) Providing an extensive area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood

D

46

Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the:
a) Lower respiratory tract.
b) Alveoli.
c) Lungs.
d) Upper respiratory tract.
e) Bronchioles.

D

47

Large airborne particles are filtered by:
a) Nasal hairs in the vestibule of the nose.
b) The nasal sinuses.
c) The soft palate.
d) The nasopharynx.
e) Choanae.

A

48

The function of the nasal conchae is to:
a) Create turbulence in the air so as to trap small particulates in mucus.
b) Divide the nasal cavity into a right and a left side.
c) Provide a surface for the sense of smell.
d) Provide an opening to the outside of the body.
e) Provide an opening into the pharynx

A

49

Functions of the nasal cavity include all of the following, except
a) Acting as a reservoir during coughing.
b) Humidifying the air.
c) Warming the air.
d) Filtering the air.
e) Acting as a resonating chamber in speech

A

50

The openings to the nostrils are the:
a) Internal nares.
b) Palates.
c) Turbinates.
d) External nares.
e) Vestibules

D

51

The portion of the nasal cavity contained within the flexible tissues of the external nose is the:
a) Nasal septum.
b) Nasopharynx.
c) Vestibule.
d) Glottis.
e) Internal chamber.

C

52

The portion of the pharynx that receives both air and food is the
a) Oropharynx.
b) Nasopharynx.
c) Laryngopharynx.
d) A and B
e) A and C

E

53

The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the
a) Glottis
b) Trachea.
c) Vestibule
d) Pharynx
e) Larynx.

D

54

The openings to the auditory tubes are located in the
a) Oropharynx.
b) Laryngopharynx.
c) Nasopharynx.
d) Nasal cavity.
e) Larynx.

C

55

The palatine tonsils lie in the walls of the
a) Oropharynx.
b) Nasal cavity.
c) Laryngopharynx.
d) Nasopharynx.
e) Larynx.

A

56

he ________ is lined by squamous epithelium.
a) Nasopharynx
b) Trachea
c) Nasal cavity
d) Larynx
e) Laryngopharynx

E

57

The vocal folds are located in the
a) Oropharynx.
b) Nasopharynx.
c) Larynx.
d) Bronchi.
e) Trachea

C

58

The elastic cartilage that shields the opening to the larynx during swallowing is the ________ cartilage.
a) Cricoid
b) Thyroid
c) Corniculate
d) Epiglottic
e) Cuneiform

D

59

________ is the most common lethal inherited disease affecting individuals of Northern European descent.
a) Cystic fibrosis
b) Myasthenia gravis
c) Congestive heart failure
d) Parkinson's disease

A

60

An acute infection of the throat that can lead to swelling and closure of the glottis and cause suffocation. This is known as
a) Strep throat.
b) Epiglottitis.
c) Laryngitis.
d) Tracheolaryngospasm.
e) None of the above

B

61

sthma is
a) a collapsed lung.
b) An acute condition resulting from unusually sensitive irritated conducting airways.
c) Characterized by fluid leaking into the alveoli.
d) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
e) a nosebleed.

B

62

An enlargement of the respiratory passageways is termed
a) COPD.
b) Anoxia.
c) pulmonary embolism.
d) Bronchodilation.
e) Respiratory distress syndrome

D

63

The condition resulting from the inadequate production of surfactant and associated alveolar collapse is
a) Pulmonary embolism.
b) Pneumothorax.
c) COPD.
d) Anoxia.
e) Respiratory distress syndrome.

E