Micro Lab Exam 1 Flashcards


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1

Why are microorganisms hard to see in wet preparations?

because they move around too quickly and are not stained. They also blend in with their environment.

2

Can you distinguish the prokaryotic organisms from the eukaryotic organisms? Explain.

eukaryotic cells have organelles bound by membranes (i.e. they're compartmentalized) while much of the cellular machinery

prokaryotic cells are floating around freely.

3

Why isn’t the oil immersion lens used in the hanging-drop procedure?

It uses refraction to increase the resolution, therefore, since the hanging-drop procedure has a different refraction index, the oil immersion lens cannot refract the light correctly, due to its incompatibility.

4

What is the advantage of using Petri plates rather than test tubes in microbiology?

Gives room for different colonies to grow

5

What are bacteria using for nutrients in nutrient agar?

Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, energy

6

What is the purpose of the agar?

To use a solid agent

7

How could you determine whether the turbidity in your nutrient broth tube was from a mixture of different microbes or from the growth of only one kind of microbe?

Transfer the cell sample to a petri dish with agar and see if different types of colonies grow.

8

WHAT TWO NAMES DOES SCIENTIFIC NOMENCLATURE ASSIGN?

GENUS (BEGINS WITH CAPITAL LETTER AND IS ITALICISED)

SPECIES (BEGINS WITH LOWER CASE)

9

EUKARYOT INCLUDES ALL OF THE FOLLOWING EXCEPT?

VIRUSES

10

CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS CAN BE SPREAD IN WATER SUPPLY. WHAT IS IT CAUSED BY?

PROTOZOA

11

WHAT ARE PRIONS?

INFECTIOUS PRETENTIOUS PROTEINS

12

WHAT KIND OF DISEASES DO PRIONS CAUSE?

MAD COW DISEASE (IN COWS)

SPONGYIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES (IN HUMANS) AKA Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

SCRAPIE (IN SHEEP)

13

WHAT TYPE OF IMMUNE CELLS DOES HIV DESTROY?

CD4 CELLS

14

BIOREMEDIATION USES MICROBES TO DO WHAT?

THEY CLEAN, BREAKDOWN POLLUTANTS & TOXIC WASTE

15

WHAT IS THE SMALLEST COMPONENT OF A PURE SUBSTANCE?

ATOM

16

AN ISOTOPE OF OXYGEN HAS AN ATOMIC NUMBER OF 8 AND AN ATOMIC WEIGHT OF 18 HOW MANY NEUTRONS DOES IT HAVE?

10

17

WATER HAS AN UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGES AND IS CALLED A?

POLAR MOLECULE

18

WHAT TYPE OF CHEMICAL REACTION BREAKS BONDS AND THEN FORMS NEW BONDS?

EXCHANGE REACTIONS OR REVERSIBLE

19

WHY DO SATURATED FATS BECOME SOLID MORE EASILY?

BECAUSE THE FATTY ACIDS ARE CLOSELY PACKED THERE IS A DOUBLE BOND AND IT CAUSES A KINK IN THE SHAPE.

20

WHICH LEVEL OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE REFERS TO OVERALL 3 DEMENTIAL STRUCTURE OF A POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN?

TERTIARY STRUCTURE

21

WHAT IS IN THE PRIMARY STRUCTURE?

STRAIGHT CHAIN OF AMINO ACIDS

22

WHAT IS IN THE SECONDARY STRUCTURE?

ALPHA HELIX OR BETA HELIX

23

WHAT ARE TWO OR MORE FULLY FOLDED PROTEINS INTERACTING WITH EACH OTHER CALLED?

QUATERNARY STRUCTURE

24

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF DIAPHRAM ON A COMPOUND MICROSCOPE?

CONTROLS THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT ENTERING THE CONDENSOR LENSE (LEVER ON THE LIGHT)

25

MOST OCULAR LENSES MAGNIFY SPECIMENS BY A FACTOR OF?

10

26

OBJECTIVES SMALLER THAN ABOVE .2MM SUCH AS VIRUS CAN BE VIEWED BY?

ELECTRON MICROSCOPES

27

CAPSULES ARE STAINED BY?

NEGATIVE STAINING

28

BACTERIA THAT DIVIDE AND FORM GRAPELIKE STRUCTURES ARE?

STAPHYLOCOCCUS

29

HOW LONG ARE MOST BACTERIA?

2-8 MICRONS