Chapter 7 & 8 Review
What does the cell membrane contain?
The head of a phospholipid is__.
The tail of a phospholipid is__.
In the Fluid Mosaic Model it says: unsaturated fatty acids are __ than those rich in saturated fatty acid.
In the Fluid Mosaic Model it says: at warm temperatures (37 Celsius/ 98.6 Fahrenheit), cholesterol__.
restrains movement of phospholipids
In the Fluid Mosaic Model it says: at cooler temperatures, a cell membrane__.
switches from a fluid state to a solid state
Type of proteins that go all the way through the membrane to the external.
Type of proteins that adhere only temporarily to the biological membrane with which they are associated and attach to integral proteins
Examples of integral proteins
Transmembrane Proteins, Transport Proteins, Receptor Proteins
Blocks the beta receptors from binding with hormones such as adrenaline
Permeability is influenced by__
concentration, gradients, solubility, fluidity
Moves ions or molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration (with the concentration gradient) so, it does not require energy.
The types of Passive Transport are __.
Diffusion and Osmosis
The types of Diffusion are __.
Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion
Molecules pass directly through the membrane
Molecules pass through the membrane with the help of carrier molecules
In Facilitated Diffusion, the __ have a charged passageway through which water molecules or a specific solute can pass.
The concentration of solutes outside of the cell relative to inside of the cell
Based on the concentration of impermeable molecules (solutes) that make up a solution inside and outside the membrane
When there is a higher amount of solutes outside of cell and more H20 in cell the solution is__.
When there is a lower amount of solutes outside of cell and less H20 in cell the solution is__.
When there is an equal amount of solutes outside of cell and an equal amountof H20 in cell the solution is__.
Integral membrane pore proteins that electively conduct water molecules in and out of the cell, while preventing the passage of ions and other solutes, also known as water channels.
Moves ions or molecules from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration (against the concentration gradient), assisted by enzymes so, it does require energy (usually in the form of ATP).
Type of Active Transport that uses ATP to pump sodium out of the cell and then bring is able to bring potassium in from outside of the cell
Type of Active Transport that moves 2 molecules at the same time
The type of Active Transport that allows for movement of macromolecules such as proteins or polysaccharides into or out of the cell is called__.
What are the two types of Bulk Transport?
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
What are the types of Endocytosis?
Phagocytosis, Pinocytosis, and Receptor-mediated
Type of Endocytosis that does "cell eating"; large particles/cells are engulfed by another cell
What are some example of phagocytosis?
Protists (amoeba) and White blood cells
A process in which a cell engulfs extracellular material through an inward folding of its plasma membrane.
Cellular "drinking"; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles.
Addition of actin monomers at the plasma membrane interface generates protrusive force that drives eukaryotic motility.
Type of cells that engulf that whatever foreign cells and molecules they encounter and recognize
Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.
Intracellular vesicle containing material taken up by phagocytosis.
Protein that can assemble into a basket-like network that gives budding vesicles their shape during Endocytosis and Exocytosis
A highly specific cellular uptake type of Endocytosis that makes the molecule that are to be taken, bind to cell surface receptor found in a clathrin-coated pit
A process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.
Sum of all metabolic pathways
The two types of pathways in the the Metabolism are
Catabolic and Anabolic
The type of metabolic pathways that break down big molecules and release energy that was contained in the chemical bonds
The type of metabolic pathways that consume and store energy in the bonds when building large molecules
the study of the transformation of energy in living organisms.
Energy of an object when in motion
Energy of an object when not in motion
Energy stored in chemical bonds
Energy can never be created nor destroyed
First Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy of any isolated system always increases.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
a measure of disorder that increases when there is a conversion of energy that is not perfectly efficient
A type of reaction that breaks down bigger molecules into smaller ones and also release energy
A type of reaction that forms bigger molecules from the intake of energy and smaller molecules
When an exergonic reaction powers the endergonic reaction
When energy goes from kinetic to potential
When energy goes from potential to kinetic
Performs work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system
Gibbs Free Energy (G)
Type of molecule that is made in mitochondria from adenine, ribose, and phosphate group. Provides energy for reactions, activate other molecules in cell. (the free-floating rechargeable batteries in all living things)
Some functions that require ATP are
Chemical work, transport work, mechanical work
ATP is made from
ADP, Phosphate Group, and Energy
Proteins that initiate and speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy
Substrates enter the active site, substrates and active site change shape to promote a reaction between the substrates, the substrates, bonded together, leave enzyme: the enzyme is ready for a new set of substrates
Enzymatic reactions are limited by
Amount of time and Amount of substrate
2 types of cellular regulation of enzymes
feedback inhibition and allosteric regulation
uses a metabolic pathway to turn off/on the activity of an enzyme, the body sends the signal to the cell to turn off/on activity
molecules bind to the activator or inhibitor sites on the enzyme to temporarily regulate its activity (drugs/poisons)
What are the to types of Allosteric Regulation?
Competitive Inhibition and Noncompetitive Inhibition
Type of Allosteric Regulation that goes into the active site to block entry of the substrate
Type of Allosteric Regulation that blocks the active site by changing the shape of the site by pushing it from outside so substrates no longer fit
When there is a higher affinity and the active site is able to bind the substrate better, easier and for longer there is an Allosteric __ present
When there is a lower affinity and the active site is not able to bind the substrate as efficiently there is an Allosteric __ present
Type of allosteric activation which changes conformation of all active sites so reactions can occur
The Enzyme that breaks down ATP into ADP and P to release energy to the cell
The process of breaking down ATP into ADP and Phosphate to release energy to the cell is called
The Enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of ADP and Phosphate to create ATP is called
The process of catalyzing the reaction of ADP and Phosphate to create ATP is called
ATP Dehydration Synthesis
Require activation energy(usually in the form of ATP)
molecules that help to make enzymatic reactions occur
An example of an Endergonic reaction
Synthesis of DNA
An example of an Exergonic reaction