Chp 25 Practice Flashcards


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1

The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called

  1. oxidative phosphorylation.
  2. metabolism.
  3. catabolism.
  4. glycolysis.
  5. anabolism.

B. metabolism

2

Reactions within ________ provide most of the energy needed by a typical cell.

  1. the mitochondria
  2. nucleus
  3. the endoplasmic reticulum
  4. cytoplasm
  5. the plasma membrane

A. the mitochondria

3

The first steps of catabolism generally take place in the

  1. endoplasmic reticulum.
  2. mitochondria.
  3. nucleus.
  4. cytosol.
  5. plasma membrane.

D. cytosol

4

What is the role of NADH in metabolism?

  1. produce carbon dioxide
  2. transport hydrogen atoms to coenzymes
  3. convert pyruvic acid into acetyl-coA
  4. phosphorylate ADP into ATP
  5. produce bicarbonate ions for a pH buffer

B. transport hydrogen atoms to coenzymes

5

When NAD+ is ________ it becomes NADH. When NADH is ________ it becomes NAD+.

  1. reduced; oxidized
  2. made; recycled
  3. phosphorylated; dephosphorylated
  4. phosphorylated; deaminated
  5. oxidized; reduced

A. reduced; oxidized

6

Which of the following processes represent(s) catabolism?

  1. endocytosis
  2. contraction
  3. intracellular transport
  4. All of these are catabolic processes.

D. All of these are catabolic processes.

7

Which of these is NOT part of anabolism?

  1. storage of glycogen
  2. muscle contraction
  3. hormone synthesis
  4. secreting an enzyme

B. muscle contraction

8

About 40 percent of the energy content of nutrients is captured as ATP. The remainder is lost as __________.

  1. urine
  2. feces
  3. heat
  4. perspiration

C. heat

9

Growth and repair involve primarily what type of reactions?

  1. catabolic
  2. anabolic
  3. It depends on which body or cell part is growing or repairing.

B. anabolic

10

Which of the following occurs when water is released (lost) during a reaction?

  1. catabolic synthesis
  2. dehydration hydrolysis
  3. dehydration synthesis
  4. catabolic hydrolysis

C. dehydration synthesis

11

The energy produced from aerobic metabolism comes from what two sources? (Figure 25-5)

  1. glycolysis and fermentation
  2. glycolysis and the electron transport chain
  3. glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
  4. fermentation and the citric acid cycle
  5. citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain

E. citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain

12

The chemical equation that correctly summarizes the overall reaction in oxidative phosphorylation is

  1. 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O.
  2. H2 + O2 → H2O + O.
  3. 3 H2 + 2O2 → 3 H2O + 2 O.
  4. P + 3 O → PO3.
  5. H2 + O2 → H2O.

A. 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O.

13

The function of the citric acid cycle is to

  1. produce carbon dioxide to balance the oxygen requirement for cellular respiration.produce water.
  2. hydrolyze glucose in the presence of oxygen to obtain two pyruvate molecules.
  3. remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes.
  4. transfer the acetyl group gained from glycolysis to molecules of pyruvate.

C. remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes.

14

In the ETS, ________ accepts electrons from one molecule and transfers them to another.

  1. the acetyl group
  2. NAD
  3. ADP
  4. a hydrogen ion
  5. a coenzyme

E. a coenzyme

15

In oxidative phosphorylation, energy for the synthesis of ATP is directly obtained from the

  1. splitting of oxygen molecules.
  2. oxidation of acetyl-CoA.
  3. breaking of the covalent bonds in glucose.
  4. movement of hydrogen ions through channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
  5. combination of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen to form water.

D. movement of hydrogen ions through channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

16

Although other nutrients can feed into the citric acid cycle, ________ yields energy the quickest.

  1. protein
  2. glucose
  3. fat
  4. an amino acid
  5. glycogen

B. glucose

17

The strategy of eating starchy foods for several days before an athletic event is known as

  1. carbohydrate loading.
  2. glycolysis reaction.
  3. overeating.
  4. the Atkins diet.
  5. carbohydrate craving.

A. carbohydrate loading

18

In glycolysis, each molecule of glucose that is catabolized gives a net yield of how many molecules of ATP?

  1. 36
  2. 38
  3. 4
  4. 2
  5. 30

D. 2

19

The citric acid cycle occurs in the

  1. mitochondrial intermembrane space.
  2. golgi apparatus.
  3. mitochondrial matrix.
  4. cytosol.
  5. ribosome.

C. mitochondrial matrix

20

How many net ATP molecules are produced by the complete metabolism (all pathways) of one glucose molecule?

  1. 30-32 ATP
  2. 150 ATP
  3. 2-4 ATP
  4. 6 ATP
  5. 100-120 ATP

A. 30-32 ATP

21

The carbon dioxide released by the lungs into the atmosphere was very likely produced within __________.

  1. the electron transport system
  2. glycolysis
  3. the citric acid cycle
  4. formation of pyruvic acid

C. the citric acid cycle

22

Glycolysis yields two molecules of pyruvate. Which of the following statements best describes what next happens to pyruvate?

  1. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate enters a mitochondrion.
  2. Pyruvate combines with coenzyme A and becomes acetyl-CoA.
  3. Pyruvate is used by the cell as a form of energy.
  4. Pyruvate leaves the cell by exocytosis and enters the interstitial fluid.

A. in the presence of oxygen, pyruvate enters a mitochondrion.

23

Why is it necessary to phosphorylate a glucose molecule, creating glucose-6-phosphate?

  1. to allow the glucose molecule to easily pass out of the cell
  2. to allow easy passage of the glucose molecule into the mitochondria
  3. to create a storage form of glucose that the cell can then hang onto
  4. to trap the glucose molecule within the cell

D. to trap the glucose molecule within the cell

24

The energy stored in ATP comes from which of the following?

  1. adenosine triphosphate
  2. kinetic energy
  3. heat
  4. food molecules

D. food molecules

25

How is ATP used in our bodies?

  1. ATP is used to make potential energy.
  2. It is used to create more energy.
  3. It is converted to ADP for storage and later use.
  4. The energy released from ATP is converted into kinetic energy to do work.

D. The energy released from ATP is converted into kinetic energy to do work

26

Examine this reaction:

starch⟶(amylase) disaccharides⟶(disaccharidase) monosaccharides

If there is the normal amount of amylase present but less disaccharidase than usual, which of the following would most likely happen?

  1. The normal amount of disaccharide would be produced, but fewer monosaccharides would be produced.
  2. There would be no overall impact because the normal amount of amylase is present.
  3. There would be less disaccharide and less monosaccharide produced.
  4. No starch could be broken down to disaccharides.

A. the normal amount of disaccharide would be produced, but fewer monosaccharides would be produced.

27

Examine the reaction below, and then answer the question.

A+B⟶(Enzyme1) C+D⟶(Enzyme2) E+F⟶ (Enzyme3) G+H

Absence of which enzyme would cause the greatest reduction in the production of G and H?

  1. Enzyme 1
  2. Enzyme 2
  3. Enzyme 3
  4. Absence of any of the enzymes would have the same effect—decrease or block the production of G and H.

D. Absence of any of the enzymes would have the same effect—decrease or block the production of G and H.

28

Which of the following is not a product of cellular respiration?

  1. ATP
  2. water (H2O)
  3. carbon dioxide (CO2)
  4. oxygen (O2)

D. oxygen (O2)

(used during cellular respiration to maximize ATP production.

29

Which of the following contains the most energy that can be used to make ATP?

  1. 1 gram of protein
  2. 1 gram of muscle
  3. 1 gram of carbohydrate
  4. 1 gram of fat

D. 1 gram of fat

30

Where does beta-oxidation take place? (Figure 25-7)

  1. in the mitochondria
  2. in the plasma membrane of cells
  3. in the Golgi apparatus
  4. in the cytoplasm of cells
  5. blood plasma

A. in the mitochondria

31

Lipogenesis generally begins with

  1. amino acids.
  2. fatty acids.
  3. acetyl-CoA.
  4. succinyl-CoA.
  5. glucose.

C. acetyl-CoA

32

Which of these is NOT required for glycolysis?

  1. ATP
  2. pyruvic acid
  3. glucose
  4. inorganic phosphate

B. pyruvic acid

33

Through the process of __________, each glucose yields two pyruvate ions.

  1. oxidation
  2. nutrition
  3. glycolysis
  4. anabolism

C. glycolysis

34

Synthesis of fatty acids starts with __________.

  1. pyruvic acid
  2. acetyl-CoA
  3. amino acids
  4. monoglycerides

B. acetyl-CoA

35

Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.

  1. citric acid cycle → electron transport chain → glycolysis → acetyl CoA
  2. glycolysis → citric acid cycle → acetyl CoA → electron transport chain
  3. glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
  4. acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain → glycolysis
  5. electron transport chain → citric acid cycle → glycolysis → acetyl CoA

C. glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain

Glycolysis produces pyruvic acid, which enters the mitochondrion. There, it is converted to acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle. Electron carriers bring electrons from the first three steps to the electron transport chain, and ATP is made.

36

What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?

  1. 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
  2. 6 O2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy → C6H12O6 + 6 CO2
  3. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
  4. C6H12O6 + 6 CO2 → 6 O2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
  5. C6H12O6 + 6 H2O → 6 CO2 + 6 O2 + ATP energy

C. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy

Cellular respiration extracts energy from glucose (C6H12O6) to produce smaller energy packets (ATP).

37

Which of the following processes takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

electron transport chain

ATP production by ATP synthase

glycolysis

citric acid cycle

acetyl CoA formation

C. glycolysis

Glycolysis, the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid, takes place in the cytosol, outside the mitochondria.

38

In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?

  1. mitochondrion
  2. chloroplast
  3. nucleus
  4. lysosome
  5. Golgi apparatus

A. mitochondrion

All of the steps of cellular respiration except glycolysis take place in the mitochondrion.

39

Which statement describes glycolysis?

  1. This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
  2. This process converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.
  3. This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
  4. This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.
  5. This process joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose.

C, This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.

In glycolysis, glucose is split into two molecules of pyruvic acid. The released energy is stored in ATP and the electron carrier NADH.

40

Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?

  1. This process converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.
  2. This process joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose. This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
  3. This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
  4. This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.

E. This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.

The citric acid cycle breaks down carbon molecules, releasing carbon dioxide and forming some ATP.

41

Which statement describes the electron transport chain?

  1. This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.
  2. This process joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose.
  3. This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
  4. This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
  5. This process converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.

C. This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.

In the electron transport chain, electrons move from one electron carrier to another, eventually reaching oxygen. The released energy is used to make ATPs.

42

A balanced diet is important to provide the body with all the necessary nutrients to ensure physiological functioning. What is the name of the process where new organic molecules are synthesized?

  1. metabolism
  2. anabolism
  3. aerobic metabolism
  4. catabolism

B. anabolism

43

In which area do you see most of the cell’s ATP generated by aerobic respiration?

  1. endoplasmic reticulum
  2. mitochondria
  3. cytosol
  4. nucleus

B. mitochondria

More than 90 percent of the ATP generated during aerobic respiration is made in the mitochondria.

44

Skeletal muscle does each of these EXCEPT __________.

  1. pump blood
  2. store nutrients
  3. maintain posture
  4. produce movement

A. pump blood