1) Penguins, seals, and tuna have body forms that permit rapid swimming, because ________.
- A) all share a recent common ancestor
- B) all of their bodies have been compressed since birth by intensive underwater pressures
- C) the shape is a convergent evolutionary solution, which reduces drag while swimming
- D) this is the only shape that will allow them to maintain a constant body temperature in water
2) As animals have evolved large body size, they have also evolved adaptations to improve exchange of energy and materials with the environment. For example, in many larger organisms, evolution has favored lungs and a digestive tract with ________.
- A) more branching or folds
- B) increased thickness
- C) larger cells
- D) decreased blood supply
3) Much of the coordination of vertebrate body functions via chemical signals is accomplished by the ________.
- A) respiratory system
- B) endocrine system
- C) integumentary system
D) excretory system
4) Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has ________.
- A) less surface area
- B) less surface area per unit of volume
- C) a smaller average distance between its mitochondria and the external source of oxygen
- D) a smaller cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratio
5) Both the endocrine and nervous systems transmit information around an animal's body. Which of the following is a characteristic of nervous system signals?
- A) allow gradual changes to take place in the body
- B) travel quickly, allowing rapid transmission of signals
- C) usually impact the entire body
- D) a voltage change must occur
6) Some animals have no gills when young, but then develop gills that grow larger as the animal grows larger. What is the reason for this increase in gill size?
- A) The young of these animals are much more active than the adult, which leads to a higher BMR (basal metabolic rate) and, therefore, a higher need for oxygen.
- B) Relative to their volume, the young have more surface area across which they can transport all the oxygen they need.
- C) The young have a higher BMR.
- D) Relative to their surface area, the young have more body volume in which they can store oxygen for long periods of time.
7) Evolutionary adaptations that help some animals directly exchange matter between the cells of their body and the environment include ________.
- A) a gastrovascular cavity, a two-layered body, and a torpedo-like body shape
- B) an external respiratory surface, a small body size, and a two-cell-layered body
- C) a large body volume, a long, tubular body, and a set of wings
- D) an unbranched internal surface, a small body size, and thick covering
8) All animals, whether large or small, have ________.
- A) an external body surface that is dry
- B) a basic body plan that resembles a two-layered sac
- C) a body surface covered with hair to keep them warm
- D) most of their cells in contact with an aqueous medium
9) Interstitial fluid is ________.
- A) the internal environment inside animal cells
- B) identical to blood in composition.
- C) a site of exchange between blood and body cells
- D) found only in the lumen of the small intestine
10) Generally, epithelial cell layers are responsible for separating two fluids. For example, the epithelium of blood vessels in animals separates the blood from the interstitial fluid. What characteristic would you expect to see in an epithelium that was specialized for passive diffusion of materials from one fluid to another?
- A) a single layer of flattened cells
- B) many layers of cells stacked together
- C) large, cube-shaped cells
- D) loosely connected cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix
11) Most of the exchange surfaces of multicellular animals are lined with ________.
- A) connective tissue
- B) smooth muscle cells
- C) neural tissue
- D) epithelial tissue
12) Connective tissues typically have ________.
- A) little space between the membranes of adjacent cells
- B) the ability to transmit electrochemical impulses
- C) the ability to shorten upon stimulation
- D) relatively few cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix
13) In mammals, GH (growth hormone) is an endocrine signal that stimulates repair and growth of various tissues. Which of the following would be required for a tissue to respond to growth hormone?
- A) the presence of a growth hormone receptor on the responding tissue
- B) the responding tissue must be muscle
- C) nerve cells must attach to the responding tissue for growth hormone to work
- D) a voltage change must occur
14) Blood is best classified as connective tissue because ________.
- A) its cells are separated from each other by an extracellular matrix
- B) it contains more than one type of cell
- C) its cells can move from place to place
- D) it is found within all the organs of the body
15) Most types of communication between cells utilize ________.
- A) the exchange of cytosol between the cells
- B) the movement of the cells
- C) chemical or electrical signals
- D) the exchange of DNA between the cells
16) All types of muscle tissue have ________.
- A) striated banding patterns seen under the microscope
- B) cells that lengthen when appropriately stimulated
- C) a response that can be consciously controlled
- D) interactions between actin and myosin
17) Cardiac muscle cells are both ________.
- A) striated and interconnected by intercalated disks
- B) smooth and under voluntary control
- C) striated and under voluntary control
- D) smooth and under involuntary control
18) Muscle cells are organized to perform specific types of contractions within a tissue. Which of the following is a characteristic of smooth muscle?
- A) many cells fused together
- B) intercalated discs
- C) spindle-shaped cells with a single nucleus
D) striations with sarcomeres
19) Food moves along the digestive tract as the result of contractions by ________.
- A) cardiac muscle
- B) smooth muscle
- C) striated muscle
- D) skeletal muscle
20) In many animals, fat is stored in specialized cells in the ________.
- A) bone
- B) muscle
- C) adipose tissue
- D) blood
21) Bone consists of ________.
- A) a mixture of hardened collagen and minerals.
- B) chondroitin sulfate secreted by chondrocytes.
- C) many columnar epithelial cells packed together.
- D) hardened fibrous connective tissue.
22) What is the name of the epithelial cell surface that faces the outside of an organ?
- A) apical
- B) basal
- C) interstitial
- D) lumen
23) Which organ system is responsible for protection against injury, infection, and dehydration?
- A) Reproductive system
- B) Excretory system
- C) Skeletal system
- D) Integumentary system
24) Which of the following is a true statement about body size and physiology?
- A) The amount of food and oxygen an animal requires and the amount of heat and waste it produces are inversely proportional to its mass.
- B) The rate at which an animal uses nutrients and produces waste products is independent of its volume.
- C) Small and large animals face different physiological challenges because an animal's body mass increases cubically while its surface area increases as a squared function.
- D) The wastes produced by an animal double as its volume doubles and triple as its surface area triples.
25) An elephant and a mouse are running in full sunlight, and both overheat by the same amount above their normal body temperatures. When they move into the shade and rest, which animal will cool down faster?
- A) The elephant will because it has the higher surface-area-to-volume ratio.
- B) The elephant will because it has the lower surface-area-to-volume ratio.
- C) The mouse will because it has the higher surface-area-to-volume ratio.
- D) They will cool at the same rate because they overheated by the same amount.
26) You have a cube of modeling clay in your hands. Which of the following changes to the shape of this cube of clay will decrease its surface area relative to its volume?
- A) Pinch the edges of the cube into small folds.
- B) Flatten the cube into a pancake shape.
- C) Round the clay up into a sphere.
- D) Stretch the cube into a long, shoebox shape.
27) The metabolic rate of an animal is most accurately determined by ________.
- A) the amount of work done by an animal
- B) the amount of food consumed during a meal
- C) the amount of carbon dioxide produced by an animal in a given time.
- D) the amount of energy used by an animal in a given time
28) The migratory eel, Anguilla rostrata, is born and lives the juvenile (immature) part of its life in a freshwater environment, but then migrates thousands of miles through the ocean as an adult in order to breed. These eels are known to regulate their internal water and salt balance. What adaptations would you expect this eel to have in order to transition from fresh water to salt water at these two life stages?
- A) The juvenile eels would be better at removing salt from their bodies compared to adults.
- B) The adult eels would be better at removing salt from their bodies compared to juveniles.
- C) The juvenile eels would spend energy keeping water in their bodies.
- D) The adult eels would spend energy keeping salt in their bodies.
29) The metamorphosis of a tadpole to an adult frog involves a thorough reconstruction of the animal's body. All of the structural and physiological changes must be complete or the frog will not survive this transformation. Which type of regulation would ensure that the animal completed its transformation?
- A) positive feedback
- B) negative feedback
- C) feedback inhibition
- D) enzymatic catalysis
30) When the body's blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin and, as a result, the blood glucose level declines. When the blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon and, as a result, the blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of the blood glucose level is the result of ________.
- A) catalytic feedback
- B) positive feedback
- C) negative feedback
- D) protein-protein interactions
31) The body's automatic tendency to maintain a constant and optimal internal environment is termed as ________.
- A) balanced equilibrium
- B) physiological chance
- C) homeostasis
- D) static equilibrium
32) An example of a properly functioning homeostatic control system is seen when ________.
- A) the core body temperature of a runner rises gradually from 37°C to 45°C
- B) the kidneys excrete salt into the urine when dietary salt levels rise
- C) a blood cell shrinks when placed in a solution of salt and water
- D) the blood pressure increases in response to an increase in blood volume
33) If a person were to travel to a time zone that was several hours ahead of their own, they may experience tiredness known as jet lag. Jet lag is due to a disruption of ________.
- A) homeostasis
- B) circadian rhythm
- C) body temperature
- D) nerve impulses
34) What would be an advantage for an animal that conforms to a changing environmental condition, such as temperature?
- A) The animal's internal temperature would remain constant, even though the external temperature had changed.
- B) The animal's internal temperature would change opposite to the change in the external temperature.
- C) The animal would spend more time looking for food.
- D) The animal would spend less energy regulating its internal temperature.
35) You discover a new species of bacteria that grows in aquatic environments with high salt levels. While studying these bacteria, you note that their internal environment is similar to the salt concentrations in their surroundings. You also discover that the internal salt concentrations of the bacteria change as the salt concentration in their environment changes. The new species can tolerate small changes in this way, but dies from large changes because it has no mechanism for altering its own internal salt levels. What type of homeostatic mechanism is this species using to regulate its internal salt levels?
- A) conformation
- B) regulation
- C) integration
- D) assimilation
36) Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) are born in freshwater environments and then migrate to the sea. Near the end of their lives, they return to the freshwater stream where they were born to spawn. In fresh water, water constantly diffuses into the body and ions are lost from the body. In salt water, body water diffuses out of the body and excess ions are gained from the water. A salmon's gills have special cells to pump salt in or out of the body to maintain homeostasis. In response to the salmon's moves between fresh water and salt water, some cells in the gills are produced and others are destroyed. These changes made in the cells of the gills during the lifetime of an individual salmon are an example of which of the following?
- A) evolution
- B) trade-off
- C) acclimatization
- D) adaptation
37) To prepare flight muscles for use on a cool morning, hawkmoths ________.
- A) relax the muscles completely until after they launch themselves into the air
- B) decrease their standard metabolic rate
- C) rapidly contract and relax these muscles to generate metabolic warmth
- D) reduce the metabolic rate of the muscles to rest them before flight
38) In a cool environment, an ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally sized endotherm because the ectotherm ________.
- A) maintains a higher basal metabolic rate
- B) expends more energy per kilogram of body mass than does the endotherm
- C) invests little energy in temperature regulation
D) has greater insulation on its body surface
39) Elephants can often be observed cooling off by spraying water over their bodies with their trunks. What type of heat exchange is occurring?
- A) conduction
- B) convection
- C) radiation
- D) evaporation
40) An example of an ectothermic organism that has few or no behavioral options when it comes to its ability to adjust its body temperature is a ________.
- A) sea star living deep in the ocean
- B) bass living in a farm pond
- C) hummingbird flying through a prairie
- D) honeybee in a hive on a rural farm
41) The panting responses observed in overheated birds and mammals dissipate excess heat by ________.
- A) countercurrent exchange
- B) acclimation
- C) vasoconstriction
- D) evaporationd
42) Most land-dwelling invertebrates and all of the amphibians ________.
- A) are ectothermic organisms with variable body temperatures
- B) alter their metabolic rates to maintain a constant body temperature of 37°C
- C) are endotherms but become thermo-conformers when they are in water
- D) become more active when environmental temperatures drop below 15°C
43) The temperature-regulating center of vertebrate animals is located in the ________.
- A) thyroid gland
- B) hypothalamus
- C) subcutaneous layer of the skin
- D) liver
44) The metabolic breakdown of specialized brown fat deposits in certain animals is substantially increased during ________.
- A) acclimatization
- B) torpor
- C) nonshivering thermogenesis
- D) shivering thermogenesis
45) The use of brown fat to generate metabolic heat is mostly limited to small mammals. What is the basis of this adaptation?
- A) Small mammals cannot grow enough fur to insulate their bodies.
- B) Because of their large surface area to volume ratio, heat loss across the body surface is higher in small animals.
- C) Small mammals do not have enough muscle to generate heat by shivering.
- D) Large mammals have lost their brown fat through the course of their evolution.
49) You are studying a large tropical reptile that has a high and relatively stable body temperature. How would you determine whether this animal is an endotherm or an ectotherm?
- A) You know from its high and stable body temperature that it must be an endotherm.
- B) You know that it is an ectotherm because it is not a bird or mammal.
- C) You subject this reptile to various temperatures in the lab and find that its body temperature and metabolic rate change with the ambient temperature. You conclude that it is an ectotherm.
D) You note that its environment has a high and stable temperature. Because its body temperature matches the environmental temperature, you conclude that it is an ectotherm
50) A woman standing and watching the stars on a cool, calm night will lose most of her body heat by ________.
- A) radiation
- B) convection
- C) conduction
- D) evaporation
51) There are advantages and disadvantages to adaptations. Animals that are endothermic are likely to be at the greatest disadvantage in ________.
- A) very cold environments
- B) very hot environments
- C) environments with a constant food source
- D) environments with variable and limited food sources
52) Which principle of heat exchange is the most important explanation for why birds look larger in colder weather because they fluff their feathers?
- A) Fluffing feathers results in less cooling by radiation because feathers emit less infrared radiation than other tissues do.
- B) Fluffing decreases the amount of heat lost by conduction when the bird makes contact with cold objects in its environment.
- C) Fluffing creates a pocket of air near the bird that acts as insulation.
- D) Fluffing decreases the surface-area-to-volume ratio, thus decreasing the amount of heat lost to the environment.
53) Snake behavior in Wisconsin changes throughout the year. For example, a snake is ________.
- A) less active in winter because the food supply is decreased
- B) less active in winter because it does not need to avoid predators
- C) more active in summer because that is the period for mating
D) more active in summer because it can gain body heat by conduction
54) Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are ________.
- A) used differently: SMR is measured during exercise, whereas BMR is measured at rest
- B) used to compare metabolic rates during feeding and other active conditions
- C) both measured across a wide range of temperatures for a given species
- D) both measured in animals in a resting and fasting state
55) Independent of whether an organism is an endotherm or ectoderm, the least reliable indicator of an animal's metabolic rate is the amount of ________.
- A) food eaten in one day
- B) heat generated in one day
- C) oxygen used in mitochondria in one day
- D) water consumed in one day
56) Consider the energy budgets for a human, an elephant, a penguin, a mouse, and a snake. The ________ would have the highest total annual energy expenditure, and the ________ would have the highest energy expenditure per unit mass.
- A) elephant; mouse
- B) elephant; human
- C) human; penguin
- D) mouse; snake
58) Which of the following animals most likely uses the largest percentage of its energy budget for homeostatic regulation?
- A) a marine jelly (an invertebrate) living deep in the ocean
- B) a snake in a tropical forest
- C) a shark swimming in the open ocean
- D) a bird living year-round in a desert
59) A researcher is setting up an experiment to measure basal metabolic rate in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster—a small rodent). Which of the following would be the best set of conditions for the voles immediately before and during the measurement?
- A) House the animals in a cage with plenty of food and water to avoid stress; conduct measurements in a warmer room than the room where housed.
- B) House the animals in a cage with plenty of food and water to avoid stress; conduct measurements in a room the same temperature as the room where housed.
- C) House the animals in a cage with no food for a few hours before measurement; conduct measurements in a colder room than the room where housed, and exercise the voles.
- D) House the animals in a cage with no food for a few hours before measurement; conduct measurements in a room the same temperature as the room where housed.
60) Hummingbirds are small birds that require a regular food supply. When hummingbirds are faced with a situation that decreases their food supply, such as a storm, which of the following adaptations would be most useful for the bird to survive such an unpredictable and short-term absence of food resources?
- A) shivering
- B) torpor
- C) hibernation
- D) burrowing into soil
61) Organisms maintain dynamic homeostasis through behavioral and physiological mechanisms. Which of the following statements is an accurate explanation of a negative feedback mechanism used by animals to regulate body temperature?
- A) Squirrels are able to cool themselves during warmer months by producing more brown fat, which contains abundant mitochondria and a rich blood supply.
- B) Desert jackrabbits have unusually large ears that serve as solar heat collectors to enable them to maintain their body temperatures.
- C) A ground squirrel's hypothalamus detects changes in environmental temperatures and responds by activating or suppressing metabolic heat production.
- D) A goldfish slows its movements when the water temperature is lower.