An agonist for elbow flexion is _____, whereas the ______ is an antagonist to this movement.
biceps brachii, triceps brachii
Brachioradialis and sternocleidomastoid are named for:
the location of their origin and insertion.
commonly referred to as ____, this muscle group on the posterior thigh extends the hip.
extends and abducts the wrist
extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
extends the thumb
extensor pollicus longus and brevis
flexes the wrist
flexor carpi ulnaris
Like the deltoid muscle that lies over and abducts the shoulder, these two muscles lie over the hip and are prime movers of hip abduction. neither muscle extends the hip.
Gluteus medius and gluteus minimus
Located over the mandibular ramus, this muscle closes the jaw
A muscle located on the anterior surface of the thigh will _____ the knee, whereas a muscle on the posterior surface will ______ the knee.
Muscles are named based on all the criteria below except
color of the muscle.
muscles that aids another by promoting the same movement
muscles that is primarily responsible for bringing about a particular movement
muscle that OPPOSES and reverses the action of another muscle
muscle that STABILIZES the origin of another muscle
The names of these muscles tell you their actions.
brachioradialis and sternocleidomastoid
Pectoralis major orginates on the _____________ and inserts in the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus.
clavicle and sternum
powerful wrist flexor that also stabilizes the wrist during finger extension
flexor carpi ulnaris
A prime mover (agonist)
is primarily responsible for movement.
Flexion of Biceps Bracci is what type of contraction?
Extension of Biceps Bracci is what type of contraction?
What is the type of chemical reaction used to rebuild ADP into ATP?
Hint: A water molecule must be removed in this process where molecules are combined.
- a water molecule is removed, thus it is called dehydration synthesis. Building ATP from ADP requires a synthetic enzyme plus a source of energy to rebuild the high energy bond.
Which of the following processes produces molecules of ATP and has two pyruvic acid molecules as end products?
- Hint: This process to produce ATP is also known as “sugar splitting” (the breakdown of glucose to produce ATP) and takes place in the cytoplasm.
- glycolysis: glucose is broken down in the process. This process takes place in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen – hence it is called anaerobic respiration. If oxygen is available, the pyruvic acid moves into the mitochondria and glycolysis contributes to aerobic respiration.
- the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation take place in the mitochondria and require oxygen.
Which of the following processes produces 36 ATP?
Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
- 36 ATPs are produced for each glucose molecule. This process, which takes place in the mitochondria, is considered aerobic respiration because oxygen is required.
The "rest and recovery" period, where the muscle restores depleted reserves, includes all of the following processes EXCEPT __________.
Hint 1. These processes are usually referred to as repaying the oxygen debt.
- Glycogen is synthesized from glucose molecules.
- ATP is used to rephosphorylate creatine into creatine phosphate.
- Pyruvic acid is converted back to lactic acid.
- Oxygen rebinds to myoglobin.
c. Pyruvic acid is converted back to lactic acid.
- this is NOT a part of the “rest and recovery” period. When oxygen is available, lactic acid is converted back to pyruvic acid (not vice versa) that then enters the Krebs cycle. Lactic acid is the end product of the anaerobic pathway.
Which type of muscle fiber has a large quantity of glycogen and mainly uses glycolysis to synthesize ATP?
Hint: These fibers also have reduced myoglobin and very few capillaries surrounding them.
white fast twitch fibers
- White fast twitch fibers have high glycogen content for a readily available source of glucose for glycolysis. They appear white because of the reduced amount of myoglobin and fewer capillaries surrounding them. Because these fibers have reduced myoglobin and very few capillaries surrounding them, they have very little oxygen available for the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. They also have fewer mitochondria (where the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation would take place).
- red slow twitch fibers would synthesize ATP by the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. They appear red and have oxygen available to them because of the high concentration of myoglobin and numerous capillaries surrounding them. They also have abundant mitochondria providing the cellular machinery required for these processes.