none of your bis 33 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 4 years ago by rileyrenner
1,695 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

1) Use the following information to answer the question.

The phylum Cycliophora was discovered in 1995. They are tiny organisms that live in large numbers on the outsides of the mouthparts and appendages of lobsters. The feeding stage permanently attaches to the lobster via an adhesive disk and collects scraps of food from its host's feeding by capturing the scraps in a current created by a ring of cilia. The body is saclike and has a U-shaped intestine that brings the anus close to the mouth. Cycliophorans are coelomates, do not molt (though their host does), and their embryos undergo spiral cleavage.

Which of these features is least useful in assigning the phylum Cycliophora to a clade of animals?

  1. A) having a true coelom as a body cavity
  2. B) having a body symmetry that permits a U-shaped intestine
  3. C) having embryos with spiral cleavage
  4. D) lacking ecdysis (molting)

a

2

2) Use the following information to answer the question.

The phylum Cycliophora was discovered in 1995. They are tiny organisms that live in large numbers on the outsides of the mouthparts and appendages of lobsters. The feeding stage permanently attaches to the lobster via an adhesive disk and collects scraps of food from its host's feeding by capturing the scraps in a current created by a ring of cilia. The body is saclike and has a U-shaped intestine that brings the anus close to the mouth. Cycliophorans are coelomates, do not molt (though their host does), and their embryos undergo spiral cleavage.

Which of these, if discovered among cycliophorans, would cause the most confusion concerning our current understanding of cycliophoran taxonomy?

  1. A) if the ciliated feeding ring is a lophophore
  2. B) if embryos are diploblastic
  3. C) if the body cavity is actually a pseudocoelom
  4. D) if the organisms show little apparent cephalization

b

3

3) Use the following information to answer the question.

The phylum Cycliophora was discovered in 1995. They are tiny organisms that live in large numbers on the outsides of the mouthparts and appendages of lobsters. The feeding stage permanently attaches to the lobster via an adhesive disk and collects scraps of food from its host's feeding by capturing the scraps in a current created by a ring of cilia. The body is saclike and has a U-shaped intestine that brings the anus close to the mouth. Cycliophorans are coelomates, do not molt (though their host does), and their embryos undergo spiral cleavage.

The feeding stage of cycliophorans ________.

  1. A) is autotrophic and captures food in a manner similar to gastropods
  2. B) is sessile and captures food in a manner similar to that of animals with lophophores
  3. C) is sessile and radially symmetric
  4. D) is autotrophic and sessile

b

4

4) Use the following information to answer the question.

The phylum Cycliophora was discovered in 1995. They are tiny organisms that live in large numbers on the outsides of the mouthparts and appendages of lobsters. The feeding stage permanently attaches to the lobster via an adhesive disk and collects scraps of food from its host's feeding by capturing the scraps in a current created by a ring of cilia. The body is saclike and has a U-shaped intestine that brings the anus close to the mouth. Cycliophorans are coelomates, do not molt (though their host does), and their embryos undergo spiral cleavage.

Basing your inferences on information in the paragraph, to which clades should cycliophorans belong?

  1. A) Eumetazoa and Bilateria
  2. B) Eumetazoa and Lophotrochozoa
  3. C) Deuterostomia and Ecdysozoa
  4. D) Deuterostomia and Lophotrochozoa

b

5

5) One should expect to find cilia associated with the feeding apparatus of ________.

  1. A) annelids
  2. B) coral animals
  3. C) tapeworms
  4. D) sponges

d

6

6) Sponges ________.

  1. A) have larvae that are motile and move via the motion of cilia
  2. B) are the simplest diploblastic animals
  3. C) have a nerve net but not a central nervous system
  4. D) have feeding cells called dinoflagellates

a

7

7) Which of the following is most likely to be aquatic?

  1. A) filter feeder
  2. B) mass feeder
  3. C) deposit feeder
  4. D) fluid feeder

a

8

8) Which of the following can be found in the mesohyl of a sponge?

  1. A) amoebocytes and choanocytes
  2. B) spicules and choanocytes
  3. C) amoebocytes and spicules
  4. D) amoebocytes and polyps

c

9

10) Healthy corals are brightly colored because they ________.

  1. A) secrete colorful pigments to attract mates
  2. B) host symbionts with colorful photosynthetic pigments
  3. C) build their skeletons from colorful minerals
  4. D) secrete colorful pigments to protect themselves from ultraviolet light

b

10

11) In terms of food capture, which sponge cell is most similar to the cnidocyte of a cnidarian?

  1. A) amoebocyte
  2. B) choanocyte
  3. C) epidermal cell
  4. D) pore cell

b

11

12) The crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci, preys on the flesh of live coral. If coral animals are attacked by these sea stars, then what actually provides nutrition to the sea star, and which chemical (besides the toxin within their nematocysts) do the corals rely on for protection?

  1. A) medusae; silica
  2. B) exoskeleton; calcium carbonate
  3. C) polyps; calcium carbonate
  4. D) polyps; silica

c

12

13) Use the following information to answer the question.

An elementary school science teacher decided to liven up the classroom with a saltwater aquarium. Knowing that saltwater aquaria can be quite a hassle, the teacher proceeded stepwise. First, the teacher conditioned the water. Next, the teacher decided to stock the tank with various marine invertebrates, including a polychaete, a siliceous sponge, several bivalves, a shrimp, several sea anemones of different types, a colonial hydra, a few coral species, an ectoproct, a sea star, and several herbivorous gastropod varieties. Lastly, she added some vertebrates—a parrot fish and a clown fish. She arranged for daily feedings of copepods and feeder fish.

One day, Tommy, a student in an undersupervised class of 40 fifth graders, got the urge to pet Nemo (the clown fish), who was swimming among the waving petals of a pretty underwater "flower" that had a big hole in the midst of the petals. Tommy giggled upon finding that these petals felt sticky. A few hours later, Tommy was in the nurse's office with nausea and cramps. Microscopic examination of his fingers would probably have revealed the presence of ________.

  1. A) teeth marks
  2. B) spines
  3. C) spicules
  4. D) nematocysts

d

13

14) Use the following information to answer the question.

An elementary school science teacher decided to liven up the classroom with a saltwater aquarium. Knowing that saltwater aquaria can be quite a hassle, the teacher proceeded stepwise. First, the teacher conditioned the water. Next, the teacher decided to stock the tank with various marine invertebrates, including a polychaete, a siliceous sponge, several bivalves, a shrimp, several sea anemones of different types, a colonial hydra, a few coral species, an ectoproct, a sea star, and several herbivorous gastropod varieties. Lastly, she added some vertebrates—a parrot fish and a clown fish. She arranged for daily feedings of copepods and feeder fish.

The teacher and class were especially saddened when the colonial hydrozoan died. They had watched it carefully, and the unfortunate creature never even got to produce offspring by budding. Yet, everyone was elated when one of the students noticed a small colonial hydrozoan growing in a part of the tank far from the location of the original colony. The teacher was apparently unaware that these hydrozoans exhibit ________.

  1. A) spontaneous generation
  2. B) abiogenesis
  3. C) alternation of generations
  4. D) a medusa stage

d

14

15) The sharp, inch-long thorns of the crown-of-thorns sea star are its spines. These spines, unlike those of most other sea stars, contain a potent toxin. If it were discovered that crown-of-thorns sea stars do not make this toxin themselves, then the most likely alternative would be that this toxin is ________.

  1. A) derived from the nematocysts of its prey
  2. B) absorbed from the surrounding seawater
  3. C) an endotoxin of cellulose-digesting bacteria that inhabit the sea star's digestive glands
  4. D) injected into individual thorns by mutualistic corals which live on the aboral surfaces of these sea stars

a

15

18) The presence of a lophophore in a newly discovered species would suggest that the species ________.

  1. A) has an exoskeleton
  2. B) grows by shedding its external covering
  3. C) is motile
  4. D) is a filter feeder

d

16

19) You find what you believe is a new species of animal. Which of the following characteristics would enable you to argue that it is more closely related to a flatworm than it is to a roundworm?

  1. A) It is a suspension feeder.
  2. B) It has no coelom.
  3. C) It is shaped like a worm.
  4. D) It has a mouth and an anus.

b

17

20) What would be the best anatomical feature to look for to distinguish a gastropod from a chiton?

  1. A) presence of a muscular foot
  2. B) presence of a rasp-like feeding structure
  3. C) production of eggs
  4. D) dorsal plates

d

18

21) Which of the following organisms would you expect to have the largest surface-area-to-volume ratio? Assume that all of the following are the same total length.

  1. A) a mollusc
  2. B) an annelid
  3. C) an arthropod
  4. D) a platyhelminth

d

19

22) Against which hard structure do the circular and longitudinal muscles of annelids work?

  1. A) cuticle
  2. B) shell
  3. C) endoskeleton
  4. D) hydrostatic skeleton

d

20

23) While sampling marine plankton in a lab, a student encounters large numbers of fertilized eggs. The student rears some of the eggs in the laboratory for further study and finds that the blastopore becomes the mouth. The embryo develops into a trochophore larva and eventually has a true coelom. These eggs probably belonged to a(n) ________.

  1. A) echinoderm
  2. B) mollusc
  3. C) nematode
  4. D) arthropod

b

21

The nontaxonomic term sea slug encompasses a wide variety of marine gastropods. One feature they share as adults is the lack of a shell. One might think, therefore, that they represent defenseless morsels for predators. In fact, sea slugs have multiple defenses. Some sea slugs prey on sponges and concentrate sponge toxins in their tissues. Others feed on cnidarians, digesting everything except the nematocysts, which they then transfer to their own skins. Whereas the most brightly colored sea slugs are often highly toxic, others are nontoxic and mimic the coloration of the toxic species. Their colors are mostly derived from pigments in their prey. There are also sea slugs that use their coloration to blend into their environments.

This nudibranch, a type of sea slug, has many reddish cerata on its dorsal surface, as well as two white-tipped rhinophores located on the head.

Which structure do sea slugs use to feed on their prey?

  1. A) nematocysts
  2. B) an incurrent siphon
  3. C) a radula
  4. D) a mantle cavity

c

22

The nontaxonomic term sea slug encompasses a wide variety of marine gastropods. One feature they share as adults is the lack of a shell. One might think, therefore, that they represent defenseless morsels for predators. In fact, sea slugs have multiple defenses. Some sea slugs prey on sponges and concentrate sponge toxins in their tissues. Others feed on cnidarians, digesting everything except the nematocysts, which they then transfer to their own skins. Whereas the most brightly colored sea slugs are often highly toxic, others are nontoxic and mimic the coloration of the toxic species. Their colors are mostly derived from pigments in their prey. There are also sea slugs that use their coloration to blend into their environments.

This nudibranch, a type of sea slug, has many reddish cerata on its dorsal surface, as well as two white-tipped rhinophores located on the head.

The nematocysts most likely reach the skin of sea slugs through branches of the ________.

  1. A) intestine
  2. B) excurrent siphon
  3. C) nephridium
  4. D) pseudocoelom

a

23

26) Use the information to answer the following question.

The nontaxonomic term sea slug encompasses a wide variety of marine gastropods. One feature they share as adults is the lack of a shell. One might think, therefore, that they represent defenseless morsels for predators. In fact, sea slugs have multiple defenses. Some sea slugs prey on sponges and concentrate sponge toxins in their tissues. Others feed on cnidarians, digesting everything except the nematocysts, which they then transfer to their own skins. Whereas the most brightly colored sea slugs are often highly toxic, others are nontoxic and mimic the coloration of the toxic species. Their colors are mostly derived from pigments in their prey. There are also sea slugs that use their coloration to blend into their environments.

This nudibranch, a type of sea slug, has many reddish cerata on its dorsal surface, as well as two white-tipped rhinophores located on the head.

The nematocysts of sea slugs should be most effective at protecting individual sea slugs from predation if the predators ________.

  1. A) remove small bites of flesh from sea slugs and have long-term memory
  2. B) remove small bites of flesh from sea slugs and have no long-term memory
  3. C) consume entire sea slugs in one gulp and have no long-term memory
  4. D) consume entire sea slugs in one gulp and have long-term memory

a

24

29) The sea slug Elysia chorotica has no nematocysts or dinoflagellates but, rather, has "naked" chloroplasts in its skin. The chloroplasts are all that remain of the seaweed (Vaucheria sp.) that Elysia feeds upon. The chloroplasts are transferred to the skin; consequently, this slug is green. It spends most of its time basking in shallow water on the surface of seaweeds. How should we expect its chloroplasts to benefit the Elysia sea slug?

  1. A) provide Elysia with fixed nitrogen
  2. B) provide Elysia with fixed carbon dioxide
  3. C) provide Elysia with fixed oxygen
  4. D) provide Elysia with a bright color that warns away potential predators

b

25

30) Use the following information to answer the question.

An elementary school science teacher decided to liven up the classroom with a saltwater aquarium. Knowing that saltwater aquaria can be quite a hassle, the teacher proceeded stepwise. First, the teacher conditioned the water. Next, the teacher decided to stock the tank with various marine invertebrates, including a polychaete, a siliceous sponge, several bivalves, a shrimp, several sea anemones of different types, a colonial hydra, a few coral species, an ectoproct, a sea star, and several herbivorous gastropod varieties. Lastly, she added some vertebrates—a parrot fish and a clown fish. She arranged for daily feedings of copepods and feeder fish.

If the teacher wanted to show the students what a lophophore is and how it works, the teacher would point out a feeding ________.

  1. A) hydra
  2. B) sponge
  3. C) gastropod
  4. D) ectoproct

d

26

31) What would be the most effective method of reducing the incidence of blood flukes in a human population?

  1. A) reduce the mosquito population
  2. B) reduce the population of the intermediate snail host
  3. C) avoid contact with rodent droppings
  4. D) carefully wash all raw fruits and vegetables

b

27

According to the graph, during which season(s) of the year is the relationship between the sea slug and its dinoflagellates closest to being commensal?

  1. A) winter
  2. B) spring
  3. C) summer
  4. D) spring and summer

a

28

33) Planarians lack dedicated respiratory and circulatory systems. This deficiency does not cause a problem because ________.

  1. A) none of their cells are far removed from the gastrovascular cavity or from the external environment
  2. B) they lack mesoderm as embryos and, therefore, lack the adult tissues derived from mesoderm
  3. C) their flame bulbs can carry out respiratory and circulatory functions
  4. D) their body cavity, a pseudocoelom, carries out these functions

a

29

34) Which one of these mollusc groups can be classified as suspension feeders?

  1. A) bivalves
  2. B) gastropods
  3. C) chitons
  4. D) cephalopods

a

30

35) Which characteristic is shared by cnidarians and flatworms?

  1. A) dorsoventrally flattened bodies
  2. B) radial symmetry
  3. C) a digestive system with a single opening
  4. D) a distinct head

c

31

36) If a lung were to be found in a mollusc, where would it be located?

  1. A) mantle cavity
  2. B) incurrent siphon
  3. C) visceral mass
  4. D) excurrent siphon

a

32

37) Parasitism is one of the most widespread lifestyles ever to evolve. Which of the following is consistent with this finding?

  1. A) Parasites almost always predigest their hosts' tissues and, therefore, spend less energy and require fewer structural adaptations.
  2. B) Parasites, unlike predators, feed on almost all the tissues of their host.
  3. C) Parasites do not generally kill their hosts; thus they can feed on the same host throughout the host's normal life span and do not have competition from decomposers.
  4. D) Parasites generally kill their host and can feed for a very long time because they are much smaller than their host.

c

33

38) Molecular studies have changed many of the phylogenetic relationships previously identified by morphological studies. An example of such a change is ________.

  1. A) Lochotrophozora
  2. B) Placozoa
  3. C) Brachiopoda
  4. D) Bivalvia

a

34

39) Molecular studies have changed many of the phylogenetic relationships previously identified by morphological studies. These changes indicate that ________.

  1. A) molecular and morphological studies rarely agree
  2. B) molecular studies add additional information to morphological studies and improve our understanding of evolutionary history
  3. C) molecular studies are less reliable than morphological studies
  4. D) molecular studies are extremely time consuming and expensive and really don't add additional information to our understanding of evolutionary history

b

35

40) Large animals need specialized organs for gas exchange because ________.

  1. A) they require more oxygen per unit of volume
  2. B) surface area increases more rapidly than volume as size increases
  3. C) volume increases more rapidly than surface area as size increases
  4. D) they collect more energy and therefore have more energy to allocate to specialized tissues

c

36

41) Toilets are a modern convenience that people often take for granted. In fact, they are helpful in preventing spread of disease because ________.

  1. A) disease-causing insects die quickly in fecal-contaminated water
  2. B) toilets disinfect human feces
  3. C) many diseases are transmitted by flying insects
  4. D) many parasites release fertilized eggs in the feces of humans and other animals

d

37

42) Imagine that you are a graduate student seeking an idea for a research project that will help us understand the evolution of a parasitic lifestyle from a free-living lifestyle. Which of the following outcomes would you expect if you compare the genes of parasitic species to relatives that are free living?

  1. A) The parasitic species will have fewer functioning genes than the free-living species because loss of many genes will not be harmful.
  2. B) The free-living species will have more functioning genes because they evolved new traits.
  3. C) The genes will have changed in base sequence, but the number of functioning genes in parasitic and free-living species will be the same.
  4. D) More genes for sensing the environment will have evolved in the parasitic species as compared to the free-living species.

a

38

43) Imagine that you are a research chemist who wishes to develop a chemical adhesive that will work under water. Which of the following organisms might give you a clue about where to start?

  1. A) sea wasps
  2. B) trematodes
  3. C) lobsters
  4. D) mussels

d

39

44) Which of the following changes would lead to an increase in surface-area-to-volume ratios?

  1. A) thickening of the body of earthworms
  2. B) increasing the number of layers in the chloroplasts of plants
  3. C) decreasing the projections of the choanocytes of sponges on the outer surface of the body
  4. D) reducing the branching of the mesoderm tissues of sponges

b

40

45) Without genetic variation, evolution cannot occur. Sexual reproduction leads to increased genetic variation, but male bdelloid rotifers have never been observed. Which of the following are correct statements with regard to evolution in bdelloid rotifers?

  1. A) As we learn more about bdelloid rotifers, we find males in more and more species.
  2. B) Bdelloid rotifers gain genetic variation by absorbing DNA from the external environment.
  3. C) Protists infect bdelloids and bring DNA from other rotifers with them.
  4. D) Bdelloid rotifers have lost the ability to reproduce sexually only recently.

b

41

46) Which of the following statements about bryozoans (ectoprocts) is correct?

  1. A) Bryozoans are colonial, build reefs, and are related to corals.
  2. B) Bryozoans are colonial and live amongst mosses.
  3. C) Adult bryozoans are sessile, but their larvae make up much of marine plankton.
  4. D) Bryozoans build reefs and have lophophores that extend through a hard exoskeleton.

d

42

47) Nematodes and arthropods both ________.

  1. A) develop an anus from the blastopore (pore) formed in the gastrula stage
  2. B) are parasites
  3. C) grow in conjunction with shedding of their exoskeleton
  4. D) have ciliated larvae

c

43

48) Arthropod exoskeletons and mollusc shells both ________.

  1. A) completely replace the hydrostatic skeleton
  2. B) are secreted by the mantle
  3. C) help retain moisture in terrestrial habitats
  4. D) are comprised of the polysaccharide chitin

c

44

49) You find a multi-legged animal in your garden and want to determine if it is a centipede or a millipede. You take the animal to a university where a myriapodologist quickly tells you that you have found a centipede. Which of the following traits may have allowed her to make this distinction?

  1. A) presence of body segments
  2. B) poisonous claws
  3. C) egg-laying
  4. D) molting

b

45

50) Whiteflies are common pest insects found on cotton, tomato, poinsettia, and many other plants. Nymphs are translucent and mostly sessile, feeding on their host plant's phloem (sap) from the undersides of leaves. They undergo incomplete metamorphosis into winged adults. Because whitefly nymphs cannot escape predation by moving, you hypothesize that their translucent bodies make them hard to spot by predators. How could you directly test this hypothesis?

  1. A) Compare rates of predation on whitefly nymphs on plant leaves of different colors (for example, red versus green poinsettia leaves).
  2. B) Compare rates of predation on whitefly nymphs coated with a nontoxic dye versus undyed whitefly nymphs.
  3. C) Compare rates of predation on whitefly nymphs versus whitefly adults.
  4. D) Compare rates of predation on whitefly nymphs by predators that are translucent versus predators that are not translucent.

b

46

51) All insects ________.

  1. A) undergo complete metamorphosis and have segmented bodies
  2. B) have jointed appendages and a radula
  3. C) undergo complete metamorphosis and have an exoskeleton or cuticle
  4. D) have jointed appendages and spicules

c

47

56) What would be the most direct effect of removing or damaging an insect's antennae? The insect would have trouble ________.

  1. A) hearing
  2. B) mating
  3. C) seeing
  4. D) smelling

d

48

57) The heartworms that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong?

  1. A) Platyhelminthes
  2. B) Arthropoda
  3. C) Nematoda
  4. D) Annelida

c

49

58) A terrestrial animal species is discovered with the following larval characteristics: exoskeleton, system of tubes for gas exchange, and modified segmentation. A knowledgeable zoologist should predict that the adults of this species would also feature ________.

  1. A) eight legs
  2. B) two pairs of antennae
  3. C) a sessile lifestyle
  4. D) an open circulatory system

d

50

59) In a tide pool, a student encounters an organism with a hard outer covering that contains much calcium carbonate, an open circulatory system, and gills. The organism could potentially be a crab, a shrimp, a barnacle, or a bivalve. The presence of which of the following structures would allow for the most certain identification of the organism?

  1. A) a mantle
  2. B) a heart
  3. C) a body cavity
  4. D) a filter-feeding apparatus

a

51

60) Use the following information to answer the question.

Nudibranchs, a type of predatory sea slug, can have various protuberances (that is, extensions) on their dorsal surfaces. Rhinophores are paired structures, located close to the head, which bear many chemoreceptors. Dorsal plumules, usually located posteriorly, perform respiratory gas exchange. Cerata usually cover much of the dorsal surface and contain nematocysts at their tips.

The claws on the foremost trunk segment of centipedes have a function most similar to that of ________.

  1. A) rhinophores
  2. B) dorsal plumules
  3. C) cerata
  4. D) chemoreceptors

c

52

61) Use the following information to answer the question.

Nudibranchs, a type of predatory sea slug, can have various protuberances (that is, extensions) on their dorsal surfaces. Rhinophores are paired structures, located close to the head, which bear many chemoreceptors. Dorsal plumules, usually located posteriorly, perform respiratory gas exchange. Cerata usually cover much of the dorsal surface and contain nematocysts at their tips.

The stingers of honeybees have a function most similar to that of ________.

  1. A) rhinophores
  2. B) dorsal plumules
  3. C) cerata
  4. D) chemoreceptors

c

53

62) Use the following information to answer the question.

Nudibranchs, a type of predatory sea slug, can have various protuberances (that is, extensions) on their dorsal surfaces. Rhinophores are paired structures, located close to the head, which bear many chemoreceptors. Dorsal plumules, usually located posteriorly, perform respiratory gas exchange. Cerata usually cover much of the dorsal surface and contain nematocysts at their tips.

The spiracles and tracheae of insects have a function most similar to that of ________.

  1. A) rhinophores
  2. B) dorsal plumules
  3. C) cerata
  4. D) chemoreceptors

b

54

63) Use the following information to answer the question.

Nudibranchs, a type of predatory sea slug, can have various protuberances (that is, extensions) on their dorsal surfaces. Rhinophores are paired structures, located close to the head, which bear many chemoreceptors. Dorsal plumules, usually located posteriorly, perform respiratory gas exchange. Cerata usually cover much of the dorsal surface and contain nematocysts at their tips.

The antennae of insects have a function most similar to that of ________.

  1. A) rhinophores
  2. B) dorsal plumules
  3. C) cerata
  4. D) chemoreceptors

a

55

64) Use the following information to answer the question.

A farm pond, usually dry during winter, has plenty of water and aquatic pond life during the summer. One summer, Sarah returns to the family farm from college. Observing the pond, she is fascinated by some six-legged organisms that can crawl about on submerged surfaces or, when disturbed, seemingly "jet" through the water. Watching further, she is able to conclude that the "mystery organisms" are ambush predators, and their prey includes everything from insects to small fish and tadpoles.

If the pond organisms are larvae, rather than adults, Sarah should expect them to have all of the following structures, except ________.

  1. A) antennae
  2. B) an open circulatory system
  3. C) an exoskeleton of chitin
  4. D) sex organs

d

56

65) Use the following information to answer the question.

A farm pond, usually dry during winter, has plenty of water and aquatic pond life during the summer. One summer, Sarah returns to the family farm from college. Observing the pond, she is fascinated by some six-legged organisms that can crawl about on submerged surfaces or, when disturbed, seemingly "jet" through the water. Watching further, she is able to conclude that the "mystery organisms" are ambush predators, and their prey includes everything from insects to small fish and tadpoles.

Sarah observed that the mystery pond organisms never come up to the pond's surface. If she catches one of these organisms and observes closely, perhaps dissecting the organism, she should find ________.

  1. A) gills
  2. B) spiracles
  3. C) tracheae

D) book lungs

a

57

69) Compared to insects with incomplete metamorphosis, insects with complete metamorphosis ________.

  1. A) grow more slowly in size
  2. B) use a greater variety of food resources
  3. C) have slower population growth rates
  4. D) have better abilities to escape from predators

b

58

70) The increase in plant species diversity allowed which of the following events?

  1. A) the evolution of complete metamorphosis in insects
  2. B) the evolution of flight in insects
  3. C) invasion of marine habitats by insects
  4. D) a massive increase in species diversity of insects

d

59

71) As you are walking along a beach, you find an animal and believe that it belongs to the class Asteroidea. Which of the following characteristics would support your hypothesis that the animal is a sea star and not another type of echinoderm?

  1. A) It is pentaradially symmetric.
  2. B) It feeds on other animals.
  3. C) It has a hydrostatic skeleton, formed from its water vascular system.

D) Its central region is not well delineated from its appendages.

d

60

72) The water vascular system of echinoderms ________.

  1. A) functions as a circulatory system that distributes nutrients to body cells
  2. B) functions in locomotion and feeding
  3. C) is bilateral in organization, even though the adult animal is not bilaterally symmetrical
  4. D) is analogous to the gastrovascular cavity of flatworms

b

61

73) Which of the following combinations correctly matches a phylum to its description?

  1. A) Echinodermata—bilateral symmetry as a larva, water vascular system
  2. B) Nematoda—segmented worms, closed circulatory system
  3. C) Cnidaria—flatworms, gastrovascular cavity, acoelomate
  4. D) Platyhelminthes—radial symmetry, polyp and medusa body forms

a

62

74) Which of the following animal groups is entirely aquatic?

  1. A) Mollusca
  2. B) Crustacea
  3. C) Echinodermata
  4. D) Nematoda

c

63

75) Use the following information to answer the question.

An elementary school science teacher decided to liven up the classroom with a saltwater aquarium. Knowing that saltwater aquaria can be quite a hassle, the teacher proceeded stepwise. First, the teacher conditioned the water. Next, the teacher decided to stock the tank with various marine invertebrates, including a polychaete, a siliceous sponge, several bivalves, a shrimp, several sea anemones of different types, a colonial hydra, a few coral species, an ectoproct, a sea star, and several herbivorous gastropod varieties. Lastly, she added some vertebrates—a parrot fish and a clown fish. She arranged for daily feedings of copepods and feeder fish.

The bivalves started to die one by one; only the undamaged shells remained. To keep the remaining bivalves alive, the teacher would most likely need to remove the ________.

  1. A) sea anemones
  2. B) sea star
  3. C) gastropods
  4. D) ectoprocts

b

64

76) Which of the following statements is correct with respect to the evolutionary relationship between chordates and invertebrates?

  1. A) Chordates are most closely related to arthropods.
  2. B) Chordates evolved from echinoderms.
  3. C) Chordates are more closely related to echinoderms than to arthropods.

D) Chordates are most closely related to the tunicate-type of echinoderms

c

65

77) Echinoderms show enormous diversity in which of the following traits?

  1. A) body shape and food habits
  2. B) food habits and body symmetry
  3. C) body symmetry and method of food digestion
  4. D) method of food digestion and body shape

a